Doctoral Degrees (Languages and Arts Education)

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    An exploration of lesbian and gay students experiences at a technical and vocational education and training in Harry Gwala district in Kwa-Zulu Natal.
    (2022) Zincume, Alfred Khayalethu.; Sheik, Ayub.
    The purpose of the study is to explore the experiences of lesbian and gay students at a Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) College in a rural town of Kwa- Zulu Natal. The aim of the study is to understand how lesbian and gay students define being gay, how they are being treated and how they navigate in those spaces of discomfort within and beyond the college. The study looks at the treatment of students at the TVET College in Uzimkhulu, a rural town, in Kwa-Zulu Natal. This is a qualitative study and narrative inquiry design was also used for the study. Nine participants were sampled for the study through snowball sampling, six girls and three boys, who identified themselves as lesbians and gays. Semi-structured, focus group and visual methodology interviews were used as a tool for data generation. During the interviews the participants were asked questions about their experiences within and outside the college. Data were sorted and classified according to categories and themes. The study found that the participants understood what it means to be gay. The study also revealed that the majority of participants experienced difficulties when they come out to their parents, friends and community members. Some of the lesbian and gay students hide their sexual orientation because they avoid to be kicked out from their families. The study also reported that conservative nature of communities and social relations in the rural area pose an added difficult to gay and lesbian student. Patriarchy is more dominant and the community is under control of chiefs and this type of community has a strong anti-gay views and the conception that homosexuality is un-African. The study also revealed that there is an interpersonal conflict among gay groups because there are those members within the group who like to dominate like “butch”. Church also frowns upon homosexuals because church believers believe that it is contrary to the teachings of the Bible. College can help to create a welcoming environment for students and if all stakeholders involved play their role. College should establish non-discriminatory policy that protects discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity expression. Community members and parents should give support to all people who identified themselves as lesbians and gays and staff should support students in their academic exploration of LGBT issues.
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    Teaching methods and strategies used by English second language teachers to develop grade 5 English learners’ speaking abilities in township schools.
    (2023) Mahlaba, Lucky Nkosikhona.; Ntshangase, Sicelo Ziphozonke.
    This qualitative study adopted an interpretivist paradigm to gain insight into English second language teachers’ teaching methods and strategies to develop Grade 5 learners’ English-speaking abilities. This study used face-to-face semi-structured interviews, classroom observations and document analysis to generate qualitative data from five participants. The study is underpinned by Vygotsky’s theory of social constructivism, indicating that learning is socially constructed and learners should actively participate in constructing new knowledge. The theory emphasises social interaction and that people learn from one another when constructing new knowledge. Therefore, through tripolar social interaction, learners can learn English from teachers, fellow learners and the community to improve their English-speaking abilities. However, this study’s findings revealed that although Grade 5 English second language teachers employ different teaching methods and strategies to teach English speaking proficiency, learners still cannot speak English fluently because the tripolar education, where learners learn from their teachers, peers and community, is incomplete. It is incomplete because English is not spoken in these learners’ communities because it is not their home language. Consequently, these learners do not use English frequently outside the classroom. Therefore, this study revealed that the multi-pedagogical approach adopted by English second language teachers would only bear fruit if the tripolar education cycle is complete, where learners can speak English freely with their teachers, peers and community, within and outside the school parameters. Moreover, since the community factor is lacking in the English second language learning context of the schools where this study was conducted, the problem of learners’ inability to communicate fluently and intelligibly in English is unlikely to be addressed. Nevertheless, it is encouraging to see teachers employing different teaching methods and strategies for teaching English-speaking proficiency, particularly the paradigm shift pedagogical approaches, such as translanguaging, code-switching and translation and interactive teaching methods, such as debates, discussions, storytelling and dramatisation. This multi-pedagogical approach allows learners to work individually or as groups to practice using English in the real communicative context; however, this is not enough because these learners do not continue using English when they are in their communities. Instead, they use isiZulu, their home language. Therefore, these learners continue to encounter hardships in expressing themselves clearly in English. This study argues that unless the community factor is incorporated into the tripolar education system of teaching English second language, the problem will continue to exist.
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    An investigation into Saudi Arabian final-year student teachers’ preparedness to teach English as a foreign language.
    (2022) Elshamy, Ahmed Abdelkader Mohammed.; Sheik, Ayub.
    This study aimed to investigate final-year English major Saudi student teachers’ perceptions of preparedness as well as their actual preparedness to teach English as a Foreign Language after their graduation. Previous work did not address student teachers’ perceptions of preparedness to teach after graduation. An interpretive qualitatively dominant approach was used to explore the student teachers’ preparedness to teach English. A case study design was employed using four data generating strategies: a predominantly qualitative questionnaire; the Cambridge Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT); focus group discussions; and interviews with four teacher participants. The questionnaire and the group discussions revealed that most year-four student teachers perceived themselves as being prepared to begin teaching after graduation. Also, most student teachers ascribed their preparedness to start teaching to their teachers who helped them form their positive perceptions of preparedness to teach. Other student teachers attributed their perceptions of preparedness to teach English to the courses they studied during the four-year programme. In addition, most year-four student teachers were found to be unprepared linguistically (as per what they wrote in the questionnaire and what they said in the group discussions) to start teaching English. Student teachers’ teaching ability was assessed via the TKT which proved that most of the student teachers fall into Band 2 (as per the established Band Descriptors) which means that their teaching knowledge is satisfactory. Besides, student teachers were found to be unprepared pedagogically because most of what they studied in their English language programme only related to the English language, its literature, and Arabic and English translation courses, not to teaching methods courses. The interviews revealed that student teachers were not fully prepared to teach English as a Foreign Language. Although some of the student teachers were perceived to be prepared linguistically, most of them were perceived to be unprepared pedagogically to begin teaching. Most of the interviewees stated that the English language programme had not adequately prepared student teachers to start teaching because its focus was on language and translation, not on teaching. Almost all interviewees suggested a training programme through which student teachers can be trained on how to teach and practice teaching. The interviewees' suggestions for student teachers ranged from doing a certificate or a diploma like Cambridge CELTA and DELTA or their equivalents and volunteering for a semester or two to observe and shadow other experienced teachers in their classes.
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    Factors affecting fluctuating language results at matriculation level: how principals at ten schools in the Harry Gwala district of Kwazulu-Natal explain the phenomenon.
    (2022) Coetzee, Morne Johan James.; Pillay, Ansurie.
    English has become the language of instruction in many South African schools despite most learners not being first-language English speakers. This phenomenon is not unique to South Africa. In the Harry Gwala district, KwaZulu-Natal, where this study was conducted, many schools, with predominantly IsiXhosa- or isiZulu-speaking learners are expected by the Department of Basic Education to achieve a 100% pass rate in English first additional language at the matriculation exit-level examination; however, this expectation has not always been realised. At the sampled schools, English is both a subject and the language of instruction for all subjects. Although using the same curriculum, several schools in the sample achieved the expected 100% pass rate in English first additional language for five or more consecutive years, while others did not. This thesis aimed to explore the factors affecting the results at matriculation level. To obtain answers, school principals at ten schools in the designated area were asked to explain the phenomenon. Using an interpretive paradigm, qualitative approach, and case-study design, and generating data through interviews, questionnaires, and schools’ subject improvement plans (SIPs), the study engaged with the principals to explore their insights. The study revealed that numerous factors contribute either to the success or failure of schools’ results, and their ability to achieve the set targets. The study found that principals explained results by considering the management of the education process, including class sizes, teacher qualifications, and the resources available. It became clear that principals understood the factors that shaped the results. Principals were influenced by their experiences and practices as principals, together with the contextual realities of their schools. While target-setting, rewarding academic performance, and pursuing outside partnerships were highlighted as measures to improve English results, many SIPs to improve English results appeared to be cosmetic. Of concern was the choice of languages at various stages of learners’lives determined by schools language policies, as well as the preferences of the communities for English as a subject and as the language of. instruction. What became clear is that mother-tongue proficiency, a prerequisite for future linguistic development, was not enabled for learners in many of the sampled schools. Keywords: Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) English results appeared to be cosmetic. Of concern was the choice of languages at various stages of learners’ lives determined by schools’ language policies, as well as the preferences of the communities for English as a subject and as the language of instruction. What became clear is that mother-tongue proficiency, a prerequisite for future linguistic development, was not enabled for learners in many of the sampled schools.
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    Using an English language club to enhance the learning of English at a high school in South Africa.
    (2022) Sheokarah, Jennifer.; Pillay, Ansurie.
    This thesis focuses on how using an English Language Club can enhance the learning of English while empowering learners and encouraging them to take responsibility for their learning. A noticeable challenge at the site of the study, a school in Richards Bay, is that the existing approaches in a classroom may not be adequate in assisting second language learners to reach the desired proficiency in English due to the language background of learners and the overcrowded classrooms which prevents the use of more effective teaching and learning methods. The study adopted a critical pedagogy with aspects of Krashen’s theory. Interventions of innovative and fun activities, including outdoor teaching and learning, were implemented in the four-cycle participatory action research study, concentrating on listening and speaking, spelling and vocabulary, reading, and writing. The study revealed that a comfortable environment that recognised learners’ interests and the use of relatable and engaging activities not only enhanced the learning of English by reducing anxiety, but empowered learners to be involved in making the necessary decisions for the betterment of their learning. By the end of the study, participants were more conscious of their responsibility in their learning process. When they felt respected by their teacher and peers in the English Language Club, their fear of the language diminished, resulting in enhanced participation, giving learners a voice that was lacking in the classroom. The study also revealed the importance of critical reflection and dialogue in transforming learning. The use of entertaining activities, competitions and prizes were effective in motivating learners, ad served as efficient methods in developing learner responsibility. This thesis adds to the discourses on educational methods, critical pedagogy and participatory action research. It contributes knowledge by showing that using participatory action research and critical pedagogy in an ELC is effective for empowering learners while enhancing their learning of English. Furthermore, the study fills a research gap and expands the current body of knowledge on the use of English language clubs by focusing on four skills of English, unlike other clubs, and provides a working model of the combination of critical pedagogy and elements of Krashen’s theory to enhance the learning of English by creating a humanising environment and decreasing anxiety.
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    Teachers’ approaches to and experiences of teaching literature to English second language learners at selected high schools in the Pinetown District, South Africa.
    (2022) Zondi, Sboniso Praisegod.; Pillay, Ansurie.
    Teaching literature in the English Second Language (ESL) classroom has been a core aspect of the English curriculum for decades in local and international contexts. The primary aim of this study was to explore the ESL teachers’ experiences and the approaches they use to teach literature in the selected high schools in South Africa. Literature is known to be a source of language development, imagery, critical thinking, learner motivation, social awareness, tolerance, self-awareness, and other skills and values. It is also believed that such skills and values are harnessed in learner-centred classrooms, with the teacher as a facilitator. However, findings also show that teacher centredness is also necessary but should be limited, so the teacher and the expertise cannot be entirely removed from the ESL literature classroom. It was noted that teachers’ childhood, high school, and tertiary experiences and approaches used have a direct influence on how they teach literature in their classes. The constructivist learning theory underpinned this qualitative case study as a theoretical framework. ESL literature classrooms must be constructivist by evoking learners’ prior knowledge and propelling them to use that knowledge to create new knowledge by assimilating it with what they already know. Traditional classrooms are often the cause of the lack of motivation for literature reading, lack of language proficiency, and, eventually, poor academic performance in literature. The approaches used by the teachers also have a direct influence on how learners engage in the classroom. Findings showed that teachers use different approaches to teaching literature, and they integrate skills and not just teach literature independently but infuse listening, writing and presenting. The interpretivist paradigm was adopted, and data were generated from a purposive and convenience sample of 12 English high school teachers from three schools within one education district. The researcher employed a qualitative questionnaire with open-ended questions, a visual method, semi-structured face-to-face interviews, and classroom observations to generate data. This thesis contributes to knowledge by showing that the teachers’ experiences and how they were taught have a direct bearing on their current teaching practices.
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    Theatre roots, learning routes: educating through formal theatre productions in higher education – a self-study.
    (2021) Meskin, Tamar.; Singh, Lorainne.
    My study grew out of a desire to root my research in my creative practice as both drama lecturer and director of formal theatre productions in higher learning institutions. From my own lived experience, I knew that participation in such formal theatre productions as a student had played a significant role in shaping not just my drama education, but my sense of self. The interplay between these ideas generated my core research question: What is the value of formal theatre productions in a higher education context in relation to teaching and learning? In this study, therefore, I employ a personal history self-study approach to investigate the relationship between the two aspects of my role as a university lecturer in drama—teaching and directing—through interrogating formal theatre productions as sites of teaching and learning. This involves four areas of analysis: First, I explore my identity as a directorteacher, working on formal theatre productions in a South African institution of higher learning. Second, I examine the educational potential of formal theatre productions within the discourses of both dramatic education and broader educational theory in order to develop my personal educational philosophy. Third, I investigate the experiences of students who participated in formal theatre productions I directed, and colleagues who have co-directed such productions with me, using Creative Analytic Practice in the form of a data play to discover the kinds of learning that emerge from participation in such projects. Finally, I draw on these ideas to formulate a model for what I call Production-Based Learning and define a role for myself as a director-teacher. From my analysis, I identify eight different kinds of learning that emerge from participation in formal theatre productions: disciplinary, personal, interactional, emotional, expressive, responsive, cultural, and organisational learning. This demonstrates the power of formal theatre productions as facilitators of both disciplinary and life-learning, and indicates the potential of Production-Based Learning as a pedagogic practice for drama in higher education.
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    Inzukaziyeki yokufunda nokufundiswa kwesizulu ulimi lwesibili emabangeni akhaphezayo (4-6) ezikoleni ezisesiyingini saseMlazi, KwaZulu-Natali.
    (2020) Khohliso, Xolani David.; Buthelezi, Thabisile Makhosazana.
    Ukufunda nokufundisa ulimi lwesiZulu ezikoleni zaseNingizimu Afrika kusabukeka kunezingqinamba eziningi ezidalwa ukuthi siwulimi olwalucindezelwe ngesikhathi sobandlululo. Ukuhlelwa koHlelo lwezifundo nakho kubukeka kungadlali indima etheni ekulekeleleni ukuba isiZulu sifundiswe ngendlela ezothuthukisa abafundi futhi baphumelele ngokwezinga lolwazimfundo. Ngakho-ke lo mqingo wethula ulwazi olutholakele maqondana nocwaningo oluphenye ngenzukazikeyi yokufunda nokufundiswa kwesiZulu uLimi lwesiBili ezikoleni ezixube izinhlanga emabangeni akhaphezelayo. Lolu cwaningo lwenziwe ezikoleni ezixube izinhlanga ngenhloso yokuphenya ngokwenzeka emakilasini esiZulu uLimi lwesiBili ngesikhathi sokufunda okuholela ekungaphumelelini kwabafundi ngendlela elindelekile. Ulwazi olutholakele ngiluhlaziye ngisebenzisa uhlaka lwenjulalwazi—iNjulalwazi kaKrashen (1981) yokuthola uLimi lwesiBili. Ngibe sengiyihlobanisa nohlaka lwemicabango ethinta ezinye izingxenye zalolu cwaningo ngenhloso yokuhlaziya lonke ulwazi okutholakele. Umklamo nezindlela zocwaningo ezilandeliwe ngesikhathi kwenziwa lolu cwaningo, yizona ezikhiqize imiphumela ehlabahlosile. Lolu ucwaningo lobunjalo botho ngoba bengihlose ukuqoqela ulwazi kubahlanganyeli abahlala kuleso simo nsukuzonke. Ngibe sengilandela indlelande ye-ethinografikhi ngenhloso yokuthi ngifunda ukuchitha isikhathi esanele ensimini ukuze ngikhiqize ulwazi olukholekayo ngocwaningo. Ngisebenzise ipharadayimu yokuhlolisisa ngoba lolu cwaningo belubheka ubuqiniso bokunto nobukhephukhephu bokufundiswa kwesiZulu uLimi lwesiBili ukuze ngiqhamuke nokungaguqula isimo. Ngikhiqize ulwazi lwenhlololwazi ezikoleni eziyisikhombisa lapho ngicaphune khona othisha ababili isikole ngasinye okwenza isamba sothisha abayishumi nane ngaphinda ngayothamela izifunjwana zabo emakilasini. Ngiphinde ngenza inhlolovo yohlamibuzo ezikoleni ezingamashumi ayisithupha nane ngaphinde ngabheka izincwadi ezisetshenziswa othisha kanye nemiqulu yoMnyango WezeMfundo. Lolu cwaningo ludalule ukuthi kunenzukazikeyi yokulahleka kolimi kubafundi besiZulu uLimi lwesiBili ngenxa yokuthi ekilasini elilodwa kuhlangene abafundi abasemazingeni angalingani olwazi lwesiZulu. Lokho kwenza othisha bagcine begxile kakhulu kubafundi abanolwazi oluntengayo okuholela ekutheni abafundi osiZulu ulimi lwabo lwaseKhaya bagcina bezuze kancane olwazini olusha ngesikhathi sokufunda kanti futhi ikhono lokubhala ilona elisantuleka kakhulu kubafundi. Kuvelile ukuthi othisha bantula ulwazi ngezinhlotshana zolimi kanti kunenkinga futhi yokusweleka kwezinsizakusebenza zesiZulu uLimi lwesiBili, lokho okwenza kube nzima ukusebenza ngempumelelo kothisha. Uma kubhekwa imibhalo kuvele ukuminyana kohlelo lomsebenzi enqubomgomeni yesiZulu uLimi lwesiBili okuholela ekuxakekeni kothisha ngohlelo lomsebenzi nesikhathi sokusebenza kanye nokuxakaniseka kothisha ngemisebenzi yokuhlola okuhlelekile. Lolu cwaningo ludalule ukwentuleka kwamasu nezindlela zokufundisa isiZulu uLimi lwesiBili kothisha okuholele ekutheni bagcine sebefundisa ngomphonse wendlela yomhumusho wohlelolimi Ngakho-ke kulolu cwaningo ngiphakamisa indlela eyisifanekiso esixoxa ngamazinga abafundi abadlula kuwo ukuze bafinyelele ekuqondeni isiZulu uLimi lwesiBili ngempumelelo. Engxoxweni yalesi sifanekiso ngibe sengiqondanisa izinga nezinga namabanga ezikole kusukela enkulisa kuze kufinyelele kumatikuletsheni. Lesi sifanekiso singaba usizo kakhulu ohlelweni lwezifundo zoMnyango WezeMfundo kanye nendlela othisha abafundisa ngayo ezikoleni ezixube izinhlanga kanye nezifundisa isiZulu uLimi lwesiBili.
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    Language policy and practice at a secondary school in Manzini: the case of teaching and learning in Form 4.
    (2020) Dludlu, Siphiwe Monicah.; Sheik, Ayub.
    The thesis explored language policy and practice at a secondary school in the Manzini region of eSwatini. Studies have shown that language policy is a key determining factor for learner-academic performance, yet no study has endeavoured to look into the experiences of teachers and learners in using the language policy currently operant in education in eSwatini. The majority of learners in the eSwatini EGCSE exit examination fail to pass English yet language testing constitutes a high-stake examination that impacts the future of learners. The purpose of the study was to document teachers and learners’ perceptions of the language policy currently operant in the country. It was a qualitative case study grounded on the interpretive paradigm which utilised document analysis, observation and one-on-one interviews to collect data. The study was informed by Cobarrubias’ four language planning ideologies and the micro language planning framework. There were six teachers who were purposively sampled and ten learners selected using systematic random sampling. Data was thematically analysed using content analysis. Interview data revealed that teachers and learners have positive sentiments towards the eSwatini language policy. Moreover, teachers and learners were equally divided on the issue of language and academic performance, with some arguing that English competency does affect learner-performance whilst others believed this did not. The researcher also established that teachers and learners codeswitched between English and siSwati for clarity during teaching and learning. It was therefore concluded that codeswitching is a useful and essential instructional tool for effective teaching and learning to take place. The study then recommended a teaching and learning model for effective pedagogic purposes. IQOQA LOCWANINGO Lolucwaningo lolu lubukeze izindaba zolimi nokusetjenziswa kwalo ezikoleni eziphakemeyo esigodini saKwa-Manzini ezweni laseSwazini. Ucwaningo luveza ukuthi ulimi okufundiswa ngalo ludlala inzima enkulu kakhulu ukuze kuthi umfundi aphase ekufundeni kwakhe isikole kodwa nomakunjalo, alukho ucwaningo olwenziweyo kulelizwe laseSwazini olubuyekeza indima yolimi ekufundeni kwabafundi nokuthi bona abantwana nothisha babo banemibono ethini ngendaba yolimi lokufundisa ezikoleni. Kubonakele ukuba abafundi abaningi ababhala uhlolo lwe – EGCSE bayasifeyila isifundo seSingisi kanti lesi sifundo ngusona simcoka kwedlula zonke ezinye abazibhalayo, Futhi ngusona esikhombayo ukuthi ikusasa lomfundi lichakazile na noma cha. Inhloso yalolucwaningo lolu bewukubuyekeza imibono yo-thisha nabafundi mayelana nolimi lokufundisa olusetjenziswayo esikoleni sinye saseSwazini. Lolucwaningo lu – qualitative, lusebenzise i-interpretive paradigm kuthola umumvo wothisha nabafundi kanti lubuye lwasebenzisa ukucwaninga amabhuku, ukugoloza kanye nokukhulumisana nothisha nabafundi ngamunye ngamunye. Lolucwaningo luthathelwe emibhalweni ka- Cobarrubias (1983) ohlazulula imibhalo emine ulimi olungasetjenziswa ngalo kanye ne Micro language planning framework. Kusetjenziswe abothisha abayisithupha, nabafundi abayishumi abakhethwe ngenhloso kusetjenziswa ukusampula okungahleliwe. Abakukhulumileyo okuvelile kwimininingo kubuyekezwe ngokusebenzisa ukuhlaziya kokuqukethwe kanti okubonakeleyo wukuthi othisha nabafundi abakhulunyisiwe bayibona inguleyo ekahle kakhulu inqubomgomo yezemfundo yaseSwatini. Ngakulokunye, othisha nabafundi abavumelani ngokupheleleyo ukuthi ulimi umfundi afundiswa ngalo lunendima enkulu kabi ukuze umfundi aphase noma afeyile ezifundweni zakhe. Kubonakele futhi ukuthi kuningi ukushintja amakhodi kusetjenziswa iSingisi nesiSwati nabafundisa othisha. Lokhu kubonakalisa ukuthi ukusebenzisa ulimi lwendabuko kanye neSingisi uma kufundiswa kumcokwa kakhulu kuyabanceda nabafundi kuthi benze kahle ezifundweni zabo. Yingakho lolucwaningo luveza isifanekiso nesilinganiso sokufundisa esingasetjenziswa othisha nabafundi uma befunda ukuze benze kahle ezifundweni zabo.
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    An investigation into postgraduate students’ experiences of academic writing: a case study of a university in Nigeria.
    (2020) Akinmolayan, Emmanuel Seun.; Bengesai, Annah Vimbai.
    The process of producing academic text, especially at the postgraduate level is challenging for non-native speakers of the English Language. Although there is a robust body of literature globally which has sought to understand this phenomenon; the same cannot be said about Nigeria, as academic writing in general and postgraduate academic writing seems to be an underexplored area. The available research has tended to focus on school literacy, grammar and diction with little attention being paid to the situatedness of academic writing as a form of literacy. Thus, there remains an apparent gap in the status of knowledge in this field in Nigeria, which this study sought to fill by examining postgraduate students‟ experiences of writing as a form of academic literacy. Specifically, the study explored how academic literacy and academic writing is conceptualised in two departments within a Nigerian University. The study was framed within a socio-cultural view, which sees academic literacy, including research writing as a socially situated practice. Theoretically, Gee‟s typology of d/Discourses, Bourdieu‟s cultural capital and Lave and Wenger‟s Communities of practices were used to understand students‟ experiences. Using a multi-paradigmatic approach, and Critical Discourse Analytical frame, this study revealed that there was no systematic focus on research writing in this university. The focus was rather on thesis as a product. When the process of writing was addressed, it was mainly in a deficit mode where students‟ deficiencies were addressed. In addition, the study also found the dominance of the traditional supervision model. Even though, some students indicated that they found this to be useful, the argument made in this study is that the approach does little to move students from the disciplinary periphery to an expert status in a community of practice. Therefore, it is recommended that, in line with advancements elsewhere, newer supervision models be adopted, which move away from the focus on the thesis, to a pedagogy of training students to be competent writers.
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    Lecturers’ experiences of the implementation of an English medium of instruction in a teachers’ college in Zimbabwe.
    (2018) Tatira, Shamiso.; Nkosi, Zinhle Primrose.
    The wave of internationalisation of higher education has rocked many nations in the world, such that most have adopted English as the language of communication. English is spreading rapidly as medium of instruction (EMI), forcing many higher education institutions to become international so as to attract students and staff from the international education market. Zimbabwe, like many other African countries, has also adopted EMI despite the fact that it is a second or third language for most learners. The need to compete in the global village has forced Zimbabwe to retain the language of its ex-colonial master. English thus has continued to be the medium of instruction in higher education. This study explored lecturers’ experiences in the implementation of an EMI in a teachers’ college in Zimbabwe, with the aim of answering the following questions: 1.What are the lecturers’ experiences on the implementation of English medium of instruction in a teachers’ college in Zimbabwe? 2. How are lecturers affected by their experiences of teaching through English medium of instruction in a teachers’ college in Zimbabwe? 3. Why do lecturers experience the implementation of English medium of instruction the way it happens in a teachers’ college in Zimbabwe? The study used the Translanguaging theory as its Theoretical framework. The research site was a teachers’ college, which is situated in Harare, Zimbabwe. The participants were 6 lecturers teaching at the teachers’ college in three subject areas namely: Mathematics, Physical Education and Theory of Education. The study adopted the Interpretevist paradigm and used a qualitative case study. Non-participant observations, semi-structured and focus group interviews were used as data generating methods. The thematic approach was used to analyse the data. Six major themes emerged from the findings. Firstly, lack of commitment by government to avail a clear EMI policy. Instead of availing a policy, government relies on the Education Act of 1987 which states that English is the medium of instruction from the fourth grade up to tertiary level, while indigenous African languages are taught as subjects. This makes it difficult for lecturers to implement EMI effectively because there are no clear guidelines on how lecturers should teach. Secondly, lack of commitment by the teachers’ college to avail an official document that stipulates the medium of instruction that enhances lecture delivery. Thirdly, failure by government to monitor the implementation of the Education Act of 1987 in relation to EMI. Fourthly, the government’s lack of support in funding the teachers’ college, which has resulted in failure by the college to extend infrastructure which includes a communication skills centre and a language laboratory to facilitate the learning and acquisition of English skills. Fifthly, the use of English and Shona code-switching in the lecture rooms as a way of bridging the difficulties faced by students in expressing themselves meaningfully in English (Shona, being the mother-tongue of many learners in the college and in Harare). Sixthly, poor English proficiency of students, resulting in both failure to participate in class and in grasping the content taught. Findings of this study indicate that the implementation of EMI in the teachers’ college is done in various ways depending on the lecturers’ views. In addition, students fail to participate fully in discussions and question and answer sessions due to limited English language proficiency. I therefore, concluded that lack of commitment by government and the teachers’ college to avail a clear language policy largely contributed to the diverse ways in which the EMI is implemented in the teachers’ college. The study also found that the language of instruction varies from lecturer to lecturer as some lecturers code-switched while others persistently used the English language but struggled to clearly articulate the content. Moreover, limited proficiency in English language by students led to challenges in understanding content, leading to poor results in assignments and examinations. The major recommendation of the study is that the Zimbabwean Government should produce a language policy that recommends that in addition to English, at least one official language of the linguistic region concerned, be used to complement the EMI to enhance improved teaching and learning by indigenous African lecturers and students without prejudice to other local languages spoken in Zimbabwe.
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    Motivering by die leer van Afrikaans as tweedetaal (t2) en die bereidwilligheid om Afrikaans te praat : ’n gevallestudie by die skool vir opvoedkunde, Universiteit van KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2017) Prinsloo, Loraine.; Alant, Jacob Willem.
    Hierdie kwalitatiewe kritiese gevallestudie ondersoek en lewer verslag oor Afrikaans-tweedetaalonderwysstudente, wat ingeskryf het vir die module Afrikaans Kommunikasie 110 by die Skool vir Opvoedkunde aan die Universiteit van KwaZulu-Natal, se motivering om Afrikaans te leer en hulle bereidwilligheid om Afrikaans te praat. Die volgende twee sleutelnavorsingsvrae word behandel, naamlik: (a) Wat is onderwysstudente se persepsies van hulle motivering om Afrikaans te leer? en (b) Wat is onderwysstudente se persepsies van hulle bereidwilligheid om Afrikaans te praat? Die eerste doelwit is om te beskryf wat onderwysstudente se persepsies is van hulle motivering om Afrikaans te leer. Daar word op Dörnyei (1994) se raamwerk vir tweedetaal-motivering gesteun. By die tweede navorsingsvraag word die klem geplaas op die onderwysstudente se persepsies van hulle bereidwilligheid om Afrikaans te praat en word MacIntyre (1994) se bereidwilligheid om te kommunikeer (BOK)-model voorgehou. Die konteks van die leer van Afrikaans in ’n provinsie waar dit statisties as minderheidstaal gesien kan word, word deurgaans in ag geneem. By navorsingsvraag 1 het die data-insamelingsproses eerstens geïdentifiseer wat die onderskeie deelnemers se motiveringsvlakke is om Afrikaans te leer. Deelnemers het aan die begin van die semester ’n vraelys voltooi en een-tot-een opvolgonderhoude is met hulle gevoer. Vir navorsingsvraag 2 is ’n fokusgroep gekies. Opnames is gemaak van die fokusgroep se gesprekke in Afrikaans in verskillende kommunikatiewe situasies. Deelnemers is die geleentheid gegun om tydens die opvolgonderhoude oor hierdie interaksies te besin. Die data wat vir beide navorsingsvrae 1 en 2 ingesamel is, is in beheerbare eenhede opgebreek en gekodeer. ’n Lys van kernpersepsies is dienooreenkomstig opgestel. Met betrekking tot navorsingsvraag 1, het die data-ontleding gefokus op drie aspekte: die deelnemers se persepsies van hulle gevoelens oor Afrikaans, die deelnemers se persepsies van die leer van Afrikaans oor die algemeen, asook hul persepsies van die leer van Afrikaans op universiteit. Die studie het bevind dat deelnemers wat gemotiveerd was om Afrikaans op skool te leer, hoofsaaklik ook gemotiveerd is om Afrikaans op universiteit te leer. Hierdie motivering blyk meer ekstrinsiek te wees. Invloede sluit in persepsies van die kurrikulumvereistes, persepsies van die taal en gevoelens oor die leer van die taal. Die rol van die leerkrag in die klaskamer het in die deelnemers se persepsies van hulle motivering om Afrikaans te leer na vore getree. Vir navorsingsvraag 2 het die data-analise bepaal wat die deelnemers se persepsies is van hulle bereidwilligheid om Afrikaans oor die algemeen te praat en hul bereidwilligheid om Afrikaans in spesifieke kommunikatiewe situasies in die Afrikaans Kommunikasie 110-klas te praat. Die studie het bevind dat dié wat gemotiveerd is om Afrikaans op universiteit te leer, nie noodwendig ook bereidwillig is om Afrikaans in die klaskamer te praat nie. Hulle bereidwilligheid om Afrikaans in die klaskamer te praat, hang af van ’n reeks faktore. Hierdie faktore is veral situasioneel van aard en gaan gepaard met deelnemers se persepsies van hulle eie praatvermoë en die gespreksituasie, waarvan die onderwerp, die aantal gespreksgenote en hul bereidwilligheid om in Afrikaans te kommunikeer, deel vorm. Hierdie proefskrif dra by tot die diskoers oor onderwysstudente wat hulself as potensiële Afrikaansleerkragte sien en dié wat hulself nie in daardie professionele rol sien nie. Belangrike ooreenkomste en verskille tussen hierdie twee groepe se motivering om Afrikaans te leer en hulle bereidwilligheid om in Afrikaans te kommunikeer, het deur die bespreking van die twee navorsingsvrae op die voorgrond getree. Pedagogiese implikasies wat verband hou met studente se motivering om Afrikaans as tweedetaal te leer, en hulle bereidwilligheid om dit te praat in ’n provinsie waar hul blootstelling aan Afrikaans buite die klaskamer beperk is, is ook in ag geneem en bespreek.
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    Exploring literacy practices : a case study of a peri-urban primary school in the Pinetown District ; KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2015) Ramdan, Shamitha.; Sheik, Ayub.
    This research project specifically focused on understanding the literacy practices of three grade three educators in a peri-urban school, who are entrusted with the task of promoting and mediating literacy acquisition and development among the learners. In order to supplement the data from the educators, this study also investigated learner’s performance in literacy as well as various other aspects of the literacy environment which influenced the performance of the learners in literacy development. The selected research site was one peri-urban primary school in the Pinetown District, Phoenix Region in Kwa-Zulu Natal. This research has attempted to answer questions relevant to learners’ attitudes and experiences in the development of reading and writing practices, how educators develop reading and writing competencies at the school, what their reasons were for choosing certain approaches, how Government literacy policies were implemented in practice in the classroom and what assistance the educators received for developing literacy effectively. Within a case study approach, a mixed methods research design was used because data was collected through qualitative and quantitative methods in an interpretative paradigm. The findings revealed that while educators made use of a number of teaching methods and approaches to teach literacy in their classrooms, a socio-cultural approach to literacy was lacking. The results of this study call for a broadening of the definition of literacy, to one that acknowledges the socio-cultural background of all the learners in their care, to develop a literacy disposition that will prepare individuals adequately for a competitive and changing world. The results were also presented to highlight the gravity of other problems that educators had encountered in the sample school and in general in literacy teaching and implementation. Hopefully this project will serve as a catalyst for the sample school to review policies, amend curriculum changes and debate appropriate methods and approaches to promote effective literacy teaching and the actual implementation of reading and writing skills across the curriculum, while taking into account some of the suggestions offered in this study.
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    Gender attitudes towards feminist literature : lecturers' and students' engagement with feminist literary texts at a university in Zimbabwe.
    (2016) Chindedza, Winnet.; Sheik, Ayub.
    The study reports on a qualitative study of the views of university lecturers and students on the feminist literary texts they engaged with at a selected university in Zimbabwe. Through the lenses of the feminist and critical paradigms, the thesis examined how university lecturers and students react to feminist ideologies that are observable in the feminist literary texts they engaged with vis-à-vis their patriarchal orientation. Their reactions to feminist ideologies were viewed from the reader response theory perspective. From a liberal feminist perspective, the study suggests the need to add more feminist literary texts in the selected university’s undergraduate English curriculum. The study utilised informal conversations, semi-structured interviews, observations and document analysis as methods of gathering data. The study found that lecturers’ and students’ views towards feminist literary texts were influenced by several factors which are: patriarchy and socialisation, consciousness, religion, generational cohorts and education. The study recommends that lecturers take into consideration the addition of more feminist literary texts in the university undergraduate English curriculum because these feminist literary texts address important gender issues that are topical in this generation of feminism.
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    Text to context: an interpretation of suicide in selected plays of Soyinka, Rotimi and Ogunyemi.
    (2017) Ikyoive, Tertsea Joseph.; Sheik, Ayub.
    The study engages in a critical interpretation of the phenomenon of suicide and how it is represented in selected plays of three Nigerian authors. The purpose is to understand the discursive nature of suicide in Nigerian dramatic literature with particular focus on; Wole Soyinka’s Death and the King’s horseman (1975), Ola Rotimi’s Kurunmi (1971) and Wale Ogunyemi’s The Vow (1985). The study also looks at how the act of suicide is interpreted in the selected plays and foregrounds Yoruba cultural understanding against western hegemonic thought. Its central thesis is that ritual and culture significantly influence suicide in traditional African society and Yoruba society in particular. This study uses textual analysis as its methodology to probe the historical, cultural and social context of the selected plays. The approach is descriptive and interrogative as it illuminates the circumstances that surround the suicides of the protagonist characters in the selected plays as well as how the plays mediate the reality of suicide as perceived in Yoruba tradition in opposition to western epistemology. The study uses Marxist literary theory to probe the effects of social structure and how economic relations impact the acts of suicide in the plays. In addition, the study suggests that the suicides as manifest in the plays are not mainly an escape from shame but serve as a necessary and pragmatic step consonant with the Yoruba belief system and mythical tradition. Finally, the study explores yet another caveat, the abuse of the Yoruba mythical tradition for personal gain. It concludes by determining that the failure of traditional elites to manipulate culture and tradition for their political interests leads them to frustration, and subsequently motivates suicide as a form of escapism.
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    The rebel hero and social anxieties in selected cinematic representations of the twenty-first century hollywood dystopian and science fiction imaginary.
    (2017) Laltha, Samiksha.; Stobie, Cheryl.
    This thesis focuses on the rebel hero located within four twenty-first century Hollywood films. These films are Equilibrium (2002, dir. Kurt Wimmer), The Island (2005, dir. Michael Bay), The Giver (2014, dir. Phillip Noyce) and Ridley Scott’s science fiction film Prometheus (2012). Drawing from a cultural studies perspective, this analysis focuses on heroism through rebellion, by discussing the psychological journey of the hero within each film text. The first three films focus on the male rebel hero. By contrast, Scott’s film offers an analysis of the female hero (and female alien) through my employment of a feminist lens. More broadly, this thesis explores the social, cultural, technological and psychological anxieties that utopian and science fiction films project onto the viewer. These anxieties focus on the psychological impacts of war and trauma, the use and dangers of technology, the power of totalitarian regimes and the female body, as represented by a female hero and the female alien. Utopia and its filmic representation are dependent on the lens of science fiction. The texts in this study show the capacity for the genre of utopian and science fiction film to explore trauma studies. The films that form part of this analysis are initially introduced as seeming utopias, even projecting eutopian elements. The hero at the centre of each narrative is initially compliant with the utopia. The moral awakening of the hero signals the emergence of dystopian elements in each utopia. Dissent on the part of the hero brings about an alternate utopia, one accompanied by hope for the future. Through journeying (physically and psychologically) each hero’s characteristics for rebellion are revealed, which they use to transform their respective societies. In relation to heroism, this thesis ultimately draws a distinction between the psychological journey of the female hero with that of the male hero. This study illuminates the capacity for utopian and science fiction film to act as warnings for the present and the future, drawing from dystopian elements in human history. This analysis therefore places an emphasis on history and remembering rather than on the projected future, revealing the value of utopian and science fiction film for our current time.
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    The experiences of teachers on the use of Shangani as the medium of instruction at three selected Chiredzi District schools in Zimbabwe.
    (2016) Mhindu, Admire.; Nkosi, Zinhle Primrose.
    The call for the use of the mother tongue in the education of children especially those at the elementary level has been a contentious issue since the 1953 UNESCO declaration on the use of the mother tongue as the medium of instruction. Several African governments are signatories to various declarations which advocate for MTE and Zimbabwe has come up with legislations on languages through the 2006 Education Amendment Act and the 2013 Constitution. However, I noted that no study so far has endeavoured to look into the experiences of teachers using African indigenous languages in general as mediums of instruction in Zimbabwe yet no change in the deployment system has been noted. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of teachers using Shangani as the medium of instruction at three selected Chiredzi District schools in Masvingo province of Zimbabwe. The study aimed at answering three research questions: 1. What are the experiences of teachers on the use of Shangani as the medium of instruction from three selected Chiredzi District Schools? 2. How are teachers affected by their experiences of teaching through the Shangani medium in three selected Chiredzi District Schools? 3. Why do teachers experience the use of Shangani as medium of instruction in Chiredzi District Schools the way they do? The study was conducted at three predominantly Shangani schools in Chiredzi District. 15 elementary level teachers at the three schools participated in the study. The study is a qualitative case study informed by the interpretivist paradigm. Observation, semi-structured and focus group interviews were used for data gathering. The study uses qualitative methods for data analysis. The study was informed by Phillipson’s Theory of Linguistic Imperialism as well as Gramsci’s Hegemony Theory. Six major themes emerged from the findings. The first theme; challenges facing Shona speaking teachers in the implementation of Shangani medium of instruction, indicates the Shona speaking teachers in the three schools lack proficiency in the Shangani Language. As a result they make mistakes when speaking the Shangani language which in turn causes pupils to laugh at them leading to their humiliation. The second one is on the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education’s (MOPSE) lack of commitment towards the use of Shangani as the Medium of Instruction, revealing that teachers were not trained in Shangani and that MOPSE is not even making a follow up to the policy to ensure its implementation. The third theme is on the Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education’s lack of commitment towards the use of Shangani as the MOI where findings reveal that colleges in the province have not yet started training teachers for the use of Shangani as the MOI. The fourth one is on shortage of teaching resources, which shows that the textbooks for the different content areas are still in the English Language, meaning that teachers have to translate content from English to Shangani and back to English because pupils are still examined in English. The fifth theme; the advantages of being proficient in Shangani, shows that the Shangani speaking teachers are better placed to implement the policy on the use of Shangani as the MOI as they can meaningfully communicate with their learners using the language. The sixth theme on negative attitudes of some administrators on the use of Shangani as MOI shows that these are impeding the implementation of the policy as teachers get discouraged from using Shangani by the negative comments that come especially from the administrators. Findings of this study are indicative of the fact that, the policy on the use of Shangani as the MOI is minimally implemented in the three schools; it is still a word of mouth owing to a variety of challenges. From these findings I concluded that, lack of political will to support Mother Tongue Education policies largely contributes to failure of such policies. The major recommendation is that African governments should begin to appreciate the diversity in humanity and come up with feasible policies that would see minority language children receiving instruction in their mother tongues especially at the elementary level.
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    Orion, Ram's-horn and Labyrinth : quest and creativity in Marlene van Niekerk's Triomf, Agaat and Memorandum.
    (2014) Rossmann, Jean.; Stobie, Cheryl.
    This study of Marlene Van Niekerk’s three novels, Triomf, Agaat, and Memorandum, explores the motifs of quest and creativity, and their association with the spiritual and numinous. Notions of self-creation, the imaginative re-creation of reality and the relationship between creativity, self-awakening and revelation are explored in an analysis of Van Niekerk’s novels. This thesis considers the encounter with alterity as a catalyst for undoing the boundaries of the self that leads to “profane illumination” and transformation. Van Niekerk’s characters confront alterity on numerous levels: their own abjection, death, the racial other, and the experience of alterity in artistic creation. It is worth noting that the characters who form the focus of this study – Mol, Treppie, Agaat, Milla, Jakkie and Wiid – are story-tellers and myth-makers, and that their creative use of symbol, myth and metaphor stimulate self-transformation. This study illuminates the relatively unexplored domain of the mystical and spiritual in Van Niekerk’s novels. This focus emerges within the context of a renewed interest in the spiritual within the humanities. Van Niekerk’s writing resonates with an integralist conception of spirituality that includes aesthetic experience, magic, and a sense of the sacred as embodied and demotic. The concern with immanence and non-dualism in Van Niekerk’s novels is typical of postmodern spirituality, and resonates with Friedrich Nietzsche’s writings on art and the Dionysian worldview. For Nietzsche art is spiritual, turning the individual into a creator and “transfigurer” of existence. Through the lens of Nietzsche’s writings on the artist-philsopher, I explore the motif of a spiritual-ethical and aesthetic quest toward a greater openness to alterity, to the world, and toward cosmic interconnectedness. Chapter One offers a reading of Triomf, focussing on the antithetical perspectives of Treppie and Mol, and their ontological quests. I explore Mol’s abjection in terms of Luce Irigaray’s writings on female mysticism, looking at Mol as a burlesque Mary/Martha figure. I explore Mol’s mystical quest, her compassion, and her affinity with alterity, which allows her to become the creator of her own cosmology. Conversely, I explore Treppie’s quest toward becoming an artist-philosopher. In the conclusion to this chapter I examine the implications of Treppie’s and Mol’s cosmic gaze and their different ontological outlooks.
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    On making sense of science discourse : the role of the foundation programme in a South African University.
    (2013) Padayachee, Vasanthie.; Mgqwashu, Emmanuel Mfanafuthi.
    The BSc4 (Foundation) programme offered at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) caters for students from disadvantaged educational backgrounds, with lower matriculation points, offering them the opportunity to pursue studies in science. The students in the BSc4 (Foundation) programme are registered for foundation modules in science, viz. biology, chemistry, mathematics and physics as well as an academic literacy course. It is in the context of these foundation modules in science within the BSc4 (Foundation) programme that this study is undertaken. This study explores the discipline-specific literacies that the BSc4 (Foundation) students require in order to learn science and to acquire science discourse. The study uses case study as a research design, the interpretive research paradigm and the qualitative research approach to analyse data obtained from multiple research instruments. Research findings reveal that with the change in student profile, module changes within the BSc4 (Foundation) programme were implemented. In light of these, the study explores factors such as the ‘articulation gap’ between school and university; and disadvantaged educational experiences. The findings also suggest that students experience challenges with the use of the language of science and the use of discipline-specific literacies in science in the modules offered in the BSc4 (Foundation) programme. However, there exists the scope for stronger engagement between the academics who teach the foundation modules in science and the academic literacy specialists to assist students in the acquisition of the discipline-specific literacies required to learn science and for science discourse.
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    Critiquing representation : the case of an academic literacy course in an engineering faculty in a South African university.
    (2012) Bengesai, Annah Vimbai.; Mgqwashu, Emmanuel Mfanafuthi.
    What does it mean to be academically literate? Responses to this question have led to an explosion of research in the field of applied linguistics, yet the diversity of definitions proposed in the literature for the concept of literacy per se indicate that it continues to defy consensus. Literacy, and specifically by extension academic literacy, must thus be recognised as a contested field, with different meanings for different people and inevitable tensions between those taking positions on or affected by its practical implications. Accepting its contested status, this study sought to explore student representations of academic literacy, academic staff representations of academic literacy and associated academic staff representations of students insofar as these touch on specific concerns of academic literacy in an engineering faculty. The purpose of this exploration was to determine how these representations permeate academic practice and inform pedagogical practice and attitudes to learning. This led to the research thesis, that dominant discourses produce certain practices which can lead to social exclusion/inclusion of students. Such a thesis, allows for an examination of institutional practices of teaching and learning. To do this, I employed a multidisciplinary approach drawn from applied linguistics, sociology and philosophy. Consequently, I drew on theories from James Paul Gee, Pierre Bourdieu, Basil Bernstein and Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger to understand the socio-cultural context where representation occurs. An understanding of these discourses and epistemologies also necessitated an approach that probed participants‘ versions of reality. Consequently, this research was premised within a Critical Realist ontology whose central tenet is the recognition of tripartite framework of reality. Within this framework, reality is comprised of the domains of the real, actual and the empirical. The domain of the empirical relates to perceptions of experiences, while the actual is concerned with events that produce these experiences. The real is the domain of generative mechanisms, which if activated, produce the events and experiences in the other domains. Data was collected to correspond to these domains, with critical focus on the analysis of underlying mechanisms which reproduce social reality. To establish how the real relates to the other domains, Fairclough‘s critical discourse analysis was adopted.