Repository logo
 

Research Articles (Criminology and Forensic Studies)

Permanent URI for this collection

Browse

Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 30
  • Item
    Exploring the authenticity and adaptation of instructional materials in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms.
    (Journal of African Languages and Literary Studies (JoALLS), 2024-04) Adeyiga, Abisoye Adedoyin.; Akpan, Udoh James.; Mkhize, Sazelo Michael.; Daramola, Iyanunioluwa Oluwatobi.
    This paper explored the concepts of authenticity and adaptation of instructional materials in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. The authenticity of instructional materials is a major and often overlooked factor in foreign language teaching. However, the adaptation of instructional materials is the process of adapting existing materials to a particular language learning context. The aim of this paper was to examine the benefits and limitations of both approaches. From an analysis of various theoretical approaches, it was found that there is an advantage to using both approaches when teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Materials should be authentic to the language and culture of the language in question, while at the same time taking into account certain considerations such as the students’ language proficiency level and the specific context of the class. The adaptation of materials should not lead to over-simplification, and both approaches should be used to ensure that the materials are appropriate for the learning context. In conclusion, the paper argued that both authentic and adapted materials have their advantages and disadvantages, and that an optimal solution is to strike a balance between the two approaches. It is important for language teachers to be mindful of the need to use materials that are both authentic to the language and culture, while at the same time taking into account the specific needs of the class. This paper has provided a brief overview of how authenticity and adaptation of instructional materials in EFL classrooms can be effectively managed.
  • Item
    Towards decolonisation of primary school education in South Africa.
    (South African Journal of Childhood Education, 2024-06) Akinmolayan, Emmanuel Seun.; Hingston, Claudine Anita Cassandra. ; Akpan, Udoh James.; Arise, Omolola Ayobamidele.
    Background: Despite the end of apartheid in South Africa in 1994, most black schools in the country still embrace coloniality through policies and practices. This leads to disempowerment, loss of identity, inequalities and inferiority in the learners, which are nurtured till their adulthood. It is therefore important to decolonise the inherited curriculum and recognise African identity, culture and system as valuable for Africans. Aim: This article aims to explore coloniality within the primary school education system in South Africa and aims to motivate curriculum transformation that will divest coloniality in Africa. Setting: This article centres around South African Primary schools. Methods: This article employs a desktop approach and a systematic literature review. To collect the data, the study selected articles from different search engines such as EBSCO, Science Direct and Google Scholar. This enables the synthetisation of previous works to provide knowledge on the topic. The decoloniality theory underpins the study. Results: Primary school education in South Africa is influenced by coloniality; hence, there is a need for transformation. Conclusion: The primary school curriculum in South Africa needs to be revised in a decolonised manner to suit a multi-racial or ethnic South Africa for the realisation of an equitable and just future for Africans. Contribution: This article provides knowledge about coloniality within the context of primary schools in South Africa and further recommends curriculum transformation to a truly African manner. It thus aligns with the journal’s theme and scope, which is the interrogation of coloniality in South African primary schools.
  • Item
    Darker shades of brown: managing race relations culture among military police in South Africa.
    (2024-03) Akpan, Udoh James.; Steyn, Jéan.; Mkhize, Sazelo Michael.; Sihlobo, Mfuneko Merriman.
    This study investigates the intricate connections between race and police culture, exploring how solidarity, isolation, and cynicism vary among military police officers in South Africa: Blacks and Whites. Adopting a quantitative approach, the research examines how racial identity shapes officers' experiences within the force, potentially influencing their sense of belonging, professional detachment, and disillusionment. Using a survey format, the researcher employed a non-experimental ex post facto (cross-sectional) design. This study employs descriptive analysis to describe characteristics that exist within different variables. The study established in general that SANDF MPOs have attitudes in support of police culture themes of solidarity and isolation but do not have a police culture of cynicism according to race variables. However, the study also finds that, in more than half of the SANDF MPOs, the respondents evinced attitudes in support of the police culture theme of cynicism. Statistically significant differences, differences of kind, and differences of degree were found in relation to all race categorical dependent variables (Blacks and Whites). The study provides an empirical peek into military police culture, allows for comparisons between public police culture and military police culture, and contributes novel knowledge to broader police culture in general.
  • Item
    Historical overview of pandemic in Africa and the implication of its interception on education.
    (2024-03) Akinmolayan, Emmanuel Seun.; Nwokedi, Peace Ginika.; Chetty, Magavani Kantha.; Akpan, Udoh James.
    Education, an essential need of every society, has been undergoing constant transformation. Over the years, its modes of knowledge-sharing have undergone various evolutions and adaptations. The recent outbreak of COVID-19 arguably marked the latest stage in this evolutionary process, raising awareness of the digital era in African education. Considering the impact of the different disruptions to education and they have has transformed pedagogies and other socialisation processes, this paper explores the different stages of educational evolution and its impact on teaching and learning. It also employed the Cultural Historical Activity Theory (thereafter, CHAT) as the theoretical framework to appraise the evolution of education in Africa. In addition, the paper also adopted a desktop research method to examine the different phases of education in Africa, from the indigenous system(s) of education to the online learning system. The conclusion reached recommends that government and policymakers should be better prepared and trained in the event of any subsequent or emerging disruption(s) to education.
  • Item
    A cause to unravel the role of criminologists in compiling pre-sentence report: a South African perspective.
    (Taylor and Francis, 2020) Diko, Bongolethu.; Olofinbiyi, Sogo Angel.; Steyn, Jéan.
    A sizeable number of individuals, including members of the criminal justice system, have limited knowledge of the value of criminologists’ proficiency to compile an intensive pre-sentence report. To fill in this gap and gain an in-depth understanding of how criminologists can contribute as active participants in the criminal court, a qualitative research paradigm involving one-on-one in-depth interviews was employed to collect the data information that was required for the study. The findings strongly suggest that criminologists, who are currently functioning peripherally in the CJS, can be employed to exert greater influence on the compilation of PSRs, not only in the Durban High Court but also across a diverse range of contemporary global societies. More elaborately, the study has adequately demonstrated that the professionalization of criminologists should not only be restricted to research and scholastic endeavours.
  • Item
    Ubuntu and citizen diplomacy: a panacea and tools for diaspora organisation engagement in curbing crime and conflict in South Africa.
    (2023-12) Akpan, Udoh James.; Mkhize, Sazelo Michael.
    Conflict is part of human existence as there is hardly any relationship that does not become tense. However, conflict can become violent if it is not managed by the parties involved, especially when they are from different cultures. A typical case is the perennial xenophobic violence that has bedevilled South Africa because of migrants from other African countries. This paper probed into the roles and efforts that diaspora organisations in South Africa are making in establishing a mutually beneficial relationship that can bring about peace and curb crime with the concept of citizen diplomacy and Ubuntu philosophy. Using a secondary data, the paper relied on text, websites and articles from Google Scholar and other search engines to aggregate literature to interrogate the subject matter. The paper used conflict theory to argue that, as long as groups exist and interact, they will always have struggles. The paper concluded that there was a need for an intentional approach for citizen and Ubuntu diplomacy, especially by African diaspora organisations by initiating and sustaining programmes that will look beyond conflicts by the group, and foster mutually beneficial friendship, and the foreign missions of the countries need to articulate the policy and support the efforts of the diaspora organisations.
  • Item
    Exploring Festac Town, Lagos residents’ observations on crime and the influx of unskilled migrants from Northern Nigeria and other illegal migrants from Sahel Region.
    (2022-12-03) Akpan, Udoh James.; Bello, Paul Oluwatosin.; Mkhize, Sazelo Michael.
    In recent times, Lagos State, Nigeria, has been faced with a myriad of security challenges which is manifest in the increase of crime in Festac Town, a Lagos State middle-class suburb. These crimes are exacerbated by the influx of unskilled Nigerians from far northern part of Nigeria and illegal migrants from other African countries, particularly from the Sahel areas known as the G5 Sahel countries —Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso and Chad due to the many challenges faced by them which include chronic insecurity, lack of economic prospects, poor access to education, inadequate job opportunities and inadequate essential services such as water and electricity. Such incursions are believed to have significant security implications for Nigeria in general, and Festac Town in Lagos State in particular since most of these migrants more often unskilled and undocumented drift into the state, and then into Festac Town because of its economic opportunities. The activities of these unskilled and undocumented migrants have coloured how residents perceive them in the state. The objective of this study therefore was to explore the observations of residents of Festac Town, Lagos. Using a qualitative approach, a structured interview was done with participants in Festac Town. Mobilising the rational choice theory, the study explored and analysed the citizens‘ perceptions of illegal and unskilled migrants in the Festac area of Lagos State. The findings indicated, among others, that security concerns such as increase in crime, mostly violent crime, and political narratives like a ‖Fulani agenda‖ to take over Nigeria are significant observations that were found to shape citizens‘ views of undocumented and unskilled migrants from far northern Nigeria in their locality. The implications of the findings raise the need for an effective and unbiased policing approach; effective management of Fulani migrants from the North to the South of Nigeria, and other illegal migrants and their activities which will include handing illegal ones over to the Immigration Service; the rehabilitation of the skilled ones from Nigeria, and repatriation of the unskilled ones to their respective states of origin in collaboration with their home governments for resettlement and skill acquisition programmes.
  • Item
    Theft or norm? A tale of electricity theft in rural Kwaximba, eThekwini region of South Africa.
    (2023-10-30) Akpan, Udoh James.; Mbanjwa, Thobile.; Mkhize, Sazelo Michael.; Sibanyoni, Ephraim Kevin.; Makheye, Mandisa Samkelisiwe.
    The focus of this study was on the investigation of the prevalence of illegal electricity connections in KwaXimba. The study aimed to identify the root causes of illegal connections and explore potential solutions to reduce their occurrence. A qualitative research approach was adopted, and 20 participants were interviewed from rural areas in KwaXimba. Thematic analysis was applied to the data collected. The study revealed that illegal electricity connections were commonplace in the community, with individuals making personal decisions to engage in the activity. Some individuals inherited homes with pre-existing illegal connections. The study recommends implementing an electrification program to reduce illegal consumption of electricity and to prevent harm to vulnerable community members such as children. Organizations such as Eskom and community safety should work together to develop programs aimed at discouraging the normalization of illegal electricity connections in KwaXimba and other communities.
  • Item
    Was wearing a facemask a form of cultural resistance or a crisis communication challenge? Retrospections on Vrede Community experiences.
    (2023-09) Akpan, Udoh James.; Mkhize, Sazelo Michael.; Hosea, Olayiwola Patrick.
    It has been three years since the World Health Organisation (WHO) raised the warning level for COVID-19 and declared it a global public health emergency. Since then, the virus has killed approximately seven million people. However, some experts believe that this data is an underestimation. The WHO's declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic in 2020 caught everyone off guard, but it was necessary for the global health watchdog to do so that it could be addressed as an emergency. Wearing a facemask was one of the ways public health planners and virologists in many countries thought of stopping the virus's spread before the development of a vaccine. The public, including some conservative politicians in the world, received it with mixed feelings, and some outright rejected it. The apathy towards wearing facemasks also reverberated in South Africa. This study explores this apathy with a view to appreciating the attitudes of the people and why they think wearing a mask is awkward for their culture. Using a qualitative and structured interview research approach, the study interviewed male and female participants in the Vrede community in Freestate Province, and concluded that some of the apathy was based on misunderstandings because the messaging from the government on wearing a facemask and COVID-19 did not quite address their cultural biases and attitudinal dispositions and was not firm on enforcement. The study concludes that the government had to have approached the advocacy for wearing facemasks from an inclusive stakeholder management and crisis communication perspective.
  • Item
    Interrogating the normative tradition of Ukukhuzela (court praises) in the age of rape culture in a cosmopolitan society: insights from Zulu students from the University of KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2023-09) Majola, Khanyisile Berlinda.; Akpan, Udoh James.; Mkhize, Sazelo Michael.
    Social and cultural norms are guidelines or expectations for behaviour and thought that are based on common beliefs within a social or cultural group. What is (and is not) appropriate in interpersonal relationships is governed by norms, which are frequently unstated rules for acceptable and undesirable behaviour. Within societal groups, these normative practices can then translate into a cultural normative construct that becomes exercised. The Zulu cultural normative practice of ukukhuzela is put in question here. The author interrogates its existence in today‟s cosmopolitan communities through in-depth interviews and focused group discussion with university students of Zulu extraction at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. The participants included male and female students. Secondary sources of data in the form of published literature, including research monographs and journal articles, were consulted to meet the study's aims. Findings suggest that ukukhuzela has been discrepantly identified and associated with the social normative practice of rape culture antics due to insufficient knowledge of its practice. Narratives of ukukhuzela vary, as some identify it as a violation of their space, noting that it has notions of hyper-sexualising attention. With other participants seeing it for its true purpose, which is the admiration and endearment of women. The study noted that times have changed, modernity has challenged the dominance of tradition, and there is a need for concerted and deliberate efforts to create an atmosphere of social cohesion through mass and cultural education
  • Item
    The role of indigenous language and appropriate channel as strategies for effective health communication in Vrede.
    (2022-12) Akpan, Udoh James.; Mkhize, Sazelo Michael.; Hosea, Olayiwola Patrick.
    The World Health Organization (WHO) constitution declares health as a fundamental right of every human being, and describes it as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. WHO mandates member states to promote the health of her citizens as the value is to all including the state. To this end, governments including the ones in the global south have evolved policies, institutions and programmes to achieve these objectives. However, the successes or failures of these objectives differ in communities, and it is based on the how health information is delivered to members of the communities so that they can make informed health decisions. In delivering this health information, the use of language that is indigenous and intelligible to the people is important. Thus, indigenous language is autochthonous, and spoken among native people in a community. It is used for communication, expression of identity, play, imaginative expression, and emotional release. This paper examined how health information is communicated to members of the community in Vrede, and which indigenous language has been mobilized to address the dominant groups without excluding the others, to what extend do the indigenous people participate in this mobilization, and also the appropriate medium that is preferred by the community members to achieve their health information needs in order to bring about health development and social change in the community. The paper mobilized a qualitative approach by undertaking interviews with varied demography of Vrede to ascertain which indigenous language is preferred and dominant in the town, and if the people including the migrant community are unilingual, bilingual or trilingual. The paper also ascertained the experiences of the residents on health information from government and health institutions, how they receive it, and the medium they consider appropriate. The outcome of the research concluded that indigenous language is an effective communication strategy in disseminating health information in Vrede, thus leading to the social change in the community and improve their wellbeing. It shows that dominant indigenous language should be used in that communication, and the medium of communication to be deployed by the health information planners should be face-to-face communication, community engagement, and the use of social media, especially Facebook.
  • Item
    Mobilizing Ubuntu as the unifying language for the descendants of Bantu during xenophobic/Afrophobic attacks in South Africa.
    (2022-04) Akpan, Udoh James.; Mkhize, Sazelo Michael.
    South Africa has witnessed a lot of xenophobic uprisings in recent years, and it comes with violent attacks mainly by the black African hosts on the black African migrants, who are mostly Bantu-speaking descendants, just like some of the black ethnic groups in South Africa. This has prompted some scholars to call it Afrophobia because they see it as a fratricidal brawl since the attacks are hardly extended to non-black Africans. This paper, therefore, explored the re-vitalisation of the traditional ways black Africans used to relate with one another in their communities, employing the philosophy of Ubuntu. Using a desktop study secondary data collection approach as its methodology, the study draws from existing literature, academic journals, reports, relevant media sources, books and electronic databases, and employs the narrative analysis to contextualise the phenomenon. The study concluded that the mobilisation and positioning of Ubuntu as the theme in the communication and languages used by the media, scholars, political and cultural leaders while addressing the causative factors responsible for these attacks will go a long way towards highlighting their historical affinity and create a conversation about it, and thus, the violence will abate. The study also showed that, many times, the causative factors are built on misconceptions and myths. The study recommended that, if these steps are taken, the descendants of Bantu will not only live peaceably but also enjoy the good of the land.
  • Item
    Exploring Vrede Community views on government communications on COVID-19.
    (2022-06) Akpan, Udoh James.; Mkhize, Sazelo Michael.; Hosea, Olayiwola Patrick.
    The unprecedented speed and scale of the global pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have literally shut down countries and the global economy. Though a limited outbreak of the disease was noticed around December 2019 in Wuhan, China, the World Health Organisation declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of international concern on 30 January 2020, and a pandemic on 11 March 2020. While the impact of the disease is unique in different countries because of cultural norms, mitigation efforts and health infrastructure, the biggest challenge of various countries is communicating the behaviour of the disease and public health programmes articulated by various governments to inform and educate their citizens. Vrede in Free State Province, South Africa, has also seen these challenges, ranging from cultural challenges to infodemics, which is a major concern for WHO. Using a qualitative approach, the study adopted the Health Belief Model (HBM) theory to examine the views of the residents of Vrede community on government crises and risk communication strategies with a view to evolving effective communication strategies to achieve public safety. The study adopted the semi-structured interview data collection method and spoke with 12 participants of different sex and age, and analysed the data using the applied thematic analysis. The study concluded that, while infodemic was perceived as misleading information, there is a need for governmental information to become bottom-up in ensuring effective communication.
  • Item
    Gender-based violence: sociocultural barriers to men speaking up and seeking help in South Africa.
    (2022-03) Akpan, Udoh James.; Majola, Khanyisile Berlinda.; Mkhize, Sazelo Michael.
    Gender-based violence (GBV) includes, but is not limited to, physical, sexual, psychological, and other threats, coercion, economic harm, etc. Because of their gender placement in society, men are frequently associated with being the perpetrators.. Therefore, using the term “gender-based” reflects the unequal power relationships between the genders, which are entrenched in all societies. It portrays the male gender as being the aggressor and the more powerful, endowed, and opportune in society. This article examines and speculates on the notion that men are sometimes the victims of gender-based violence and women are the perpetrators. Mobilising a secondary data methodology through a systematic review approach, the article consulted electronic resources such as EBSCOHOST, JSTOR, and Google Scholar. The articles consulted ranged from 1996 to 2022, were searched from a global perspective, especially the West, and finally narrowed down to South Africa. JSTOR and Google Scholar produced 95% of the search results, though Google Scholar was most dominant. The key words and phrases used for the search were centred on foregrounding the problem of male GBV victims and their reluctance to speak up and seek help. The inclusion criteria focused on males who suffered violence at the hands of female perpetrators. Male to female violence was excluded. The study concluded that there is a need for society, especially the police organisation to recognise violence against men as a social problem that requires urgent help. It also suggests that counsellors be set up for men in remote places who are losing their self-confidence and esteem in relationships, family setting, and society. It also recommended that South African men need to be encouraged by the media and the Civil Society Organisation to speak up and seek help so that they can maintain their sociocultural prestige, and manage social cohesion in the family and society.
  • Item
    Mobilising Nigerian Pidgin English as a second language for communication and instruction in primary schools in Ajegunle, Lagos.
    (2023-08-03) Akpan, Udoh James.; Seun, Akinmolayan Emmanuel.; Mkhize, Sazelo Michael.
    The language question in former British colonies has been a topical issue in Africa. Independent African states still use English as one of the official languages long after the colonisers relinquished political power. The development of the Nigerian Pidgin English can be seen as a resistance to embrace the coloniser’s English. Nigeria being a colony of Britain and also inherited English language has evolved a second language called Pidgin English which has now pushed the official English language to becoming a third language while the indigenous language comes second in many cases. However, she has not been able to harness the potential of the Pidgin English. This paper therefore seeks to explore the mobilization of Pidgin English spoken by every ethnic group in Nigeria as a language of communication and also an instructional language for learners in primary school in Ajegunle, a multicultural, low income and populous township in central Lagos, the commercial hub of Nigeria. The paper will adopt a the sociocultural theory as a framework and desktop data collection approach by reviewing relevant literatures from Google Scholar, text books and media sources, review it with the effective communication model and educational learning theory and concluded that Pidgin English can be effective in the production of knowledge in Ajegunle community.
  • Item
    Exploring Vrede Community views on government communications on COVID-19.
    (2022) Akpan, Udoh James.; Mkhize, Sazelo Michael.; Patrick, Hosea Olayiwola.
    The unprecedented speed and scale of the global pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have literally shut down countries and the global economy. Though a limited outbreak of the disease was noticed around December 2019 in Wuhan, China, the World Health Organisation declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of international concern on 30 January 2020, and a pandemic on 11 March 2020. While the impact of the disease is unique in different countries because of cultural norms, mitigation efforts and health infrastructure, the biggest challenge of various countries is communicating the behaviour of the disease and public health programmes articulated by various governments to inform and educate their citizens. Vrede in Free State Province, South Africa, has also seen these challenges, ranging from cultural challenges to infodemics, which is a major concern for WHO. Using a qualitative approach, the study adopted the Health Belief Model (HBM) theory to examine the views of the residents of Vrede community on government crises and risk communication strategies with a view to evolving effective communication strategies to achieve public safety. The study adopted the semi-structured interview data collection method and spoke with 12 participants of different sex and age, and analysed the data using the applied thematic analysis. The study concluded that, while infodemic was perceived as misleading information, there is a need for governmental information to become bottom-up in ensuring effective communication.
  • Item
    Exploring Festac Town, Lagos Residents’: observations on crime and the influx of unskilled migrants from northern Nigeria and other illegal migrants from Sahel Region.
    (2022) Akpan, Udoh James.; Mkhize, Sazelo Michael.; Bello, Paul Oluwatosin.
    In recent times, Lagos State, Nigeria, has been faced with a myriad of security challenges which is manifest in the increase of crime in Festac Town, a Lagos State middle-class suburb. These crimes are exacerbated by the influx of unskilled Nigerians from far northern part of Nigeria and illegal migrants from other African countries, particularly from the Sahel areas known as the G5 Sahel countries —Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso and Chad due to the many challenges faced by them which include chronic insecurity, lack of economic prospects, poor access to education, inadequate job opportunities and inadequate essential services such as water and electricity. Such incursions are believed to have significant security implications for Nigeria in general, and Festac Town in Lagos State in particular since most of these migrants more often unskilled and undocumented drift into the state, and then into Festac Town because of its economic opportunities. The activities of these unskilled and undocumented migrants have coloured how residents perceive them in the state. The objective of this study therefore was to explore the observations of residents of Festac Town, Lagos. Using a qualitative approach, a structured interview was done with participants in Festac Town. Mobilising the rational choice theory, the study explored and analysed the citizens‘ perceptions of illegal and unskilled migrants in the Festac area of Lagos State. The findings indicated, among others, that security concerns such as increase in crime, mostly violent crime, and political narratives like a ‖Fulani agenda‖ to take over Nigeria are significant observations that were found to shape citizens‘ views of undocumented and unskilled migrants from far northern Nigeria in their locality. The implications of the findings raise the need for an effective and unbiased policing approach; effective management of Fulani migrants from the North to the South of Nigeria, and other illegal migrants and their activities which will include handing illegal ones over to the Immigration Service; the rehabilitation of the skilled ones from Nigeria, and repatriation of the unskilled ones to their respective states of origin in collaboration with their home governments for resettlement and skill acquisition programmes.
  • Item
    Mobilizing Ubuntu as the unifying language for the descendants of Bantu during xenophobic/afrophobic attacks in South Africa.
    (2022) Akpan, Udoh James.; Mkhize, Sazelo Michael.
    South Africa has witnessed a lot of xenophobic uprisings in recent years, and it comes with violent attacks mainly by the black African hosts on the black African migrants, who are mostly Bantu-speaking descendants, just like some of the black ethnic groups in South Africa. This has prompted some scholars to call it Afrophobia because they see it as a fratricidal brawl since the attacks are hardly extended to non-black Africans. This paper, therefore, explored the re-vitalisation of the traditional ways black Africans used to relate with one another in their communities, employing the philosophy of Ubuntu. Using a desktop study secondary data collection approach as its methodology, the study draws from existing literature, academic journals, reports, relevant media sources, books and electronic databases, and employs the narrative analysis to contextualise the phenomenon. The study concluded that the mobilisation and positioning of Ubuntu as the theme in the communication and languages used by the media, scholars, political and cultural leaders while addressing the causative factors responsible for these attacks will go a long way towards highlighting their historical affinity and create a conversation about it, and thus, the violence will abate. The study also showed that, many times, the causative factors are built on misconceptions and myths. The study recommended that, if these steps are taken, the descendants of Bantu will not only live peaceably but also enjoy the good of the land.
  • Item
    The role of indigenous language and appropriate channel as strategies for effective health communication in Vrede.
    (2022) Akpan, Udoh James.; Mkhize, Sazelo Michael.; Patrick, Hosea Olayiwola.
    The World Health Organization (WHO) constitution declares health as a fundamental right of every human being, and describes it as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. WHO mandates member states to promote the health of her citizens as the value is to all including the state. To this end, governments including the ones in the global south have evolved policies, institutions and programmes to achieve these objectives. However, the successes or failures of these objectives differ in communities, and it is based on the how health information is delivered to members of the communities so that they can make informed health decisions. In delivering this health information, the use of language that is indigenous and intelligible to the people is important. Thus, indigenous language is autochthonous, and spoken among native people in a community. It is used for communication, expression of identity, play, imaginative expression, and emotional release. This paper examined how health information is communicated to members of the community in Vrede, and which indigenous language has been mobilized to address the dominant groups without excluding the others, to what extend do the indigenous people participate in this mobilization, and also the appropriate medium that is preferred by the community members to achieve their health information needs in order to bring about health development and social change in the community. The paper mobilized a qualitative approach by undertaking interviews with varied demography of Vrede to ascertain which indigenous language is preferred and dominant in the town, and if the people including the migrant community are unilingual, bilingual or trilingual. The paper also ascertained the experiences of the residents on health information from government and health institutions, how they receive it, and the medium they consider appropriate. The outcome of the research concluded that indigenous language is an effective communication strategy in disseminating health information in Vrede, thus leading to the social change in the community and improve their wellbeing. It shows that dominant indigenous language should be used in that communication, and the medium of communication to be deployed by the health information planners should be face-to-face communication, community engagement, and the use of social media, especially Facebook.
  • Item
    Predisposed police culture attitudes: South African Police Service versus Justice Institute of British Columbia newcomers.
    (Criminological and Victimological Society of Southern Africa., 2016-10) Steyn, Jéan.; Bell, Nick.; De Vries, Ian.
    This article aims to report on a comparative examination of South African Police Service’ (SAPS) and Justice Institute of British Columbia (JIBC) Police Academy newcomers, for indicators evincing the presence of police culture themes of isolation, solidarity and cynicism. Using a survey format, the research employs a quasi-experimental pre-test (first phase of a larger longitudinal study) design. Although there is significant variance among the South African Police Service (SAPS) and Justice Institute of British Columbia (JIBC) Police Academy newcomers, overall there are indicators of solidarity, isolation and cynicism present among SAPS recruits upon arrival for basic training, however, less so for the JIBC Police Academy recruits, especially in relation to the cynicism theme. The findings suggest that newcomers from both the South African Police Service (SAPS) and Justice Institute of British Columbia (JIBC) Police Academy arrive for basic training with already moderate attitudes in support of police culture themes of solidarity, isolation and cynicism. It is contended that recruits’ views are largely in place upon hiring and that the police occupation attracts people with certain values and attitudes similar to characteristic police culture themes of solidarity, isolation and cynicism. This finding also has theoretical importance in that it provides empirical support for the predispositional school of thought which believes that police officer behaviour can primarily be explained by the personality characteristics (traits), values and attitudes that the individual had prior to being employed by a police organisation. This article reports on a comparison of police culture themes of solidarity, isolation and cynicism attitudes between the South African Police Service’ (SAPS) and Justice Institute of British Columbia (JIBC) Police Academy newcomers at the start of basic training.