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Masters Research Reports (Environmental Science)

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    Artisanal fishing and community based resource management : a case study of Tchuma Tchato project in Mozambique.
    (1999) Namanha, Luis Dos Santos.; Breen, Charles Mackie.
    This study is about artisanal fishing and community based natural resources management in Chintop ward. It sets out to • develop an understanding of the fishery in the context of CBNRM; and to formulate conceptual framework for the research • evaluate how well prepared government and the Tchuma rchato project are to act as ' agent of change' in promoting CBNRM • develop an understanding of the present ways in which access is controlled; how government revenues from the fishery is generated and how it is distributed • provide informed suggestions on how to proceed in promoting the process ofCBNRM wlthin the Tchuma Tchato project. The research comprises four parts: developing a theoretical understanding and conceptual framework based on the analysis of relevant literature. Investigation of the organisational structure and capabilities of government and the Tchuma Tchato project in the context of conceptua1 model (preparedness for intervention); an analysis of the importance of the fishery to local people, regulation of access and distribution of benefits; and a critical evaluation ofthe current situation and recommendation of action to promote CBNRM. The literature analysis focused on the origins, principles and strengths and weakness of ICDP, ADMADE and CBNRM projects. It is concluded that the principles and theories that underpin CBNRM are not well understood in the three sectors involved, government, NGOs and local structures. Consequently they are not adequately prepared to implement CBNRM in the most required areas, the license system in place in Chintopo does not provide for any real regulation as well it does not control harvesting pressure. The principles and theory which underpin CBNRM are not consolidated into a user friend1y fonnat which facilitates knowledge transfer amongst practitioners. There is too much emphasis on theory and not enough on IV process and practice. Insufficient attention is devoted to team work and vertical integration. There is no strategic plan and there is no generative learning. It is evident that meaningful progress could not be made with integrating the fishery into CBNRM until the macro-issues have been addressed. Access is by license but this does not provide for any regulation. The fishery was tending towards open access. Licensing does not control harvest pressure. Consequently the current trend is toward unsustainable levels of harvest. The distribution of revenues generated by licenses and inspection fees is not distributed in a manner which provides meaningful return to the community. Consequently the recommendations made here are not specific to the fishery. The whole approach to CBNRM should be revisited before proceeding with any further expansion of the project. Comprehensive strategic analysis need to be made focusing on what was originally intended, namely building capacity for intervention. This will involve a cross sectoral team building; building a shared vision; developing real capacity; and developing a business plan which emphasizes both process and product. There should be a culture of learning so that the team learns from failures rather than fears them. Strong focus should be given on building strategic alliances among research and educational institutions and NGOs.
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    The potential effect of wetland rehabilitation on wetland ecosystem goods and services : an investigation of three South African case studies.
    (2006) Nkosi, Mncedi Rainel.; Kotze, Donovan Charles.
    Wetlands supply very diverse and important goods and services to society. Goods are tangible resources, e.g. harvestable resources, cultivated foods, water for human use, cultural significance, tourism and recreation, and education. Services are less tangible and include: flood attenuation, streamflow regulation, sediment trapping, phosphate and nitrate assimilation, toxicant assimilation, erosion control, carbon storage and biodiversity maintenance. The literature reviewed confirms that these goods and services are dependent to varying degrees on the hydrology of a wetland. Dependence is due to the fact that hydrology is probably the single most important determinant of the establishment and maintenance of specific types of wetlands and process occurring in wetlands. Ecosystem goods and services are normally lost during degradation of a wetland and to restore them is a challenge. Causes of degradation could result from chemical, biological and physical processes. In South Africa physical processes such as gully erosion are one of the greatest causes of wetland degradation. Wetland rehabilitation generally seeks to retrieve the natural water regime or hydrology of a degraded wetland, with the aim of retrieving the ecosystem goods and services that were lost during degradation. The literature shows that there is a clear link between wetland rehabilitation, hydrology and ecosystem goods and services. To better understand this relationship, three selected South African wetlands were examined. The water tables and hydrological zonation of these wetlands were described and WET-EcoServices was used as a means of determining wetland functionality and assessing likely changes in function as the result of altered hydrology. The hydrological zonation of the Pelham wetland and portion 2 of the Craigieburn wetland were similar in terms of water table depth and hydrological zonation (the temporary, seasona.1 and permanent zones were represented), while portion 1 of the Craigieburn wetland had a much lower water table and degree of wetness (only the temporary zone was represented), which appears to be due to degradation. The general trend found in the second wetland is that the water table became lower towards the erosion head cut at the downstream end of the wetland. Applying a WET-EcoServices assessment shows that the first site (Pelham wetland) and portion 2 of Craigieburn wetland, which had similar hydrology, showed similarities in terms of hydrological services, such as nitrate and toxicant assimilation, that are dependent on a high degree of wetness. This dependence is due to hydrologic conditions that influence nutrient cycling, nutrient availability and rates of organic matter decomposition. In terms of goods, all three sites were important for research. Except for recreation, Pelham wetland provided little other direct benefits. In contrast, portion 1 and 2 of Craigieburn were very important for providing cultivated foods, which contribute significantly to the food security of the many poor households who use the wetland. However, portion 1 of Craigieburn was less important than portion 2 of Craigieburn for supplying natural resources (e.g. reeds for harvesting) and water for human use because of its drier condition. The Pelham wetland was found to be highly invaded by alien vegetation. The study shows that in a rehabilitated wetland and through effective management, ecosystem goods and services do increase. But, due to the high cost associated with the rehabilitation process, the study highlighted the value of assessing the potential benefits of rehabilitating degraded wetlands, particularly ecosystem goods and services that will be secured.
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    Analysis of implementation constraints for planning programs : a case study of the city of Maputo, Mozambique.
    (2005) Massinga, Jadwiga Soltys.; Turkstra, Jan.; Rugege, Denis.; Forjaz, José.
    No abstract available.
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    Developing a framework for air quality management plans for South African district municipalities.
    (2008) Davies, Jonathan.; Diab, Roseanne Denise.
    The promulgation of the National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act (No. 39 of 2004) introduced a system of decentralised ambient air quality management (AQM) in South Africa, to be achieved through the implementation of Air Quality Management Plans (AQMPs) at municipal levels. The framing of AQMPs within the broader Integrated Development Plan system introduces a relationship between AQM and other environmental/non-environmental management systems, allowing for the incorporation of air quality concerns into many other spheres of local and provincial governance. This decentralised system has increased the degree to which local municipalities are able to investigate, manage, mitigate, and control atmospheric pollution, but a lack of resources and skills presents numerous challenges in terms of legislation, policy, and AQMP roll-out. As such, a need for an AQMP development framework specifically designed for district-level municipalities was identified, and is the main objective of this research. This was achieved by reviewing both national and international literature, where examples from the UK and three metropolitan municipalities in South Africa were used in the development process. The final framework essentially comprises three sections: a two-stage baseline assessment, and a management and mitigation framework with a transparent system of reviewing and reporting. In order to test the implementation of this framework, Stage 1 of the baseline assessment was undertaken at iLembe District Municipality, where various aspects that affect, or are affected by, ambient air quality were researched and discussed. These included regional topography and climate, population distribution and density, emission sources, scheduled processes (listed activities), transboundary pollution, and climate change. In line with the constraints faced by district municipalities, it was shown that the general lack of resources and skills in iLembe will negatively impact upon the continued progress of pollution control in iLembe. Thus the need for capacity-building initiatives was recognised as being of great importance to the success of AQM in the municipality. The testing of this framework was restricted in its application owing to time constraints; hence the applicability of the entire framework has not been established. However, it can be reasonably anticipated that the framework’s comprehensive application will realise the achievement of ambient pollution concentration standards in each municipality in an effective, resource-efficient manner, ultimately attaining a constitutionally-acceptable atmospheric environment in South Africa.