ItemThe role of circuit managers in leadership and professional development of principals: perspectives of six secondary school principals.(2022) Shamase, Nomusa Princess.; Blose, Sibonelo Brilliant.The focus of the study reported in this dissertation was to explore the role of circuit managers in the leadership and professional development of principals; this was studied from the perspective school principals. The study was conducted in six secondary schools in Umlazi District in KwaZulu-Natal, and principals of these schools participated voluntarily. Since there is no prior qualification that is needed in South Africa before teachers are appointed to a principal position, I wanted to understand the principals' perceptions of the role played by circuit managers in their leadership and professional development. The study also intended to explore the different strategies that circuit managers implement in pursuit of developing principals' leadership and professional skills. Lastly, the study also explored the impact of the strategies implemented by the circuit managers. I located myself within an interpretive paradigm in this study; this paradigm is grounded on the belief that there is no single absolute truth, but it is created through the engagements of the researcher and participants. Reality is subjective and emanates from people's real-life experiences. Transformational leadership theory and Gray and Bishop’s leadership development model formed the theoretical framework that underpinned this study. Furthermore, the case study research methodology was used to comprehend the principals' experiences. The thematic analysis method was chosen to analyse data that was generated through semi-structured interviews. The study found that the role of circuit managers, from the perspective of principals, played a pivotal role in developing principals’ leadership and professional development. The participating principals shared a similar sentiment that circuit managers played the role of building their capacity. Among other things, principals mentioned that circuit managers implemented mentoring and modelling, twinning schools to foster collaborations and ongoing training as strategies to enhance principals' professional and leadership growth. The study further found that the implementation of these strategies by circuit managers resulted in principals growing their management and leadership practices. ItemParental involvement in rural schools during the COVID-19 pandemic: experiences of school principals in selected public schools in KwaZulu-Natal.(2022) Radebe, Muziwenele Cyprian.; Naicker, Inbanathan.Parental involvement in rural schools is one of the major concerns when one considers education of rural learners. The sudden outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic made it difficult for learners to go to schools in a normal way, and this meant that home learning was one of the possible options available for teaching and learning to take place. Thus, parental involvement proved to be the solution in ensuring that learners continued learning at home. This study presents the storied narratives of three rural school principals in KwaZulu-Natal based on parental involvement in learners’ learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study aimed to examine, What are school principals’ experiences of parental involvement in schools located in rural settings during the COVID-19 pandemic? Two sub-questions were then used to unpack this broader question namely, How are the rural parents participating in their children’s learning process during the COVID- 19 pandemic? and What do school principals do to promote parental involvement in schools located in rural settings during the COVID-19 pandemic? This study was guided by Epstein’s model of Parental Involvement and Empowerment theory. Narrative inquiry was used as a methodology. In-depth narrative interviews were used to generate field texts (data). Data analysis occurred at two levels: narrative analysis and analysis of narratives. The first level involved the construction of the stories. The second level involved the deconstruction of the narratives in order to answer the two sub-questions. The findings of the study revealed that low socioeconomic and educational statuses of most of rural parents had a huge influence on their lack of involvement in their children’s learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. During home learning, most rural parents could not provide required learning resources like laptops, smartphones, internet connection, textbooks, and other helpful material for their children due to lack of money. Also due to their low educational level, parents could not help their children with regards to their school work. The school principals in the study revealed that since they understood the conditions of parents in their schools they devised convenient strategies to encourage parental involvement. However, the response was not positive from some of the parents due to socioeconomic and educational factors. One of the important recommendations that stem from this study is that during the times of crisis, school principals should ensure that they always adapt to new programmes that will fully and adequately encompass the leadership skills, practices and actions suited to the current crisis, and should always strive to engage parents in all the programmes that are made to enhance learners’ academic development. ItemThe role of teacher leaders in developing and leveraging professional learning communities during and post the covid- 19 pandemic.(2023) Ngoako, Gloria Khululiwe.; Mkhize, Bongani Nhlanhla Cyril Kenneth.This research is aimed at exploring the role of teacher leaders during and post COVID-19 pandemic in Pinetown District in KwaZulu-Natal Province. The study focuses on teacher leaders’ experiences in semi-rural schools during COVID-19 pandemic. This study explores the different experiences of the four teacher leaders from two schools. The objectives of this study are; to explore teacher leaders’ role in developing and leveraging professional learning communities, to explore the challenges encountered by teacher leaders in developing and leveraging PLCs and explore appropriate strategies teacher leaders use to mitigate the challenges they encountered when developing and leveraging PLC in their schools during and post COVI-19 pandemic. This is a qualitative study located within the interpretive paradigm. The participants were purposively selected. The study used semi-structured interviews as a method of generating data. Due to COVID-19 regulations, interviews were conducted telephonically to observe COVID-19 protocols that forbid us from meeting face to face. The study employed thematic data analysis to analyse the generated data from the participants. The findings in this study revealed that the participating teacher leaders have a clear understanding of their role as teacher leaders. They however, endured varying experiences of their roles due to COVID-19 pandemic and the different contexts they work in. Some were still able to enact some of their instructional leadership experiences without any hindrances, while other participants experienced major COVID-19 related disturbances when enacting their instructional practices. The strategies used by these teacher leaders to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic included the following; drawing on teacher collaboration, professional development and workshops with different experts for skills d This research is aimed at exploring the role of teacher leaders during and post COVID-19 pandemic in Pinetown District in KwaZulu-Natal Province. The study focuses on teacher leaders’ experiences in semi-rural schools during COVID-19 pandemic. This study explores the different experiences of the four teacher leaders from two schools. The objectives of this study are; to explore teacher leaders’ role in developing and leveraging professional learning communities, to explore the challenges encountered by teacher leaders in developing and leveraging PLCs and explore appropriate strategies teacher leaders use to mitigate the challenges they encountered when developing and leveraging PLC in their schools during and post COVI-19 pandemic. This is a qualitative study located within the interpretive paradigm. The participants were purposively selected. The study used semi-structured interviews as a method of generating data. Due to COVID-19 regulations, interviews were conducted telephonically to observe COVID-19 protocols that forbid us from meeting face to face. The study employed thematic data analysis to analyse the generated data from the participants. The findings in this study revealed that the participating teacher leaders have a clear understanding of their role as teacher leaders. They however, endured varying experiences of their roles due to COVID-19 pandemic and the different contexts they work in. Some were still able to enact some of their instructional leadership experiences without any hindrances, while other participants experienced major COVID-19 related disturbances when enacting their instructional practices. The strategies used by these teacher leaders to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic included the following; drawing on teacher collaboration, professional development and workshops with different experts for skills development and traditional development and traditional teachers to adapt to classes, resources and accomplishments of different version. It is therefore recommended that teacher leaders should strengthen their efforts in ensuring that teachers work together. The study recommended the following; teacher leaders should attend workshops to equip themselves with technological skills and the latest technological teaching and learning models such as Microsoft Teams and Zoom Meetings; teacher leaders induced collaboration among their educators in order to ensure there was no interruption in the teaching, teacher-learner must be considered by employing the unemployed educators to minimise contact during teaching and learning and learning in their schools. ItemThe role of school principals in creating and promoting professional learning communities: a study of three secondary schools in uMlazi District.(2022) Ndlanya, Adelaide Nozipho.; Chikoko, Vitallis.School principals have a very important role to play in the Their role involves creation of an environment conducive to teaching and learning. One of many strategies that principals may adopt is to create professional learning communities. Research has shown that when PLCs in schools are well-practiced teaching and learning can improve. However, despite such a good report about PLCs what seems to be the case is that in many schools they still do not exist or they are ineffective and do not support teacher learning. Hence the focus of this study is on principals, as I believe that there is a need for research evidence about what school principals understand and experience as their role in promoting PLCs. The study adopted qualitative case study to explore the understandings and experiences of the three secondary school principals in creating and promoting PLCs. To collect data for the study, semi-structured interviews and document analysis were used. The results of the study revealed the following: (i)As much as the evidence has shown that principals understood that they had an important role to play in PLCs, they were not fully involved. Their understanding of the role to play was limited to just being providers and not being actively involved. (ii) Their role in the promotion of PLCs involved ensuring that members of a PLC respected and trusted each other. (iii) The principal’s role also included ensuring that the leadership skills of teachers participating in PLCs were developed. (iv) principals believed in shared leadership. (v) Principals have the responsibility of ensuring that necessary resources are always available for teaching and learning processes. (vi) Lastly subject meetings were also supported as another way of promoting PLCs as they are meant for teachers to share their skills and knowledge. The recommendations are as follows: School principals must be more involved in PLCs by making sure they attend and participate in the professional development sessions held in their schools. Secondly, district officials must be seen leading the initiatives that promote PLCs. This can be done through organising workshops and seminars for principals to capacitate them on different methods that they can use to promote an effective PLC. Lastly, depending on the availability of space, principals can solicit donations from private companies and from their ex-students and build multipurpose rooms. This may address the issue of not having enough space to hold PLC meetings. The issue of space can also be resolved if principals can identify schools within the circuit that can be used as centres of professional learning communities. ItemLeadership and rurality: deputy principals’ leadership experiences in secondary schools in a rural context.(2022) Mbatha, Ayanda.; Blose, Sibonelo Brilliant.The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of deputy principals leading in schools located in a rural context. Meanings shaping their leadership practices and the practices they exert to respond to the demands of rurality and to contribute to effective school functioning were explored. Three research puzzles were constructed to give direction to the study, namely; What are deputy principals' experiences of leading schools in a rural context? What meanings shape deputy principals' leadership practices in schools located in a rural setting? How do deputy principals respond to the demands of the context of rurality? The context-responsive theory and generative theory of rurality constituted the theoretical framework which was used to understand the experiences of deputy principals leading in schools located in a rural setting in this inquiry. This study was conducted within Narrative Inquiry, which is a methodology that studies the experiences of individuals through generating stories as field texts. Field texts were generated through narrative interviews, collage inquiry and photovoice. The field texts were then analysed at two levels; namely, narrative analysis (first level) and analysis of narratives (second level). The study revealed four exasperating experiences of deputy principals leading in a rural setting, namely, leading and teaching with minimal resources, a struggle with cultural activities that intrude on teaching and learning, juggling between teaching and management, poor socio-economic background and lack of parental support. Furthermore, the study revealed three meanings shaping leadership practices of deputy principals, namely, rurality is not a comfort zone, but rather it is demanding, striving to capacitate learners to change their lives, love and care shaping leadership practices. Finally, the study revealed five strategies used by deputy principals to respond to the demands of rurality and to contribute to effective school functioning, namely; leading adjacent to the community and its local traditional leaders, networking with surrounding schools, employing collegial leadership and teamwork to maximize effectiveness in rural schools, leading by example to encourage other colleagues to work effectively, promotion and monitoring of extra classes to ensure learner excellence in rural schools. ItemThe role of principals in establishment and sustenance of teamwork within the school: a case study of three primary schools in KwaMashu circuit.(2022) Khuluse, Nonhlanhla.; Bayeni, Sibusiso Douglas.The purpose of the study was to explore the role of principals in the establishment and sustenance of teamwork within their schools. It is hoped that the study will contribute in understanding the challenges the principals experienced in developing teamwork, and how they dealt with those challenges. The study was located in the interpretive paradigm. This paradigm provides understanding of how people make sense of the contexts in which they live and work. The study used a qualitative research design, and a case study was adopted as the methodology. Semi-structured interviews were used as the main method for data generation. For this study, purposive sampling was chosen. The study was conducted in the public primary schools in the eThekwini region of Pinetown District. The research participants sampled comprised of three principals of which two are males and one female. The key findings indicate that where teamwork exists stakeholders are likely to learn to work with each other, share ideas, and bring about organisational effectiveness. ItemTeachers’ understandings and practices of professional self-development: perspectives from thirteen teachers.(2022) Kubheka, Vusumuzi Obed.; Bhengu, Thamsanqa Thulani.; Bayeni, Sibusiso Douglas.This study explored teachers’ understandings and practices of professional self-development, drawing from the perspectives from thirteen teachers. My interest in this study arose from the reports of teachers’ poor participation in Continuing Professional Teacher Development (CPTD). While the Department of Basic Education required teachers to engage in Integrated Quality Management System (IQMS) now known as QMS, where teachers could identify areas where they need to be developed, this hardly happened. The nature of the research problem placed the study within the interpretive paradigm and used qualitative research design. Two theories were adopted to underpin and guide this study. These were Self-Determination Theory and Transformational Leadership Theory. This study used snowball sampling where the focus was on teachers who might provide information necessary to answer my research questions. Semi-structured interviews and documents analysis were used to generate data from thirteen participants from four schools. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse data. The findings suggest that there is lack of understanding of professional self-development. Consequently, teachers in this study did not participate effectively in professional development through CPTD. Teachers engaged in workshops that were conducted for two or three days which proved to be ineffective for teachers. Various obstacles like lack of money, overloading, lack of time and lack of resources were identified as some of the stumbling blocks to teachers’ professional self-development. The findings also suggested that the support from the schools, as well as from the Department of Basic Education was inadequate. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that teachers and schools need to refocus their attention on teacher self-development, if the quality of education provided is to improve in any substantive way. Teachers need to seek a deeper understanding of this important aspect of their development. Once they obtain a clearer understanding of professional self-development, their development practices are likely to change and improve. Issues around allocation of sufficient time for serious engagements in professional self-development will happen easier when there is proper understanding of the need and the benefits of professional self-development. When duty allocation is done, provision for professional self-development will be made because there will be a clearer understanding of professional self-development. ItemLeading for quality teaching and learning: a case study of six departmental heads in three secondary schools within the Pinetown district.(2022) Bhengu, Sithabile Pridesworthy.; Blose, Sibonelo Brilliant.The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of six Departmental Heads in their leadership towards achieving quality teaching and learning within the secondary schools under the Pinetown district. The theoretical framework underpinning this study is the transformational leadership theory. The methodology used for this study is the interpretive paradigm. This study adopted the case study methodology to help better understand the experiences of the six Departmental Heads. Interviews were arranged after obtaining consent from gatekeepers and participants and the data was then generated using two data collecting methods, namely: semi-structured interviews and documents review. The interview sessions were recorded using a tape recorder and transcribed before they got analysed using thematic analysis. The major finding of the study is that the participating Departmental Heads aimed to achieve maximum curriculum coverage for the departments they lead and manage, and in doing so, they used one-on-one meetings to assist teachers experiencing difficulties in the teaching and learning process. Departmental Heads shared that they monitor if quality learning and teaching takes place by checking learner exercise books, learner files, teacher files and making sure the teacher attends to the classroom as per period timetable. The Departmental Heads also expressed that in performing their duties, they experience challenges such as teachers who possess a negative attitude towards their work and teachers who show a negative attitude by portraying certain actions when it is time to go to class. The actions include a teacher not going to class on time, absenteeism, and sitting in the staff room during teaching time. Departmental Heads did not only discuss the challenges, but they added to the study by mentioning that principals play a supportive role when required to do so. The principal was viewed as someone who assists in organising workshops that will improve the Departmental Heads’ skills where necessary and is someone who assists financially when organising extra help for the improvement of learner ability on certain difficult subjects. The principal is also viewed as someone who assists in getting the parents involved when it comes to the disciplining of learners who disturb the teaching and learning process. ItemFinancial management in affluent secondary schools in Gauteng: a case study.(2023) Moses, Miguel.; Myende, Phumlani.In South Africa, research revealed that many schools fail to effectively manage their finances due to various factors, including the limited financial management knowledge of their governing bodies. The South African Schools Act (SASA) 84 of 1996 stipulates how schools should manage their finances. SASA further states that the school management, including the principal and the governing body, should ensure that the school's financial resources are appropriately managed. The study’s main aim was to examine the financial management of affluent schools in Gauteng province. A case study of four affluent schools was conducted, and it followed a qualitative approach. Purposive sampling was used to select four study participants (the principal, treasurer, and finance officer) from each school, making it twelve. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews and document reviews. After that, the data were analysed using thematic analysis and presented as narratives or in-depth responses from the study participants. Key findings of the study revealed that various stakeholders play a vital role in managing school finances; for example, the principal is an official executive member of the governing body, whereas accounting officers are responsible for documentation, including making payments and providing supporting documentation. To ensure collaboration and avoid confusion among the SGB members, affluent schools implemented working policies that assisted in defining roles for each member and held workshops for capacity building. Additionally, the school governing body members (SGB) met monthly for some schools, whereas for other schools, the SGB members met quarterly to discuss financial management. Interestingly, affluent schools employed several measures to combat the mismanagement of financial resources. These included having three signatories for the authorisation of funds, bank statements, and receipt books. From the findings, I concluded that SGBs of sampled affluent schools manage their financial management effectively; although minimal discrepancies exist, the positives supersede the drawbacks. A recommendation is that the department of education collect data from affluent schools and establish a model of financial management in schools that can serve as a guideline for other schools, especially those in townships and rural areas. ItemA case study of principals leadership roles in addressing learner indiscipline in four secondary schools in the uMgungundlovu District.(2023) Naidoo, Yovana.; Mthembu, Pinkie Euginia.The study explores the common and reoccurring phenomenon of learner indiscipline in secondary schools, specifically the principals’ role in addressing learner indiscipline from a leadership perspective. Principals are school leaders with versatile leadership styles that influence how they address learner indiscipline. Discipline refers to the ability of humans to act appropriately, at the right time and under the right circumstances. Learning needs to take place in a safe and conducive environment. Schools are considered to ‘produce’ well-rounded learners in society. Moreover, some laws and policies are in place to protect learners and aim to create disciplined citizens. Nonetheless, indiscipline is still an area of concern for principals. The interpretive research paradigm suits this study while being qualitative. This study’s research design is a case study and has a qualitative approach. Four participants had been a purposive sampling of secondary school principals in the uMgungundlovu District, an area where several cases of violence had been documented. Data was generated from face-to-face semi-structured interviews, which were thereafter analysed through an inductive approach. For the case of this study, the theoretical framework is the Response to Intervention and Instruction model (RTII) and Responsive classroom intertwined with the School Wide Positive Behaviour Interventions and Support (SWPBIS) model. Findings suggest that principals must aim to increase parental involvement and utilise tools like the SGB and school code of conduct. Principals are encouraged to acknowledge and implement certain leadership styles, which align with the notions of bringing about self-disciplined learners who will emerge as well-rounded citizens. Discipline remains the essential element of any learner because learner indiscipline disrupts learner academics. Numerous scholars accentuate that principals are responsible for performing inter-changeable functions; addressing learner indiscipline is two-fold as the study indicates, principals must create self-orderly learners, by using preventative measures, resulting in schools achieving the objectives of the school, one of which being academic success. ItemLeading instruction in TVET college campuses: learning from experiences of five campus managers in two colleges.(2022) Bubele., Nogcantsi,; Blose, Sibonelo Brilliant.The purpose of the study reported in this dissertation was to explore campus managers’ experiences of leading instruction in Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) college campuses. It is responsibility of a campus manager to create a conducive environment for teaching and learning, and also to improve the quality of teaching and learning in TVET colleges. This phenomenon has received little research attention, yet it is important to find out how campus managers perceive leading instruction and how they, through their experiences of leadership create learning environments that are conducive for teaching and learning. The instructional leadership concept, particularly Hallinger and Murphy’s 1985 model was adopted to frame my understanding as I engaged with campus managers’ experiences of leading instruction. A qualitative case study within the interpretive paradigm was adopted to explore the campus managers’ experiences of leading instruction in five campuses of two TVET colleges. Data was generated through semi-structured interviews. National and international scholastic literature was interrogated in order to shed light on the research topic. The analysis of the generated data led to the findings of the college campus managers’ experiences, challenges and responses to the challenges that emerge when they are leading instruction in their campuses. The findings were presented in themes in sequential form that was based on presenting answers to the key research questions. Nine themes were developed to answer the research questions. In addition, in the themes, it emerged that campus managers displayed high levels of collaborative leadership approach as instructional leadership practices in their campuses. It was also concluded that there are challenges which campus managers face in their TVET colleges campuses and some of these challenges are historical and may not be easily fixed by campus managers. ItemThe ripple effects of the implementation of the learner progression policy: perspectives of secondary school principals.(2021) Ngema, Sithembiso Zwelihle Wilfred.; Bayeni, Sibusiso Douglas.; Mkhize, Bongani Nhlanhla Cyril Kenneth.This study focused on exploring the perspectives of secondary school principals regarding the ripple effects of the implementation of the Learner Progression Policy on teaching and learning in the Further Education and Training (FET) phase. This is a qualitative study and is located within the ambits of the interpretive paradigm. Four school principals were purposively selected for this study. This study utilised semi-structured interviews as a method of generating data from the principals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted through WhatsApp Video Call platform to observe the Covid-19 basic rule of social distancing. The study used thematic data analysis to vigorously scrutinise the generated data from the principals. The findings of the study exposed that secondary school principals have a clear understanding of policy implementation. Conversely, principals encounter challenges such as the overcrowding of learners’ classrooms, uncontrollable noise, ill-discipline learners, lack of individual attention, and educators’ demotivation. The strategies that are used by secondary school principals to mitigate the challenges involved the following: parental involvement, expanded learning opportunities in the form of morning classes and Saturday classes, and lastly the supervised compulsory afternoon classes. This study recommended the following involvement of learners’ parents during the LPP implementation phase at school, SLB’s involvement during the policy formulation, and SMT’s and educators to have a final say. ItemPerspectives of principals on the position of deputy principals in selected secondary schools of uMlazi district.(2022) Mnikathi, Phumlani Samuel.; Blose, Sibonelo Brilliant.The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of principals on the position of deputy principals in five selected township secondary schools. Three research questions guided the study, these research questions are; What are principals’ perspectives on the position of the deputy principals in selected secondary schools? How do principals deploy deputy principals as their assistants in the management of schools? And why do principals deploy deputy principals the way they do? Local and international literature on the position of deputy principals was reviewed. A distributed leadership theory served as a theoretical framework for the study and was used to understand the perspectives of principals on the position of deputy principals. A multiple case study was employed as a research methodology as it is a research style that is used where two or more cases are studied concurrently to generate a broader understanding of the research at hand. The findings of the study first revealed that principals perceived deputy principalship as a two-pronged position in township schools; it involves administrative and academic roles. Secondly, principals perceive deputy principals as leaders who are not absolved from the teaching role, and this is in keeping with the job description of deputy principals. The findings of the study also showed that principals assign deputy principals in the management of schools through fostering collaboration amongst their deputy principals and between themselves and deputy principals. Furthermore, principals assign deputy principals to deputise in their absence and use collaboration and deputising as strategies to prepare their deputy principals for the principalship position. ItemLeadership for quality teaching and learning: perspectives of departmental heads in secondary schools in Pinetown district.(2022) Dumakude, Hlengiwe Teresa.; Mkhize, Bongani Nhlanhla Cyril Kenneth.The purpose of the study was to explore secondary schools’ departmental heads' perspectives about leadership for quality teaching and learning. The study explored perspectives of four Departmental Heads’ (DHs’) leadership for quality teaching and learning at two secondary schools in Pinetown District, KwaZulu-Natal. The study intended to explore how Departmental Heads understand leadership for quality teaching and learning at the secondary schools. Added to this, the study intended to understand how Departmental Heads translate their understanding of leadership practices for quality in teaching and learning into practice. The study was located appropriately within the interpretivist paradigm that advocates changes in societal and educational structures and aims at practicality. Besides, the case study as a research method was used to understand the perspectives of the participants for the study. I generated data for the study using interviews. Interviews were conducted during the COVID- 19 pandemic and strict adherence to the Covid-19 health protocol was ensured. The data were analysed using the thematic method of analysis. The study found that Departmental Heads understanding of leadership for quality in teaching and learning included, supporting pedagogical and methodological skills of teachers, reporting progress and challenges of the department for improved quality in teaching and learning, and professional staff development. The study also found that Departmental Heads leadership practices for quality in teaching and learning included curriculum planning and evaluation, selection and placement of students to programmes, observation of teaching and learning, and assessment of subjects. Added to this, the study also found that, Departmental Heads encountered challenges in quality teaching and learning which included, inadequate material resources, and poor time management. However, they were able to surmount some of these challenges they encountered through their leadership practices to enhance quality teaching and learning at the secondary schools in Pinetown District of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ItemExploring the role of the school management teams in inducting novice educators.(2022) Mlambo, Bongekile Lynn.; Mthembu, Pinkie Euginia.The purpose of this study was to explore the understanding of school management teams (SMTs) members of their role in inducting novice educators. The study sought to investigate the role played by SMT in the induction of novice educators, their lived experiences, perceived challenges and mitigation strategies. Reviewed literature revealed that due to their liminality and lack of experience, novice educators often experience challenges in their initial years of teaching. The challenges that novice educators experience include, inter alia, classroom management, learner discipline, management of learners’ behaviour, accommodation of diverse learning needs, time management, conflict with parents, discipline, and motivating learners This was a qualitative study, located within an interpretive paradigm. The sample for the study comprised five (5) members of school management teams from two secondary schools in UThukela District, KwaZulu-Natal. The sample of SMT members included school principals and Departmental Heads. The key research questions for the study were investigated through face-to-face semi-structured interviews, with strict adherence to COVID-19 protocols. The findings of this study revealed that SMT members understood and somewhat performed their role of inducting novice educators. However, most of the induction took place informally, due to the limited time that SMT members had. In addition, SMT members reported that they had not received training or support from the Department of Education on the induction of novice educators. However, despite the challenges encountered, SMT reported that they used their knowledge and experience to ensure that novice educators in their schools were orientated and inducted. For instance, they used subject and departmental meetings held per term to encourage collaboration between novice and experienced educators to ensure support and guidance for novice educators. The findings point to the resilience of the SMT members in that they did something to ensure that novice educators were inducted, despite the challenges that they were facing. ItemEnhancing primary schools’ accountability for schools’ performance: perspective of Umgungundlovu District officials.(2021) Mbele, Ntombiningi Nokukhanya.; Myende, Pinkie Euginia.The attainment of quality education for all, as envisaged by the Department of Basic Education (DBE), is embedded in the willingness by all stakeholders to play their part in ensuring that effective teaching and learning in schools is not compromised. Given the enormous financial investment that the government is committing in education, the expectation is that such an investment should yield positive returns to the state and the nation at large. Strengthening accountability from those entrusted with such responsibility is one of the strategies to employ in order to attain the state’s money’s worth. The study was thus purposed at gaining an insight from six district officials (three circuit managers and three subject advisors) about how their education district in the province of KwaZulu-Natal enhances accountability for primary schools’ performance. To achieve its purpose, this study was guided by three research questions, which are: i) What are district officials’ understanding of accountability in relation to the schooling sector? ii) How do district officials ensure accountability for performance in primary schools? iii) Why do district officials ensure accountability for performance in primary schools the way they do? This study adopted an interpretative qualitative approach, using a case study methodology. The selection of the six district officials who participated in the study was premised on their job description, which entails, inter alia, exercising oversight and accountability in schools. Semistructured interviews and document analysis were used to generate data. Face-to-face individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with all the participants. Data was analysed thematically; quality and rigour were ensured using the concept of trustworthiness and all ethics relating to social science research were ensured. The study found that the phenomenon of accountability is well-understood by the district officials. This was evident in the accountability measures that are instituted by the district, in order to enhance accountability for primary schools’ performance. These measures included orientation workshops, school visits, moderation of assessment tasks and quarterly analysis of learners’ results. Beyond these measures, the study also revealed that district officials’ quest to strengthen accountability is affected by a multitude of challenges that emanate either from the system as a whole, district or school level. These include, inter alia, insufficient personnel at a district level, prioritisation of secondary schools over primary schools, the vastness of the district and the lack of standardised assessment in the General Education and Training (GET) phase. Such challenges result in the inadequate and inconsistent district support to schools. The study concludes that accountability is a reciprocal process between schools and the district office, and strengthening it at both levels is key to the overall improvement of primary schools’ performance. The study further recommends that primary schools play a crucial role of laying a foundation for literacy and numeracy skills and knowledge that learners need throughout their education journey. The DBE should therefore balance the investment between GET and Further Education and Training (FET) with regards to material resources, infrastructure and human resources. ItemThe leadership role of principals in parental engagement to address learner indiscipline: a case study of four secondary schools in Harry Gwala District.(2022) Mbalo, Zukiswa Zoleka Zennith.; Mthembu, Pinkie Euginia.Learner indiscipline is a major challenge that obstructs teaching and learning it also disrupts other stakeholders at schools from carrying out their work smoothly. The various stakeholders must rely on the school code of conduct to respond to the challenge of learner indiscipline. Yet, they continue to battle with learner indiscipline. Learner indiscipline has new complications that the Department of Education has not amended. While reviewed literature shows that a leadership role of a principal is to collaborate with parents to deal with learner indiscipline. Hence, this study explored principals’ experiences on parental engagement in addressing learner indiscipline. The study explored the various challenges by adopting an interpretive qualitative case study approach comprising four secondary schools in Harry Gwala District, KwaZulu-Natal. The qualitative approach was adopted because it allowed the participants to share their views and experiences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted face-to-face as a data generation method. The findings showed that principals had not had a pleasant response from parents when engaging them in learner indiscipline. At the same time, principals view them as key in addressing this challenge. Furthermore, they showed less seriousness and motivation on the part of parents to be fully active and engaged in addressing the challenge of learner indiscipline. The recommendations in this study were that principals needed to improve their strategies by developing the right attitude and should prepare themselves psychologically for any eventual embarrassment that might happen during efforts to promote parental engagement. ItemSchool leadership practices in high performing rural primary schools in Lesotho: a case study.(2022) Habi, Thabang Daniel.; Myende, Phumalani Erasmus.The purpose of the study was to explore leadership practices in high performing rural primary schools in Qacha’s Nek district. The duty of the principal is to provide every learner in the school with access to education and to develop the learners’ leadership potential. It is therefore vital to find out how the principals in high performing, rural primary schools enact leadership, and how they utilise their leadership experiences to create a learning environment that is conducive for teaching and learning. The study was theoretically envisaged in transformational and instructional leadership theories, in order to explore the leadership practices of the principals. The study used a qualitative case study design within the interpretive paradigm. Qualitative research seeks to explain and understand social phenomena in its natural settings. It concentrates on the meaning people have built concerning their world and the researcher is viewed as the primary tool for data generation and analysis. Telephonic semi-structured interviews were employed to generate data. A sample of twelve participants from the four selected high performing rural primary schools was purposefully chosen, which constituted the research participants. These participants consisted of four principals and eight teachers. Ethical considerations, including confidentiality and anonymity, were maintained throughout the research study. The study reviewed related literature from Lesotho and international perspectives on leadership practices, in order to understand how principals, maintain high performance in rural primary schools. The research findings have revealed that principals play an important role in transforming their respective schools into learning environments that are conducive for teaching and learning through their leadership. The rural school principals considered leadership as a collective effort and practised collaborative decisionmaking. Moreover, the principals’ leadership understanding, and experience enabled them to build good interpersonal relationships with members of staff and other stakeholders. Hence, for the school to perform well academically, it is very important to motivate the members of staff and supervise their work frequently. The study has also identified several challenges pertaining to leadership and rurality, which include excessive workload, lack of resources and limited official visits. This study presented the recommendations for practice and for further research. ItemLearners’ constructions of polygamy: narratives from one KwaZulu-Natal high school.(2018) Ndlovu, Melodious Sazise Qinisile.; Morojele, Pholoho Justice.The study sought to investigate the schooling experiences of high school learners who are directly or indirectly affected by polygamy. Focus was on the context of the dominant societal discourse that privileges monogamy above polygamy, and tend to render polygamy non- existent despite its prevalence in society. The study was particularly interested in finding the voice of the child regarding polygamy as a marriage system. Theoretically, the study was guided by Children’s Geographies and New Sociology of Childhood Studies which are concerned with children’s agency as well as space and places that children occupy in the hierarchy of social relationships. The study adopted a qualitative narrative research design, and utilised focus group and individual group interviews as its data generation methods. It was conducted with grade eight (8) to grade ten (10) learners from one High School in Molweni area, KwaZulu-Natal. A total of eleven (11) learners, five (5) boys and six (6) girls aged between fourteen and seventeen participated in the study. The findings revealed that participants mainly cited the unfair treatment of wives and children as the major concern and reason they are against the practice. Even those that are in favour of polygamy agreed with the fact that most fathers do not manage their households in a fair and equitable manner. Most of the participants cited the spread of HIV/AIDS as being exacerbated by polygamy and thereby making it difficult to provide solutions for the pandemic that has ravaged society for almost three decades. Participants also indicated that as children, they have resorted to getting menial jobs even before they finish matric in order to maintain themselves. The findings further indicate that not all participants were against the practice as others pledged their support for the longstanding practice. They cited family growth, alleviation of spinsterhood and the benefit of having many mothers as their main reasons for supporting polygamy. Some of the participants, especially boys, were brave enough to admit that they are fond of girls and therefore would like to be in polygamous relationships when they grow up. Although customary law makes provision for senior wives to consent to the husband’s decision to take another wife, however, participants indicated that women are usually dependent on men, financially and therefore, despite that the law protects them in principle, they remain subordinate to male authority. These findings suggest that schools must actively empower children, both girls and boys about their sexuality and have empowerment programs for the girl child. Some boys have indicated that they want to practice polygamy for sexual gratification and have a wider choice of sexual partners. This kind of thinking is obviously fractured for obvious reasons and society cannot afford it. Girls on the other hand need to be empowered and be encouraged to participate in business and in positions of power to turn the tide. The department of basic education must reinstate school counsellors in all schools so that there are programs that are put in place to assist learners who might be adversely affected by polygamy. Partnerships with community structures and parents should be promoted and encouraged with the aim to have community-based care centres for children who might be negatively affected by polygamy. ItemA case study of the experiences of teachers teaching in classrooms in selected school quintiles.(2017) Mhlophe, Herman Gcina.; Naicker, Inba.Abstract available in PDF.