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Doctoral Degrees (Public Governance)

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    The association of political will with performance of selected municipalities in South Africa.
    (2015) Moshikaro, Asaph Mongwegela.; Penceliah, Yoganandee.
    The study aimed to establish the association of political will with performance: a study of selected Municipalities in South Africa in the wake of continued service delivery lapses. The review of literature revealed that there is a paucity of substantial research on the relationship of political will and performance in Municipalities globally and in South Africa. This study sought to fill that knowledge gap. Post-apartheid South Africa faces a major challenge in ensuring that Municipalities provide optimal and professional services to citizens of diverse cultures. A comparative analysis of the four Southern African countries’ service delivery (including South Africa) seems to be a microcosm of a situation that pervades Africa, except for a few exceptions. To study the association of political will with performance: a study of selected Municipalities in South Africa, various qualitative and quantitative research methodologies were employed to collect data, namely, demographic data, opinions, intensity and salience of political will, Municipal performance issues, Municipal experts’ comments, integrated development programmes (IDPs), Annual Reports, Auditor Report (2014), legislative and policy documents and an integrated approach to service delivery at local government level. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the data under the relevant themes presented an integrated as well as a holistic view of the study. The study’s empirical findings and results revealed that an association between political will and Municipal performance was found to be qualitatively and quantitatively significant, namely, that there is a connection (i.e. from a quantitative perspective) between political will and Municipal performance (56.5%) is a fair positive response that is supported by qualitative findings. In other words, Councillors and Municipal Managers, who are politicians, understood their political will and were accountable for Municipal performance. Among others, as improvement of Municipal performance in the local government matches the rise or increase of the level of political will amongst political leaders, therefore, further studies of cause and effect of these variables are recommended. As the study was limited to only two provinces in South Africa, it is recommended that, inter alia, that further broad studies, perhaps longitudinal, in all South African provinces are undertaken for validation of the findings and results as well as reproducibility of this study.
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    Employee fraud and prevention strategies at universities in KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2015) Sivnarain, Ranesh.; Ferreira, Ignatius Wilhelm.; Wissink, Henry Frank.
    The results of continuing global research, including this study, have found that employee fraud is ubiquitous. An analysis of the crime statistics relating to fraud in South Africa reflects a similar picture. This study delved into employee fraud at universities in KwaZulu-Natal by evaluating the nature and causes of this phenomenon as well as the preventative measures that are, or should be, implemented to obviate the risk of fraud at universities. The study of fraud and corruption at universities in KwaZulu-Natal represents a microcosm of such crimes at national and international universities. The objectives of this study were to gain knowledge and understanding of the causes and nature of employee fraud and to establish other measures that could prevent fraud as well as to propose a conceptual model and recommendations which universities could use to prevent fraud. In order to achieve these objectives, the study included an extensive review of recent and relevant literature, an empirical survey, review of case files and interviews with knowledgeable individuals in the field of fraud risk management. In addition, the study provides an overview of historical and philosophical origins of the theoretical concepts and frameworks and models relating to employee fraud, fraud risk management, internal controls and governance of fraud risks. Results indicate that employee fraud is considered a risk to the sustainability of higher education, vis-à-vis the provision of tertiary education to the community. A conceptual model is proposed to address employee fraud at universities. The conceptual input/output transformational systems model adapted from Easton (A systems analysis of political life (1979)) was utilised as a sophisticated addition to the set of recommendations provided in the last chapter. Despite its particular shortcomings, this model would be useful as a concept clarifier to those entrusted with designing and implementing policy at universities destined to elevate the fraud prevention process. The conceptual model advocates a holistic approach to prevent fraud. In responding to stakeholder demands to combat fraud, universities should implement specific policies that would transform any such dysfunctionalities within its operations to enable it to achieve its predetermined educational goals. Supplementary to the adapted input/output transformational systems model for prevention of fraud and corruption at universities in KwaZulu-Natal, a set of recommendations is proposed that is intended to provide policy-makers with information about the inputs from the environments that impact the achievement of goals and that proposes a conversion mechanism which could support achieving, maintaining and enhancing of predetermined goals. The prevention of employee fraud would be beneficial to all stakeholders, such as the community, government and universities, nationally and internationally.
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    Learner support in open distance learning at Unisa, KwaZulu-Natal : a developmental state perspective.
    (2015) Mouton, Johleen.; Subban, Mogesperie.
    When the African National Congress (ANC) came into power in 1994, it was important to relook at the operations of the Public Administration and governance domain in South Africa. Many sectors in all spheres of government have changed significantly since then, and it was thus equally important that the educational system receives a critical examination to improve education in South Africa. The linkage between Public Administration and the higher education landscape should also be seen within the context of the developmental state perspective of the government-of-the-day to develop important skills and invest in human capital in the country. Efficient public administration policies and effective management principles should be in place to implement government policies to achieve the desired outcomes of sustainable development. This study took place mainly within the higher education field as part of the Public Administration paradigm, with particular reference to distance education and open distance education at the University of South Africa (Unisa). It also explained the role higher education has to play in the acquisition of basic knowledge and intellectual skills and its effect on the development policy of the state. Distance education came a long way since 1994. The South African White Paper on Education and Training of 1995 gave direction to change in the higher education system and an Open Distance Learning (ODL) approach was adopted, which brought advantages for students registering at the University of South Africa (Unisa). Unisa became the largest distance education provider in South Africa and, it was important that new policies be developed within the university to guide the development of ODL. Learner support in an ODL university is one of the key elements in an ODL system. The study aimed to provide an investigation into the learner support initiatives in the Unisa region of KwaZulu-Natal through the use of empirical methodology. One of the key questions in this study is to determine whether the students entering the open distance learning system at Unisa KwaZulu-Natal are ready for this new environment. It was depicted from the data obtained, that students are uncertain, not well prepared for this new environment and that improved learner support services are needed to improve on the learning of students and also on the poor throughput rate in the region. Students and staff were part of the research. Questionnaires, interviews and observation informed the relevant information on the readiness of the students coming into the ODL university system, and their experience of the learner support initiatives provided to them in the region.
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    Integrated development planning as a means to facilitate public participation in George Municipality.
    (2016) Ngqele, Sandile Wiseman.; Ferreira, Ignatius Wilhelm.; Wissink, Henry Frank.
    Abstract available in PDF file.
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    Women's representation and participation in the era of decentralisation.
    (2015) Majola, Brian Kwazi.; Nzimakwe, Thokozani Ian.
    The issue of women has been very complex when it comes to representation and decentralisation of power by governments in democratically organised societies. Decentralisation has been associated with good governance, as it brings government closer to the people; about half of whom are women. Studies have shown that women participate in greater numbers in local government to fight against under-representation in decision-making processes. This study focused on South African local government and investigated women’s representation and participation in the era of decentralisation. The main aim of the study was to investigate the extent to which women are represented and participating at local government level. The further objectives of the study were to establish the impact of women's representation and participation in decision-making processes at local government level, and to explore successful factors contributing to increased representation and participation of women at local government level. A qualitative approach was adopted and more than one hundred councillors were interviewed from the targeted population. The researcher interviewed councillors from different political parties in different municipalities as well as independent ward councillors. The findings have shown that although women are the majority at local government level, the number of women ward councillors was low. The study noted that politics is still male dominated. This is exacerbated by the historical background of the two provinces, KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape. Very little has been done by the political parties and other stakeholders in terms of supporting women councillors. The findings showed that no training or strategies are in place to empower women and political parties are not grooming women for representation and participation at local government level. It was also noted that women councillors are treated the same and no gender issues were entertained separately by the council. Findings indicated that the public perception concerning the role of councillors has been a challenge together with high unemployment and poverty level.
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    A phenomenological study of the employment experiences of persons affected by acquired brain injuries (ABI) in South Africa.
    (2015) Akbar, Khalida.; Wissink, Henry Frank.
    The rationale for conducting this study is, firstly, to encourage people with Acquired Brain Injuries (ABI) to become aware of employment prospects and, secondly, to provide organisations with recommendations on how they could assist these individuals by amending Human Resource (HR) policies and procedures. South African legislation stipulates that there is provision for employment with disabilities; however, there is a lack of literature to indicate how reasonable accommodation can be made for these particular individuals in the workplace. The study also seeks to establish the extent in which people with ABI’s are aware of legislation and policies that affect their employment opportunities. Studies need to be done in order to examine the experiences of people with Acquired Brain Injuries (ABI’s) regarding employment and survival in the workplace. South African organisations aim to attain diversity in the workplace; however, they lack accommodation for people with ABI’s. The study thus aims to examine specific experiences of people with ABI’s regarding employment so that Human Resource policies and practices can be tailor made to accommodate them in gaining and sustaining employment. The findings of this study provide an overview of the problems experienced and barriers faced by people gaining employment following ABI’s in South Africa. Thus it can be said that it is essential that the management of challenging issues should take place in terms of language and communication, promotions and development, motivation, the design of the programme and job security. The findings of this study also have several implications for future research that needs to be conducted in this area of study within the fields of Management and Entrepreneurship, Governance, Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations. In terms of research approach, the phenomenological approach used in this study may encourage other researchers to study ABI in South Africa through the lived experiences of persons with ABI, so as to understand the direct needs, challenges and success of people with this type of disability. The results of this study will provide managers with information that will facilitate early detection and strategies to assist in the employment of persons following an ABI in the South African workplace. This study responds to the numerous calls for research in the area of employment of persons following ABI’s in South Africa. The empirical and theoretical findings suggest that minimal research has been conducted in the area of the perceptions and experiences of employment of persons post ABI in South Africa. Therefore this study will contribute to the expansion of knowledge on this issue with the aid of the model of The Model of Employability for persons who are affected by Acquired Brain Injury in South African organisations, which was developed through this study. There is very little literature on employee perceptions and experiences of employment of persons following ABI in South Africa. Thus the understanding gained here on how South African employees understand and experience misfit will make a notable contribution to existing research, theory and practice in the fields of Governance, Entrepreneurship, Management, Psychology and HRM.
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    Challenges of government-to-government e-government: a case study of KwaZulu-Natal department of transport.
    (2015) Abdulla, Mohamed Irshad.; Wissink, Henry Frank.; McArthur, Brian Walter.
    e-Government (e-Gov) is the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to enhance government service delivery to citizens. Government-to-Government (G2G) is a type of e-Gov concerned with the use of ICT within a government department or across different government departments. e-Gov is plagued by high failure rates and therefore faces challenges that inhibit governments from leveraging ICT to its fullest potential. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore and understand e-Gov challenges, focusing on G2G in particular. A qualitative research methodology was used, with a case-study research design. The research site was the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Transport. A conceptual framework comprising e-Gov and public management models and theories was used to interpret the data and reach conclusions. This research has shown that departmental e-Gov policy and the e-Gov quality management framework are foundational requirements for successful implementation. The challenges facing G2G in the KZN DoT can be considered as three layers with various inter-relations between the layers. The outer layer of challenges (sub-themes of strategy, usability, complexity, HR skills, resistance, systems development methodology, management support and data quality) must firstly be addressed, followed by the middle layer of challenges (themes of Addressing User Requirements, Business Process Management, Change Management, User Involvement, Organisational Culture and Priority); once this has been achieved, the central challenge facing G2G (User Adoption) is likely to be addressed. User Adoption was found to be the central challenge facing G2G since the lack of user adoption means that the intended benefits of G2G cannot be realised. By addressing these three layers, challenges related to Technology Infrastructure are solved in the process, although various other underlying issues related to Technology Infrastructure were identified. This research has addressed gaps in the literature on understanding the current challenges facing G2G as a particular form of e-Gov, and specifically how it is approached within a South African provincial government context. It has also bridged the gap between e-Gov and public management research, as each research domain has traditionally considered e-Gov independently. Finally, from a methodological perspective, this study contributes to the lack of qualitative research on e-Gov.
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    Social media as a communication tool during crises and disasters: a South African governance perspective.
    (2016) Ramluckan, Trishana.; Subban, Mogesperie.; McArthur, Brian Walter.
    Good governance is often a prevalent theme within the public administration sphere; being politically, socially and economically inclined. The focus of good governance is based on the responsibility of governments and governing bodies for the safety and well-being of their stakeholders. With the dominance of the technology age, social media and related technologies have become a strategic communications tool for the citizens of democratic states to voice their needs and opinions. Social media has proved to be a useful and effective communications tool in many crises internationally. However, in South Africa social media has not been fully embraced as a strategic communications tool by public organisations and is an evolving one. There is a lack of studies and knowledge of how social media can be used for crisis communication in South Africa or the factors that may influence it’s usage in crises. The study identified the gaps, and factors of using social media, thereby establishing the need for inclusion of social media in an organisation’s or government’s crisis management plan. Public Administrators play an important role in a crisis is to ensure that the citizens receive the vital information to ensure their safety in life-threatening situations and this became evident in the study. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyse the use of social media as a communication tool during crises and disasters from a South African governance perspective. As such, from the main aim, a few key objectives highlighted include amongst others: an investigation into the extent of social media usage in crisis and disaster communication; determining of the global factors affecting the use of social media in crisis and disasters and the proposal of updated communication flow models for the specific case of social media in crisis management; legislative and governance factors and developing an integrative model for the enhanced use of social media to address crisis communication whilst recommending social media strategies for effective use in crisis management for public/private South African organisations. A mixed methods approach was used to gather and analyse the findings. The study involved the collection of empirical data incorporating the use of questionnaires, interviews, secondary data and content analysis from authoritative documents to elicit relevant information from the relevant experts, specialists and academics in this field of study, utilising the Task Technology Fit (TTF) and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as guidelines. From the identified factors which influence the adoption of social media, an issue regarding the awareness of the respondents toward the relevance of South African laws emerged. The #Feesmustfall campaign was one case study that revealed the extent to which social media was being used nationally and internationally. Key themes that emerged from the study include privacy and security which further emphasised the need for governing frameworks and legislation. Furthermore, social media strategies in terms of possible future legislation and or frameworks were recommended for the effective use in crisis management. The study concluded that social media is an important channel of communication in crisis and disaster but control mechanisms are required for its effectiveness. Furthermore, the study establishes the need for future research in this important area, which would be beneficial to the global community as a whole.
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    Good food security governance extension workers in KZN : a public administration perspective.
    (2014) Mohamed Sayeed, Cheryl Natasha.; Reddy, Purshottama Sivanarain.
    This study responds to the question, “To what extent are the aims of the food security amongst Extension Workers within KwaZulu Natal being achieved within a good governance agenda?”. The main objective has been to firstly, understand the link between good governance, professionalism, service delivery and food security. Secondly, the objective is to review the existing food security policy and priorities for responding to the challenges of the National Development Plan and Millennium Development Goals. Thirdly, the objective is to contribute to new policy relevant knowledge on the potential impact of good governance, professionalism and service delivery on the achievement of food security in the Province. The empirical study was completed by way of a survey undertaken amongst the Extension Workers and their District Managers employed in the South Region of the KwaZulu Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs (KZN DAEA). Two data collection methods were used. Firstly, a self-administered questionnaire was used to determine the extent to which good food security governance was being achieved amongst Extension Workers. Secondly, interviews with the District Managers in the South Region and the Provincial General Manager: Strategic Support Services, were conducted to solicit information on strategies in place to ensure good food security governance compliance by Extension Workers. The concept of good governance is used as the basis of the assessment and endorses the World Bank Framework for good governance as a lens for assessing the successes and failures of good food security governance in South Africa. The empirical study revealed that regular reporting and accounting is the practice within the KZN DAEA, and is managed through a system of verbal and written reports. The problem arises out of the disjuncture between the legislative guidelines, the policy frameworks, the strategic frameworks, against the abilities of the Extension Workers to work within the ambit of these guidelines. This disjuncture amongst Extension Workers comes largely out of their lack of understanding of the contents of such policies. As a result, the study found that this creates a disability amongst Extension Workers as implementers of food security related strategies. The empirical study thus revealed that despite clear targets being set and regular accounting being the practice of the KZN DAEA, the focus is on compliance rather than on stimulating real development. As a result, the essence of “extension” is lost. The study makes a number of recommendations. Firstly, the finalisation of the proposed Food Security Policy currently under discussion is seen as a priority. Secondly, the adoption of a brief induction programme, or policy awareness workshops, by the KZN DAEA, as part of their training programmes, is seen as essential to translate the key areas of the legislative mandates to Extension Workers. The incorporation of accountability and transparency mechanisms into all the activities of the functioning of Extension workers is the third recommendation. Fourth, the mainstreaming of monitoring and evaluation is seen as a crucial component for overall successful policy implementation. This, the study argues has the potential to improve the levels of professionalism displayed by Extension Workers. Fifth, it is recommended that Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) offering Agriculture Extension network with each other and government bodies to offer programmes and courses that are more appropriate for the implementation of public policies. Recommendation six and seven call for the adoption of a broader more systemic and holistic view of poverty and food insecurity as the attainment of food security can no longer be viewed as an exclusive agricultural issue. Eighth, it is recommended that an Extension Framework be adopted to revert to the tradition behind Extension methodologies. Last, it is recommended that Extension Workers be registered to a professional body in order to enhance the dissemination of the key values, roles and responsibilities of the Extension Worker. In conclusion, this study has shown that government needs to benchmark the advantages and disadvantages of institutional arrangements for good food security governance. Furthermore, whilst no one measure can be seen as the solution to the problems, it offers an opportunity to move in the direction of poverty reduction and food security. This study contributes to the body of knowledge in public administration and the food security discourse.
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    Management of the Expanded Public Works Programme in the Department of Public Works : KwaZulu-Natal Province.
    (2014) Mfuzi, Zanele Enough.; Govender, Krishna Kistan.; Penceliah, Yoganandee.
    No abstract available.
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    The role of project management methodology in municipal service delivery, with a particular reference to Metropolitan Municipalities in South Africa.
    (2014) Ntshangase, Bhekabantu Alson.; Nzimakwe, Thokozani Ian.
    The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of project management methodology to service delivery at Metropolitan Municipalities in the Republic of South Africa. The study was conducted across all six metropolitan municipalities. These Municipalities are as follows: eThekwini Metropolitan municipality, City of Cape Town, City of Ekurhuleni, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan municipality, City of Johannesburg and City of Tshwane. Literature review reveals that project management incorporates all management principles. An interesting finding provided by literature review is that no known publication that presents how projects were managed in times of Great Wall of China, Egyptian Pyramids, and European Cathedrals. What is interesting is that these structures are in place but there are few records to inform how the projects were managed. Another important discovery through literature review is that the study of project management is new in the field of public administration, as it was inherited from military and engineering disciplines. Project management has been more effective and efficient for engineers in their massive construction and designing new machinery and military personnel in their missions of war, peace-making and other interventions. This research study has shown that project managers need intense capacity building on the project management discipline. Project managers are not as strong on project management theory, as expected. Some project managers do not have qualifications on project management, which makes execution of projects at Metropolitan Municipality levels difficult and challenging. These findings made a very interesting break-through in understanding of what makes municipalities fail to deliver services as expected. Project reports were collected from each metropolitan municipality. These reports are clearly indicating that some projects are experiencing challenges in areas of project planning, financing, procurements, quality and contracts. Some projects do not finish on time as a result of above identified challenges. Proper implementation and management of project will bring about drastically improvement in service provision by Metropolitan municipality.
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    Sustainable development in South Africa through research in the National System of Innovation.
    (2014) Gachie, Emily Wanjiru.; Dassah, Maurice Oscar.; Penceliah, Yoganandee.
    This research examined the role of research commercialisation for Sustainable Development (SD) in South African National System of Innovation (NSI) within the context of public administration. The introduction has provided the research objectives, problem statement and the research questions. It should be noted that the theoretical perspective served as a ‘reference dictionary’ that informs the rest of the research, the literature has also examined the role of research commercialisation for SD in the African region from an international perspective. Further, the pragmatic research design adopted provides the basis for undertaking mixed-method research, namely: quantitative followed by qualitative, supplemented by secondary documents and the methodological data analysis triangulation technique has facilitated the achievement of a ‘whole greater than the sum of the parts’. In addition, the research methodology assessed the role of higher education institutions (HEIs) research commercialisation for SD. The findings identifying the HEIs as an important source of research for SD resulting in the findings showed that the HEIs face considerable constraints that hinder research commercialisation for SD, which include human resource capacity gaps, infrastructure and funding. The findings also identified HEIs-private sector collaboration as an important alternative avenue for research commercialisation for SD as a consequence the recommendations proposed that improving research commercialisation for SD should be high among the triple helix policy agenda. Finally, the recommendations also emphasised the importance of consolidating NSI gains, including efficiency in disseminating research results, efficient exploitation of new knowledge and technology transfer, leveraging the central role of the private sector in the NSI, effective application of intellectual property rights, broadening NSI actors’ participation, simplification of policies and procedures and efficiency of allocation of funding.
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    Impact of strategic communication policy on service delivery and good governance within KwaZulu-Natal Department of Sport and Recreation.
    (2014) Singh, Bhoowan Prakash.; Subban, Mogesperie.
    Strategic communication within the public sector is a direct determinant of the quality of service delivery provided to the constituency of the current regime. As a critical tool of good governance, the effectiveness of the communication strategy is directly dependent on the quality of the communication policy. The aim of this research study is, therefore, to gauge the level of effectiveness of the current Draft Communication Policy utilized by the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Sport and Recreation (DSR), and to propose a review of the policy with the intent of refining communication strategy in the light of contemporary global practice. The key questions asked included the degree of familiarity of the DSR with e-governance, as well the contribution of strategic communication as an enabler to good governance. Furthermore, it should be noted that the linkage between Public Administration, management and policy perspectives directed the discussion on good governance within the public sector. Also, analysis of the theoretical frameworks on public policy incorporated the Systems Approach to policy-making and the South African Excellence Model, amongst others. The use of empirical methodology, incorporating the use of questionnaires, interviews and observation has been used to elicit relevant information from DSR officials and stakeholders to identify areas of communication review. This case study approach into the formulation of the DSR communication policy and strategy in the digital era, provides a ‘blueprint’ for government departments in general to achieve their goals and objectives electronically. e-Governance is the emerging mode of contemporary service delivery, and the success of digital government process is highly dependent on information technology being embedded within the communication policy. As a consequence the need for the restructuring of the DSR to regularize operations, management and functioning of the Communication Services Component (CSC) should be immediate. In essence, the formulation and adherence to the prescripts of a communication policy, and the resultant communication strategy is intended to be in keeping with the ethos of good governance in its pursuit of best practice to promote efficiency, effectiveness and value-for-money.
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    Inter-organizational relations for effective policy implementation : a case study of the KwaZulu-Natal tourism implementation structure, between years 2000-2010.
    (2014) Buthelezi, Sipho Bruce.; Francis, Suzanne.
    In this study I explore how effective the KwaZulu-Natal tourism implementation structure has been in the management of inter-organizational relations for tourism policy implementation using an interpretive social science methodology. This study is a culmination of an intensive observation, documentary analysis and fieldwork interviews. My findings show that the lead organizations have tried to achieve reasonable consensus as they build effective implementation partnerships, but there is very little to show for it. There is little evidence that local stakeholders’ transformation, financial support and empowerment has been effectively coordinated and achieved. As a result, there has been on-going high degree of despair and uncertainty, especially at the tourism community organizational level. I also find an increased orientation towards cooperative tourism governance and management. There is also evidence of an increase in tourism establishments whose foundation is partnerships for efficiency, effectiveness, increased revenue, empowerment and sustainability. There are still ‘silos’ within tourism cooperative management in that the lead organizations and the private sector still avoid partnering and opt to achieve their own individual goals separately. The process of facilitating cooperative tourism programmes is time-consuming. Hence success might not be achieved during the term of office of municipal councils and executive management, whose terms are normally five years without guarantee of extension. In many instances, this has resulted in tourism development programmes being an unfunded mandate. However, from 2008 onwards, there has been an improvement in stakeholder/shareholder coordination, partnering, communicating and organizational relationships for tourism programmes. I credit this improvement to cooperative tourism governance and management in the build-up towards the 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup. I recommend an interventionist application of a more demonstrative, participatory, transformative and facilitative kind of leadership to maximize effective inter-organizational exchanges and consensus-based decision-making for implementation.
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    An evaluation of water and sanitation provision by Uthukela Water in selected districts of KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2011) Thabethe, Prince Dumisani.; Reddy, Purshottama Sivanarain.
    This research study is about the evaluation of UThukela Water on the provision of water and sanitation services in Amajuba District and UMzinyathi District municipalities, which form part of uThukela catchment basin in KwaZulu-Natal. Water and sanitation services have been the responsibility of local municipalities, mostly in favour of the white minority during the apartheid regime. The new democratic era which saw the dawn of the country’s new demarcations thus changing municipal boundaries, also forced the government to ensure that all basic services are equally provided across the country’s regional and racial groups, posing a big challenge in service delivery particularly to the South African Local governments. The transformation from apartheid to democracy based local governments led to the establishment of district municipalities, who then took over the responsibility for water and sanitation services and attained the water services authority status. The government of national unity promulgated and established a few statutory frameworks to ensure proper service delivery and transformation in the Local Government sphere, outlined below. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa which is the Supreme Law of the country, which gave Local Governments the status of being independent spheres of government in the new South African democratic order. The Local Government Transition Act 209 of 1993 gave profound direction towards the transformation of local government. Other enabling legislations that were passed to remove discriminatory measures of apartheid and ensure that service delivery in the Local Government is equitably delivered, were: The Municipal Demarcation Act 1998 (Act 27 of 1998); The Local Government: Municipal Systems Act 2000 (Act 32 of 2000); Local Government: Municipal Structures Act (Act) and the Local Government: Municipal Finance Management Act 2003 (Act 56 of 2003). The transformation of Local Government had two main aims. The first was to move away from racialbased local governments towards non-biased and non-racial institutions which will serve both rural and vii urban communities within a municipal area. The second was to deliver municipal services to the majority of South Africans that were previously deprived of such basic services under the apartheid regime. The intentions were good; however, local government is still faced with various challenges such as limited resources, including human, financial, and technological resources, rapid population growth, dilapidated infrastructure, and shortage of skills. These shortages have negatively impacted on the provision of water and sanitation services in both rural and urban areas. The backlogs for basic services in the rural areas are quite severe. Further challenges regarding water and sanitation provision include low payments for services, high prevalence of HIV & AIDS amongst the workforce (skilled employees), and poverty. This research sets out to evaluate the role of UThukela Water, which is a Municipal entity established to provide water and sanitation services on behalf of Amajuba and UMzinyathi District Municipalities. The powers of the districts as stated by Section 84 of the Local Government: Municipal Systems Act 2000 (Act 32 of 2000) are amongst others, water supply, bulk sewerage purification and disposal, and solid waste disposal in the area of the district. It became evident in this research that district municipalities lack capacity to deliver water and sanitation services. This was due to a shortage of skills, lack of human, financial and technological resources. Given this lack of capacity, UThukela Water was established to expedite water and sanitation since delivery. UThukela Water inherited infrastructural backlogs, received inadequate funding from municipalities, faced much political interference and moreover, was directed and managed by inexperienced personnel. Hence there was no monitoring of performance of staff and no oversight function exercised by the parent municipalities. Some of the deficiencies could have been avoided or reduced had the establishment of UThukela Water been more appropriate and transparent to all stakeholders. Arising from the cited drawbacks, the provision of water and sanitation services at Amajuba and UMzinyathi districts have been seriously compromised: serious protests and riots are an indication of the communities’ dissatisfaction. This research cuts across a number of disciplines, including social service, economics, political science and public administration. It became imperative therefore that the legislations governing water industry be analysed, the institutions that use water be discussed, the capacity of water services authorities be investigated, the ability of staff to execute duties be checked and the impact of political influence or interference be discussed. This meant studying similar institutions, the relevant legislations and literature. In this study, the fundamentals of municipal entities were researched and compared with regard to their establishments, management and operations. Over and above studying municipal entities, the researcher focused on UThukela Water’s performance in the provision of water and sanitation services. The study led to the comparison of UThukela Water (Pty) Ltd with other Water Boards and other Public-Private-Partnerships. The comparison confirmed that the success of these institutions depends on the availability of skills, finance, and sound governance. In this study, relevant literature was studied to gain a better understanding of the impact of local government to the communities. Relevant South African legislation was analysed and reviewed. Surveys by the researcher were analysed and presented. Literature was reviewed by the researcher. All these data sources confirm that UThukela Water (Pty) Ltd has a number of serious short comings regarding infrastructure backlogs, shortage of skills, financial constraints, shortage of human resources, monitoring and evaluation. Stretching the entity even more is the fact that it is owned by three different municipalities whose political powers are changing hands between two rival political parties i.e. the African National Congress and Inkatha Freedom Party. This on its own caused management problems, coordination failures, communication problems and stakeholder participation failures, and lack of continuity. It would have been easier if the political power was to be vested in one political party within a municipality for a period of at least five years without changing, and more so if all the three municipalities were from the same political party for at least five years. Political will and fewer financial constraints are vital ingredients that impact on effective and efficient service delivery. The provision of water and sanitation services can improve considerably if political power can be used to leverage financial constraint which could translate into sourcing required skills, extending infrastructure and giving water to more people. A study of this nature would be inadequate without providing recommendations. Several recommendations basically to improve the provision of water and sanitation services by UThukela Water (Pty) Ltd have been proposed. These recommendations are: re-aligning and reconfiguring UThukela Water (Pty) Ltd; changing the culture of the organisation; managing customer relations effectively; improving water demand management strategies; making provision for new dams; implementing bulk water controls; initiating and implementing infrastructural rehabilitation programmes; improving revenue generation strategies; improving business systems; affording customers multiple options of service levels; removing limitations to access of service levels and engaging in public education. It is envisaged that the adoption of these research findings and implementation of the proposed recommendations will produce the municipal entity that responds to people’s needs by delivering effective and efficient services. Therefore communities can proudly live to the theme “Water is life and Sanitation is dignity”. Since most of the flaws emanated from the failure of shareholders or parent municipalities to exercise oversight function, monitoring and evaluating the performance of uThukela Water, a Policy Board Model of governance was proposed in this study. It cannot be over emphasised that when a municipal entity is established, its founders or lead consultants must consult and involve all stakeholders and thus design the entity properly. Critical factors for effective governance are, the appointment of board members with all the necessary expertise e.g. experts in social science, law, finance and business. The board must be competent in financial management, and must be able to give strategic direction to management. It must approve policies that provide framework for effective performance from senior management down to general workers. Should these critical factors and elements be ignored, the entity is doomed to fail and therefore will perform dismally in its mandate to deliver water and sanitation services to the people.
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    Managing diversity in the transformation of pubic further education and training colleges in KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2011) Ntshangase, Doctor Mbukeni.; Sing, Deoram.
    The restructuring of the technical colleges brought with it some challenges which the college managers, supervisors and administrators have to address on their day-to-day administration of these institutions. The merging of technical colleges had seen campuses with diverse historical, educational and cultural backgrounds being clustered together to form one mega FET College. Statistics compiled by the Statistics South Africa (see table 3.1) suggest that much needs to be done in terms of ensuring that diverse employees are provided with equal opportunities. The increasing racial and ethnic diversity of the workforce in the FET colleges underscores the importance of effectively managing diversity. There should be steps managers can take to become sensitive to the ongoing effects of diversity in their colleges, take advantage of all the contributions diverse employees can make, and prevent diverse employees from being unfairly treated. However, the residual impact of the apartheid years have shown some resilience, and therefore it is probable that transformation of the embedded inequalities might not have occurred as rapidly as desired. The rationale behind this study was to reveal college managers’ understanding of the effective management of diversity as well as to correct the misconceptions that may exist about why and how different kinds of employee groups are different from one another and to find the most effective ways to utilise the skills and talents of diverse employees. The writer of this study is an administrator, employed by the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Education, responsible for the administration of public FET colleges and with significant first-hand administration experience in rural, semi-rural, urban and semi-urban campuses in the province. This experience has made him keenly aware that the old paradigms of discipline, suspension, and discharge as only means to handle employees’ problems are inappropriate in the new institutional landscape because they are seldom the most expeditious way to handle conflicts centering on diversity issues. The researcher realised that it was important for FET college managers to include diversity as an aspect of career progression. From this perspective, diversity would be an integral aspect of career planning that traditionally has been a deliberate process to marginalise other employee groups. This study includes a literature review as well as a qualitative investigation to reveal college managers’ understanding of diversity. A literature study provided the basis for analysis and clarification of the recent changes in thinking on diversity issues and the shift towards conceptualising workforce as composed of diverse social groups which share many employment experiences, but which might not be treated the same. The highlighting of heterogeneity and diversity of social groups assisted in the task of recognising and understanding that discrimination and disadvantage are multifaceted and that it is important to draw on the experiences of, and reflect the needs of, all social groups within the workforce when developing or analysing diversity management policies. The qualitative investigation’s overall focus was on the college managers’ appreciation and response to the needs, attitudes, beliefs, and values that diverse employees bring to FET colleges. The qualitative approach explored why differential treatment occurs and the steps managers have taken to ensure that diversity, in all respects, is effectively managed for the good of all stakeholders. The study highlighted the need for managers and supervisors to become aware of the values, motivations, communication styles, attitudes, and needs of their employees. The findings led to the conclusion that diverse individuals continue to experience unfair treatment in the workplace as a result of biases, stereotypes, and overt discrimination. Sometimes well-intentioned managers inadvertently treat one group of employees differently from another group, even though there are no performance-based differences between the two groups. The findings also revealed that rural campuses appear to find it very difficult to attract and retain the best employees from all the different racial groups. This raises critical diversity issues for these campuses because if that is not handled well it can bring the whole college to its knees, especially in the increasing global environment. These conclusions enabled the researcher to make specific recommendations for assisting college managers to treat diverse members of FET colleges fairly and justly, as well as to realise that diversity is an important organisational resource that can help the college gain a competitive advantage. Recommendations were made for improving the role of the State, the Provincial Department of Education, the College Council, the College Management Team, as well as the trade union leaders to ensure that neither large nor small disparities in treatment and outcomes due to irrelevant distinctions such as race or ethnicity occur in public FET colleges. This was seen as a priority in order to promote democratic college governance, management and administration and in so doing to attract and retain the best employees and compete effectively in a diverse global environment.
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    Monitoring and evaluation systems enhancing corporate governance in local government : a case study of KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2011) Govender, Ivan Gunass.; Penceliah, Yoganandee.
    The study focuses on the effects of Monitoring and Evaluation (M & E) on corporate governance in municipalities in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. It considers the strategic and tactical perspectives of M & E systems in Local government due to South Africa having not fully implemented the Government Wide Monitoring and Evaluation System (GWMES), while the provinces have implemented the Province Wide Monitoring and Evaluation System (PWMES) which are different to each other and not aligned to the GWMES. Municipalities have not progressed to the level of implementing a systemic and holistic Municipal Wide Monitoring and Evaluation System (MWMES) to enhance governance and focus on the management of programmes and projects within various departments and units thus undertaking M & E functions in a fragmented manner. While there is Voluminous literature on country wide, programme, policy and project M & E there is a dearth of information documented on systemic MWMES. Therefore the study reviews the existing literature and adapts it to recommend guidelines and models for the planning, implementation and sustaining of MWMES. The current state of the municipalities‟ performance and M & E activities are influenced inter alia by the historic, institutional, financial, human resources, capital, leadership and M & E specialist skills. Historically, Local Government was structured according to the apartheid principles which marginalised the previously disadvantaged race groups, created unsustainable local service delivery institutions and service delivery backlogs. The new government instituted a radical transformation of the public sector but was still straddled with these challenges and did not possess the capacity and financial resources to immediately rehabilitate the inequitable service delivery. During the transformation process, citizens were also informed of their rights to basic services and demanded more and better quality services. The communities dissatisfaction with level of service delivery led to service delivery protests in many municipalities that are faced with unskilled and inexperienced staff; political interference; misaligned organisational structure; poor financial management; and poor performance culture. Collectively, these challenges led to poor service delivery and governance requiring the National and Provincial Governments to intervene to protect the legitimacy of Local Government thus creating a demand for M & E systems. Councillors, Provincial and National Governments; and communities are the main stakeholders that create the demand for M & E systems in municipalities. The inclusion of the following instruments, namely, IDP; SDBIP; operational plans; annual budgets; legislation; and incentives in the M & E system would enhance corporate governance. There is a lack of incentives from both National and Provincial Governments for municipalities to implement an M & E system and to pursue excellence. The lack of incentives to implement an M & E system could be the key factor for not implementing an M & E system although majority of the municipalities are currently in a position to plan and implement an M & E system. The main challenges faced by the municipalities to implement an M & E system are the lack of M & E specialists; statistical skills; and evaluation capacity development. The National and Provincial Governments, through their oversight roles could support and capacitate the municipalities to overcome these challenges. In conducting their oversight roles in managing the performance of the municipalities, both the National and Provincial Governments interventions were ineffective, although the Provincial Government performed better than the National Government in this regard. Monitoring and Evaluation systems improve corporate governance through aiding better service delivery; achievement of strategic goals; decision making; financial management; and accountability. The effects of M & E on capacity development are the placement of competent staff; training and motivation of staff; better resource allocation; and participation of all the stakeholders. While there are no incentives for municipalities to achieve excellence, a systemic M & E system should be used as an alternate performance measurement tool to the Balanced Scorecard to pursue excellence in municipalities. The initial intervention of the National Government was to enact legislation that mandated every state department and organ of state to implement an M &. The Treasury drove the process and focussed mainly on compliance, rather than both M & E, by utilising the logical framework comprising of inputs; activities; outputs; outcomes; and impacts. The components of the logical framework are hierarchical resulting in a linear relationship among the components. The logical framework has limited capacity to explain the multi-faceted causal relationships among the numerous transactions and entities that interact and are interrelated in the municipal environments. The study recognises the municipality as a complex adaptive system and to overcome the limitations of the Logical Framework a Systemic Performance Analysis Model (SPAM) is proposed where the components of performance are viewed as interdependent and interrelated subsystems that are linked by transfer of knowledge and feedback. Monitoring and Evaluation initiatives have been criticised for their complexity and misalignment between the GWMES, PWMES and the current municipal M & E activities. The study proposes the Monitoring and Evaluation Alignment Model (MEAM) that clarifies interrelationships among the different municipal environments, namely, the common factor of the three spheres of government; organisational factors required for the planning and implementation of an M &; factors required to institutionalise the M & E system; and impacts of the M & E system. The MEAM recognises the municipality as a complex adaptive system; uses a systemic approach for the implementation of an M &; and provides a bird‟s eye view of the micro and macro public management systems environment. Public and private institutions undertake the generic management functions, namely, planning, organising, leading and controlling to achieve its objectives. Monitoring and Evaluation is considered a higher order management function since it analyses the effectiveness and efficiency with which the organisation undertakes its generic management function. The study proposes the Municipal Wide Monitoring and Evaluation System Model (MWMESM) which incorporates the boundaries, perspectives and interactions between the various systems; among the systems and subsystems; among the subsystems itself; and with the municipal environments. The systems and sub-systems within the municipality should create its own Monitoring and Evaluation System (MES). The information from the individual MESs is combined to create a Political Monitoring and Evaluation System (PMES) and an Administrative Monitoring and Evaluation System (AMES). Information from the PMES and the AMES is incorporated into the Municipal Performance Management Information System (MPMIS) to generate performance reports. The performance reports are submitted to the relevant parties and feedback is captured in the MPMIS. Due to the absence of MWMES in the KwaZulu-Natal municipalities and the poor performance of municipalities, the study proposes a process for planning and implementation of a systemic MWMES. Since each municipality is unique in terms of size, demographics, organisational culture, socio-economic development, financial viability and political and administrative leadership, the process should be adapted to suite its particular circumstances. Municipalities in KZN have qualified and experienced senor administrative staff who understand the importance of M & E as a management tool to improve corporate governance and performance of the municipality in pursuit of excellence. There is a great and sustainable demand for M & E systems with a large number of municipalities ready to plan and implement M & E systems. Many municipalities require the National and Provincial Governments to support, capacitate and guide its efforts in implementing M & E systems. Therefore it is incumbent on the National and Provincial Governments, as part of their oversight roles, to provide the necessary leadership and resources to the municipalities for the enhancement of corporate governance through M & E systems.
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    Promoting intergovernmental relations through KwaNaloga games : a case study of selected municipalities in KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2011) Nhlabathi, Zandile Florence.; Mubangizi, Betty Claire.
    Worldwide all multi-level governance systems face the challenges of co-ordination and the alignment of scarce resources for the common good while maintaining their distinctiveness and independence. South Africa is no exception. Since 1994 when decentralisation became government policy in South Africa, intergovernmental relations have evolved at both the formal and informal levels. While each level of government has a specific mandate prescribed by the Constitution, the challenges of poverty, inequality and marginalisation of vulnerable communities are best addressed through a concerted effort by all spheres of government. Held annually for the past thirteen years, under the aegis of the KwaZulu-Natal Local Government Association (KwaNaloga), the KwaNaloga Games have successfully been staged as a collaborative effort between South Africa’s three spheres of government: national, provincial and local (municipal). This dissertation argues that if the various spheres of government can align their objectives, processes and resources around a specific outcome like the KwaNaloga Games, then it should be possible for the same spheres of government to align objectives, processes and resources for the provision of housing, water, electricity, safety, security and other critical developmental local government outcomes. In exploring this argument, qualitative and quantitative research was conducted with a range of stakeholders (Technical Sport Planning Committee, sport federation representatives, district and municipal officials) involved in the organisation and delivery of the KwaNaloga Games. The study followed the theoretical framework of co-operative government, intergovernmental relations and multi-level governance. ‘Co-operative government’ suggests a partnership between the three spheres of government where each sphere is distinctive and has a specific role to fulfil. ‘Intergovernmental relations’ are concerned with the political, financial and institutional arrangements regarding interactions between different spheres of government and organs of the state within each sphere. ‘Multi-level governance’ has vertical and horizontal dimensions where the emphasis is on the linkages between higher and lower levels of government, and on co-operation arrangements between regions and local government where agreements are the means by which to improve the effectiveness of local public service and implementation of development strategies. The findings indicate that the partnerships and relationships established by government and non-government actors during the Games are crucial to accomplish governmental objectives, be they social or economic, and enhancing service delivery in the three spheres of government. The relevant committees and structures for execution of the Games provide good platforms and fora for networking and promoting IGR, which facilitate team-work in other functions of service delivery. The study concludes that KwaNaloga Games provide and present the spheres of government with a unique opportunity to forge new relationships and partnerships in the internal and external environments that shape local government. These relationships and partnerships further strengthen existing parameters in order for the spheres of government to be more effective, efficient and responsive to the needs of communities. This study recommends that the co-operation and collaboration among the three spheres of government should be strengthened through agreed service level agreements, viable communication channels and functional oversight structures (such as co-ordinating fora of senior management, political leaders and office bearers) to meet the set goals of service delivery programmes and projects. The study further recommends that monitoring and evaluation systems should be incorporated into the KwaNaloga Games and that through reviewing the binding implementation of agreements and protocols these systems are further extended to indicate progress in various spheres of government in the pursuit of local government developmental objectives.
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    A model to manage staff turnover: a case study of the distribution division at Eskom.
    (2013) Dlamini, Thandi.; Pillay, Solosh.
    Abstract available in PDF file.
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    Student governance in higher education institutions in the Western Cape, South Africa [electronic resource] : a case study.
    (2011) Khan, Moonira Banu Mahomed.; Pillay, Pregala.
    The aim of this study was to explore the role and contributions of elected student leaders in student governance positions, at the four higher education institutions in the Western Cape. The literature study revealed that whilst information on student politics is easily available, very limited information is available about the elected student leaders in student governance positions in higher education institutions, within the broader governance framework. The role of elected student leaders in contributing to the democratisation of universities was positively identified as an indicator of the evolving democratisation of universities. It was found that whilst elected student leaders are involved in, and do contribute to key decision-making in policy matters, this is not always the case. Of significance is the quality of the deliberative process and the level of seriousness in connecting the voice of students in a meaningful and consistent manner, to institutional decision-making, on matters that affect students. The theoretical framework of this study was grounded in Public Administration theory, deliberative democracy theory and governance theory within a higher education institutional context. The study intersects with deliberative democracy theory in understanding the advantage of good student governance as a way of contributing to the democratisation of universities and the student and the public good. The role of student leaders is fore grounded by illuminating ways in which they interpret their student leadership roles and how they interpret this in relation to the national and institutional policy framework referred to in the National Plan for Higher Education (Republic of South Africa, 2001). The policy context provides a basis for understanding the relationship between Public Administration and higher education. The Higher Education Act, No. 101 of 1997, provides the legislative framework for institutional governance, within which the statutory provision for student governance is situated. In particular, the Higher Education Act sets out the framework for institutional student governance and principles of good governance. The governance ethos of the Higher Education Act is derived from principles of good Public Administration as the basis for good governance, and the democratic values and principles as set out in Section 195 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. An empirical study was conducted which included the administration of questionnaires to students in student leadership positions at the four universities in the Western Cape. In addition to the questionnaire survey, interviews were conducted with students and staff. The data was analysed statistically, using descriptive statistics. The findings of the study illustrate support for the continued existence of the student governance framework and for the role of student leaders in the decision-making processes of higher education institutions. However, there is a need for a more serious and consistent commitment to involving students in deliberative processes on matters of student interest and the public good. Such involvement is fundamental to the values and principles of democracy and good governance. The challenge for change is to seek meaningful and sustainable ways to complement the student governance approach by drawing in and connecting the broader student voice to the representations and the decision-making processes on its behalf by those who represent them, and by the decision-makers. It may be useful to review the role of student leaders in how this role is interpreted and deployed by the student leaders and how this role is supported by staff and the decision-makers involved in decision-making that impact on students. This descriptive study explored key factors such as the role and contributions of student leaders in governance positions, their functions, skills and applications deployed within their specific environment of student governance, and the general institutional governance environment and its influences on institutional democratisation. The research study culminates in providing guidelines for an integrated student governance framework in contextualising and supporting a wider deliberative student governance approach in higher education. This requires commitment and support from the management and student leadership, in pursuit of effective student governance within an environment that is nurturing and embracing of the student voice as central to achieving the institutional vision.