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Masters Degrees (International and Public Affairs)

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    Youth social movements responding to climate change: a case study of South Africa and Germany.
    (2023) Maggott, Sabrina Sailini.; Nadvi, Syeda Lubna Bano.
    Climate change has been a long-standing issue for every human being who inhabits this planet. Although we have been faced with climate change for decades, there has been a significant increase in its effects within the twenty-first century. Billions of tons of carbon dioxide get released into the earth’s atmosphere every year which is a direct cause of human impacts such as the burning of fossil fuels and greenhouse gas production. No one on earth is excluded from the devastating effects that climate change brings with it, from rising temperatures, extreme weather, droughts, floods, water insecurity, a decline in agriculture, to social inequalities. Although these impacts affect everyone, we see a particular concern being raised within the past few years, which is that the youth of the planet are becoming increasingly concerned about the effects of climate change and their futures. Young people’s fears and anxieties about this global crisis have transformed into something we know today as youth social movements who respond to climate change. The rapid rise in youth social movements responding to climate change since 2018 was unprecedented and caught global attention very quickly. Their messages have been clear in their activism, that they intend to hold decision-makers, government, and institutions accountable for their lack of action. They passionately believe older generations have failed them and that they will be the ones to pay the price. They have become knowledgeable about climate change and the challenges faced by youth globally. The power of these movements demonstrates how adamant they are to refuse to let the effects of climate change ruin their futures or that of future generations. It is on this basis that this study explores and discusses the phenomenon of youth social movements responding to climate change. The dissertation analyses factors, challenges, and contributions these young people are making to the climate change debate. It uses two countries, a developing one namely South Africa and a developed one namely Germany, to make a cross-country comparison of youth social movements responding to climate change in different regions of the globe. A qualitative desk-top study was used together with thematic analysis in order for the researcher to make a comparative study of South Africa and Germany’s youth responses to climate change. This study is composed of reliable secondary data which will be further explored chapter four. The research brought to light cultural differences, resource availability, political opportunity, support structures and contributions and success made by youth social groups in the two countries that were being studied. Each country’s climatology was looked at and considered the effects climate change has had in South Africa and Germany. Here, further investigation was done on when the youth social movements were born and why. This study has uncovered how and why these social movements form and the impacts they have on local and international societies. It has also revealed the differences in youth activism in developing countries like South Africa in comparison with developed countries like Germany which will be further explored in chapter six. The youth in the climate change debate need more acknowledgement to fully understand their movements and the motives behind them. The social movements theory was used to guide this research.
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    An exploration of indigenous knowledge systems and environmental conservation towards climate change.
    (2022) Mzobe, Vukani Vincent.; Khan, Sultan.
    This dissertation looks to examine the feasibility of environmental conservation methods and approaches used in the Global North to the sustainability of Indigenous communities and their environments in the global South. The study provides a platform for continued efforts and approaches toward Indigenous knowledge systems and Indigenous communities. The study then draws on environmental conservation discourse, methods, and contributions to tackling environmental issues and concerns that directly and indirectly affect not only Indigenous peoples but their larger societies. There is vast array of literature that might help and further the discourse of environmental conservation and discourse beyond their socio-economic regions. With the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the international community is committed to addressing a substantial number of challenges. Among those emphasised by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) are highly relevant for Indigenous groups. Education, poverty, access to justice and climate change are only just the tips of the issues affecting Indigenous people’s lives. Yet, Indigenous groups are not passive actors. Despite being at the mercy of climate hazards and misleading political decisions, the knowledge system they have developed throughout the centuries has helped them to successfully respond to ecological and development challenges. The study used desktop research, which is qualitative. It used secondary data to examine studies and efforts toward improving the environmental conservation methods and approaches that are directed towards improving the lives of Indigenous communities. The study examined a variety of data, studies, organizational contributions, and projects. The study showed that before any workable progress can be reached, methods and approaches to environmental discourse and actions need to be aware of the unique requirements of Indigenous communities both in the Global North and South.
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    The review of the effectiveness of humanitarian intervention in “third world” countries: a case study of the ongoing civil war in Syria.
    (2021) Mkhulisi, Sivuyile Sibabalo.; Johnson, Belinda.
    The review of the effectiveness of Humanitarian Intervention in “third world” countries: Case study Syrian civil war. This study seeks to review the effectiveness of Humanitarian Intervention since its inception, given the ongoing conflict in Syria. This study has used available scholarly sources such as articles, journals and books to arrive at compelling conclusive remarks on the subject matter. Therefore, this study has applied a quantitative research method. It has relied on desktop information to review the effectiveness of the Humanitarian Intervention concept in third-world countries focusing on the ongoing crisis in Syria. This study has further outlined factors that are said to be the cause of the Humanitarian Intervention concept not being effective enough to end the ongoing conflict in Syria. It has used two theories of international relations to analyse the effectiveness of the Humanitarian Intervention concept in “third world” countries and those theories are realism and idealism theories. This study has found that the concept of Humanitarian Intervention is used to pursue the interests of the powerful states in the international community. This study has recommended a review of the relevancy of veto power in the current nature and character of international relations since interstate wars have been eliminated in global politics.
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    Perceptions on condom use: a comparative study of African migrants and South Africans in Durban’s inner city (KZN, South Africa)
    (2019) Balekelayi, Bakankengesha.; Joseph, Rudigi Rukema.
    This study aims to examine perceptions on the use of condoms among both South Africans and African migrants living in Durban’s inner city. To explore and analyze the role of culture in making the choice or no choice on condoms use among African migrants and host communities living in Durban’s inner city. South Africa has the biggest and highest-profile of HIV infection in the world, with an estimated seven million people living with HIV in 2015. The use of condoms has been identified as a significant and effective prevention tool against HIV infection. Its promotion amongst sexually active populations is endorsed by the World Health Organization. Both African migrants and South Africans emerged as one of the most vulnerable groups to HIV infection. It is worth noting that migrants moving from the country of origin to the hosting country; hold onto, values and beliefs from the country of origin; while the economic, social, and political situation is completely different from the hosting country. This leads us to believe that the perceptions of African migrants may be influenced by their culture and the decision they make to use condoms. To this end, it is important to understand how culture shapes and reshapes one’s understanding and perceptions of choices made; in this case the use of condoms in the face of HIV/AIDS prevention. It is possible to know their views because South Africans and African migrants are living together but with different cultures. The knowledge of South Africans (men and women) in terms of condoms (male and female) use is high. South Africans are ahead in terms of condoms use. They revealed that media, schools, hospitals, and friends are some of the avenues (places) where information was gained to enhance knowledge of condom use. In South Africa, the studies that analyze the association between migrants and condom use did so within the ambit of HIV prevention practices. Lurie and Colleague conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the association between migration and HIV infection among migrant and non-migrant men and their partners. They found that migration is an independent risk factor for HIV infection among men as they tend to have multiple partners and do not use condoms. Zuma and others found similar results among migrant urban women in Carletonville, South Africa. The researcher adopted a qualitative Research and descriptive research design with in-depth semi-structures interviews. Purposive sampling methods were used to select participations who met the inclusion criteria and the interview was for 40 min. Data collected was thematic. The theories of Planned Behavior and Reasoned Action were used to design this study and data collection. The chosen methodology of using in-depth interviews proved to be effective in this regard. The study is a qualitative research that utilizes purposive sampling and snow balling as its methodology to investigate and obtain findings as to the attitudes and perceptions on the use of condoms among males and females (African migrants and South Africans) living in Durban’s inner city. It will employ in-depth open-ended questions developed for interviews in English and French. There will be twenty participant cohorts who were interviewed, 5 males and 5females from the migrant community and 5 males and 5 females aged 19 to 41 years from the South African community living in the inner city of Durban. The research findings will indicate the different views of African migrants and South Africans regarding their perceptions towards the use of condoms.
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    Challenges and prospects of regionalism: the case of SADC and Zimbabwe.
    (2021) Mkhize, Siboniso Nkululeko Ralph.; Misgun, Biniam Tesfamariam.
    Regionalism has yielded positive results for the developed West, specifically for the deeply integrated European Union. This has not necessarily been the case for Africa, as there have been mixed results for the continent’s regional integration projects, the majority of which are failing to fully implement their mandate. Africa’s history is well-documented, but the main challenge for African countries is to wrestle themselves away from their current situation. Regionalism is seen as the panacea to the challenges that Africa is facing, particularly widespread poverty, ailing economies, underdevelopment, poor infrastructure, unstable governments, prolonged conflicts, out-of-control pandemics and other challenges plaguing the periphery states. Given the continued backwardness of African states, questions have been posed on the effectiveness of regionalism in addressing the challenges Africa is facing. This research aims to look at one of Africa’s regional integration projects, namely SADC. This study investigates the impact of the regional organization on its member states, more specifically Zimbabwe over the years as it went through a period of crisis. This research seeks to expose some of the achievements and some shortfalls of regionalism in Africa. The aim of the study is to show that even though it has had its challenges, regionalism is good for Africa. The SADC itself is also plagued with challenges that are prohibiting it from fully carrying out its mandate; so, the research also seeks to examine SADC as an institution and how it could be strengthened in order to carry out its mandate. The idea of applying African solutions to African problems is central to this study because what has worked in Europe may not necessarily be applicable to the African scenario. It is key for the study to determine how regionalism is being applied and adapted to African context. Based on what the research aims to cover it will be a qualitative research which will mainly use thematic analysis and iterative qualitative analysis for data analysis. Quantitative data will also be used to substantiate some points that require numbers and figures. The main theoretical frameworks that are used are Neofunctionalism, Intergovernmentalism, and the political economy of regionalism. One of the main findings of the research found that although there has been progress with regionalism with SADC, it is however happening at a slow pace because of the lack of commitment that member states are to the cause.
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    Exploring BRICS contribution in addressing youth unemployment in South Africa.
    (2021) Penniston, Jody Justine Unity.; Ettang, Dorcas Oyebisi.
    Youth unemployment is a global issue and is significantly worse in developing countries. South Africa has one of the world’s highest youth unemployment rates, with almost half of its youth population (between the ages of 15 and 34) unemployed (52,18%), as recorded in the final quarter of 2019. This study explores BRICS contribution in addressing youth unemployment in South Africa. Made up of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, BRICS is a coalition of emerging economies that support the economic growth and development of its members. Liberal institutionalism theory is used in this study to understand the relevance and contribution of coalitions like BRICS in increasing aid and cooperation among member states to address various socioeconomic challenges. Classical growth theory is used to understand and unpack the economic aspects of youth unemployment. This study employs a qualitative research method and data is collected from books, articles, scholarly journals, and official reports such as South Africa’s Quarterly Labour Surveys, BRICS Labour and Employment Minister Declarations, BRICS Summit Declarations 2015- 2019, and Trade reports from the Department of Trade, Industry and Cooperation. The data gathered from the existing literature was analysed using the content analysis method. The findings show a strong correlation between youth unemployment, the South African education system and lack of skills development. The study explores multilateralism as it places an important role in economic growth and development through increased trade and partnerships which allow member states to pursue common interests. The study also examines the various contributions BRICS has made in addressing youth unemployment in South Africa. The findings show that BRICS countries have dedicated programmes to addressing youth unemployment within member states, specifically by addressing its underlying issues. The study concludes that through BRICS initiatives, South Africa has benefited through investments in education, intra-BRICS exchange programs, job creation, foreign investment, and increased trade relations.
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    An evaluation of South Africa's post-apartheid foreign policy towards peacekeeping in Southern African Development Community (SADC): case study of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
    (2020) Faye, Nwabisa Felicia Ziyanda.; Jagganath, Gerelene.
    The promotion of peace and stability in the SADC region is the key component of South Africa's foreign policy in the post - apartheid era. The White Paper on South Africa's foreign policy, states that, South Africa accords a central importance to its immediate African neighborhood and the African continent. Therefore, South Africa using its post - apartheid foreign policy should make means to intervene as DRC remains in the barriers of intrastate wars after almost half century of colonialism. A two-way strategy has been adopted by South Africa to deal with Congolese conflict including military and mediation processes. The main problem that South Africa encountered in the management and resolution of the Congolese conflict was the absence of an organizational structure for security mechanism at the time of the conflict and this has led to ad hoc arrangements. This study seeks to reveal whether the role of South Africa in the DRC conflict was successful or not. South Africa needs to address issues of financial and logistical weakness and the lack of political consensus among leaders on collective security norms and practices. In addition, there has been a need for DRC to take full responsibility for its own domestic problems, so that South Africa does not concern itself with the internal affairs of its member state, unless invited to do so by the concerned state. The research was conducted using a qualitative research approach. The study draws heavily on the data gathered from two research schedules (that included DIRCO officials and Academics). In-depth interviews and discussions from the 30 participants were adopted and the study was guided by Rupesinghe (1996) theory of conflict resolution. The study found that South Africa in using its post-apartheid foreign policy played a prominent role as the intermediary facilitator and guarantor of DRC peace process. Under President Mbeki administration the intentions of the intervention in DRC were clear not only on policy but also in action whereas under Zuma's administration intervention in the DRC peacekeeping quest was vague and confused.
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    Church and the forbidden: an analysis of how homosexuality is perceived in an African context with the influence of the church in relation to anti-homosexuality laws.
    (2020) Mbuthuma, Samukelisiwe Nkhothatseng.; Easthorpe, Juanitha Anne.
    Abstract available in PDF.
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    The role of discursive power and non-governmental organisations in counter-human trafficking in South Africa.
    (2019) Naidoo, Alandra Presley.; Emser, Monique.
    The international debate on human trafficking dates back to the 1980s and 1990s when human trafficking was not envisioned outside of the perimeter of prostitution within international law and was sparked by the feminist protests against gender-based violence. Human trafficking is still regarded as a rapidly growing social phenomenon within the current globalised world. Trafficking of persons refers to the recruitment, transportation, harbouring or receipt of persons through the use of coercion or force for the purpose of exploitation. Therefore, political actors, civil society which incorporates counter-human trafficking non-governmental organizations have emerged within the human rights debate, advocating different views and interests. Nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) are increasingly active internationally in organising initiatives around raising awareness in the interests of the most vulnerable groups as well as challenging public policy and legal frameworks. Due to NGOs maintaining different agendas, there is a battle for power positions within their own frameworks as to what constitutes to human rights violations. In terms of the use and misuse of power, particularly discursive and political power, previous research highlighted that states often use typical depictions of the crime in impoverished and developing areas to raise awareness. These intentions often carry a political aim and/or interest blurring the roles of counter-human trafficking NGOs. However, there is still insufficient research on the different roles these NGOs actually play in counter-human trafficking within the South African context. It is therefore on this basis that the following dissertation discusses the role counter-human trafficking NGOs play in combatting human trafficking in South Africa. The dissertation further assesses factors which impact the role of these NGOs. Lastly, the dissertation investigates the role of discursive power on human trafficking and counter-human trafficking NGOs in South Africa. The research is guided through a qualitative empirical research design and a conceptual framework of power. NGOs play a significant role in assisting the South African government with combatting human trafficking despite the many challenges they face which adversely impacts their efficacy. Their experiential knowledge should be leveraged more effectively by government role-players, and their critical voices should not be silenced in the fight against trafficking in persons.
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    Challenges and prospects of regional integration in Africa: a case study of Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD)
    (2019) Mekonnen, Sirak Feleke.; Misgun, Biniam Tesfamariam.
    This study explored and assessed the challenges of regional integration in the Horn of Africa’s Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD). IGAD, like all the other Sub-regional and Regional Economic Communities (RECs), is considered as the fundamental pillar for African development and continental economic integration. IGAD’s efforts integrate regionally is meant to address economic, social and political challenges by engaging and coordinating efforts of all the regional member states. The aim is to enhance regional development under the umbrella of the African Union. This study thus examined the challenges and opportunities of this initiative, its theoretical underpinnings and in the process explored the specific trajectories of IGAD to determine its role in the regional integration endeavor. By examining the above, this study explored IGAD’s institutional structures and arrangements, its programmes of action and implementation. In the main, two namely, the economic and security dimensions that have dominated IGAD’s agenda have remained the focal point of the study. Last part not least, this study probed into two cases of IGAD’s interventions that have been noticeable: the cases of Somalia and South Sudan. Thus, this study argues the successes achieved thus far remain rather ambivalent as manifested by the low and uneven positive outcomes. Arguably, this is due to the interplay of complex factors ranging from the political economy of global and regional dynamics, historical formation of the regional states and the geographical challenges in the IGAD region. In light of the above, this study recommends that the institutional capacity of IGAD and its members states needs not only to improve to meet developmental and security challenges but also to provide constructive and permanent solutions in the Horn of Africa.
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    “African solutions to African problems.” challenges in implementing African mechanisms in transforming conflict: selected case studies (2007 to 2016)
    (2018) Ndlovu, James.; Nadvi, Syeda Lubna Bano.
    The study is premised on the understanding that African conflict challenges have been consistent and seem rather unending even after attempted peace, due to the application of external solutions. Hence, the research is built on the argument that African solutions to African conflict challenges lie within her own bosom. This research acknowledges the existence of other useful external solutions but argues that these solutions should not take precedence in addressing African conflict challenges as identified in most cases. In this light, this study adhered to the objective of clarifying perspectives around the notion of ASAP and its importance in developing effective mechanisms that are localized and indigenous in addressing African conflict challenges. The study traces the concept of ASAP to the ideals of Pan-Africanism and outlines how it is an important cause to pursue if effective peace and security are to be established in Africa’s conflict-ridden societies. The study utilizes conflict transformation and positive peace theories as a measure to bring understanding to the various dynamics of conflict, understanding the diversity of society and also promote alternative thinking as vital components in addressing African conflicts. The study employs the use of case studies (of Somalia, Darfur and Burundi) which provided three unique backdrops which exposed different variations in peace approaches. They exposed the weaknesses and strengths that are encountered in addressing typical African challenges. There are also various traditional and indigenous societal tools that are identified in these communities that can be key in addressing conflict which has often been neglected or undermined because they do not exist in the guidelines of liberal peace structures. The adoption of hybrid peace meant the promotion of the bridging of top-down and bottom-up approaches, encourage inclusive peace initiatives between external and local/indigenous peace approaches and to ensure that there is local ownership of peace processes which allows sustainable peace. However, the study identifies that the challenge of hybrid paternalism replaced liberal peace frameworks such that localized/ indigenous peace mechanisms and the effect of ASAP remain undermined. The implementation of the peace processes examined still exposes huge limitations and setbacks. This research concludes that despite the existence and adoption of a perfect platform, ASAP as a mechanism remains far from being a reality and the role of indigenous peace is still undermined in practice.
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    Hate crimes perpetrated against lesbian women and their personal experiences of violence in family and community settings.
    (2019) Makhaye, Nandi Michelle.; Loubser, Noleen Dianna.
    The South African Constitution, which has been praised globally for being the most progressive, promised equal rights and protection to every citizen regardless of their sexual orientation. However, it seems the Constitution has failed to fulfil its promise to protect and defend lesbian persons against violence. The current debates about hate crimes against lesbians as part of the widespread of abuse against women in South Africa demonstrate a perfect example of how the South African government has failed to protect lesbian persons. Hate crimes against anyone including lesbian persons are a form of human rights violations. These violations are highlighted together other difficulties that lesbians face. This research argues that South Africa together with other African States has failed to protect lesbian persons from hate crimes. This was demonstrated by engaging the Responsibility to Protect Theory, the Duty of the State to Protect, and the meaning of the South African Constitution. This study also discusses how the structure of the African societies is guided by the concepts of Christianity and religion which perpetuate violence against lesbians, where homosexuality is perceived as “immoral” and “Un-African”. This research details and contextualizes violence and types of hate crimes against lesbians and documents types of hate crimes, including degrading treatment and punishment by the State as well as discrimination, harassment and violence at the hands of families, churches, strangers, co-workers, community members, and so on. The study had two focus areas. The first area gathered statistics from the UKZN Pietermaritzburg LGBTI Forum, the Pietermaritzburg Gay and Lesbian Network, and the Ubumbano LGBTI group. It focused on experiences of violence. 69 lesbians participated, and 96% had experienced violence. In addition, other statistical data and facts of hate crimes against lesbian persons in other countries have been taken from different sources, including books and online journals. The second focus area was conducted at UKZN using a convenience sample which focused on attitudes towards lesbian persons. The results indicated that 80% of heterosexual students who were interviewed had positive attitudes towards lesbian persons. The study also looked at the State’s legal obligation to protect lesbian persons and prevent violence of any kind against sexual minorities using the Social Identity Theory and Responsibility to Protect Theory as theoretical and conceptual frameworks. Lastly, the study provides recommendations for implementing this.
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    An implementation analysis of e-learning: a case study of Kwapata Secondary School, Dambuza township.
    Mkhize, Samukelisiwe Nicole.; Manicom, Desiree Pushpeganday.
    The use of information communication technologies (ICTs) is being re-introduced in the South African public schooling system as a development tool used to improve the quality of education and expand access to equal educational opportunities to all learners and teachers including previously disadvantaged schools and communities for full participation in education and society. The implementation of e-learning is guided by the White Paper on e-Education 2004 which was published as the South African governments’ symbol of commitment to ensure that all learners are ICT capable and ICTs are used optimally for teaching and learning purposes. The efforts to harness the potential of ICT use through implementation of e-learning programmes in SA public schools have been met with the reality of limited government capacity in terms of ICT funding, investment and expertise to deliver ICT skills training and infrastructure to remote, over populated, ill-resourced schools in rural and township schools. This issue prompted the investigation into, the implementation of e-learning at KwaPata Secondary School, Dambuza Township in order to discover the factors that hinder or facilitate the implementation process. Findings revealed that there is limited understanding of the purpose of e-learning amongst teachers and learners which is reflected in the teachers limited use of ICTs to information presentation which in turn diverts from the role of e-learning which is to create a learner-focused learning environment. The main barrier affecting teachers and learners ability to implement e-learning at KwaPata Secondary School is the lack of sufficient ICT resources and maintenance of ICT equipment for e-learning to take place in a structured way instead of the ad hoc manner. Consequently, the extent of e-learning implementation is restricted, resulted in only certain subjects being able to use the ‘e-learning room’ and ICT resources available at KwaPata Secondary School. However, this is not simply an issue of physical access, it is further complicated by teachers’ lack of appreciation and motivation to use and develop coping strategies to overcome access challenges. In terms of the partnership, Dimension Data suffers from a lack of financial and human resource capacity to deliver alone, efforts to overcome these challenges are undermined by lack of co-ordination and communication amongst other relevant stakeholders. The partnership was established to overcome social and economic obstacles tasked with implementing e-learning, however, the study shows that the service provider is faced with the same problem of lack of adequate capacity, funding and support as government to effectively deliver ICTs alone.
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    China South Africa relations : examining gains and hidden challenges in economic and diplomatic relations.
    (2015) Moinogu, Perminus.; Dlamini, Siyabonga Innocent.
    According to Samuel Huntington’s clash of civilizations whereby he gave a prediction that there will be a sudden decline of the Western economies and sudden rise of the Asian economies, paving a way for the Chinese dragon economy to rise and become a force to be reckoned with. The Chinese economy’s sudden rise has caused it to expand thereby needing more trading partners from its neighbors and more partners from developing countries especially in Africa. Of which, the African continent is famous of its vast mineral wealth and natural resources from different countries, therefore making it a region that is not only rich but also fertile with visible challenges such as those of poor infrastructure, underdevelopment and ethnic conflicts. Moreover, apart from Africa’s challenges, China’s largest bilateral trading partner in Africa is South Africa, making it the single most important player in not only the Sub-Saharan region but also in the African continent as a whole. Nonetheless, it through a displaying of different approaches in this research that an understanding and conclusion is arrived at, the approaches to be explored in this research will be realism, idealism, Stolper-Samuelson theory, Power relations, Unipolar, Bipolar. Other approaches to be use will be derived from international relations and International political economy in order to adequately explore the South Africa China economic and diplomatic gains and hidden challenges. Trading partnerships between both players are centralized around economic, political and socio-economic fabric of both countries. South Africa is enjoying its strengthened economic and political relations with China, while the Chinese are also enjoying improved trading, socio-economic and cultural relations. This research will be mainly conducted using a qualitative research methodology, with all the data being sourced from secondary sources. However, the study’s structure will explore on three sections, namely 1st section is going to tackle the economic, diplomatic and cultural relations between South Africa and China. Second section is going to discuss the challenges and benefits that both players are experiencing in their relations. Third section is going to explore if there is equilibrium in the benefits and challenges experienced by both players during economic, diplomatic and cultural relations.
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    The UNSC and the elusive search for global peace and security : a case study of Libya, Iraq and Somalia.
    (2016) Sigwebela, Siphesihle Qinisela.; Misgun, Biniam Tesfamariam.
    Anarchy and conflict globally have triggered the need for establishing an international governance mechanism to settle conflicts. The international organization that was established at the end of WWI was the League of Nations, which failed to perform its duties. In 1945, the United Nations was established to replace the League. Paradoxically, 70 years later, the world remains palpably dangerous and unstable. Several conflicts are active in most parts of the world, witnessing collapsed and war ridden states. The UNSC has, in many instances, failed to perform its tasks and fulfill its primary objective. Using the content analysis as the methodology and the realist approach as the theoretical framework, this study sought to examine the pitfalls, challenges and opportunities of the UNSC in international peace and security building. The study utilized case studies of Libya, Somalia and Iraq to undertake a critical appraisal of the nexus between the international power games, interventions and the UNSC’s role as a global governance mechanism to ensure international peace and security. This study further unravels the underlying motive for the use of R2P and the idea of potential threats in the cases of Libya and Somalia, and the taunting dangers of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs) in Iraq, which was coordinated with the highest level of global politics to justify foreign intervention and eventually to secure regime change, followed by failed attempts in state building and stability in each of these cases. This study reveals the failure of the UNSC to maintain global peace and security. It reveals that most of the resolutions were fronted to engage in the unnecessary foreign intervention by the North Atlantic Organization (NATO) or other military and political allies/collision, whose outcome has been lawlessness, more war and failed states. As this study points out, on one hand, the UNSC has become an instrument to those who use it to serve their interests; and, on the other hand, multiple and conflicting interests in the international power game and geopolitics have complicated resolutions, outcomes and missions. This study emphasizes the pitfalls of our global governance mechanism and security architecture experimented through the UNSC and its resolutions in its 70 years of existence. These reveal the major failures of the international organization tasked to maintain international peace and security. Lastly, the study reveals the failure of multilateralism or collective security and thus calls for new mechanisms to be put in place to achieve this goal. The study recommends a strong consideration of the UNSC reform, to increase the representation of non-European states.
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    Africa's bid for permanent seat in the united Nations Security Council (UNSC): prospects and challenges for Nigeria and South Africa.
    (2015) Mbhense, Khalesakhe Samuel.; Mngomezulu, Bhekithemba Richard.
    This study explored the three aspects: political, economic and crime and corruption factors on South Africa and Nigeria as they compete for the permanent seat on the United National Security council (UNSC). The recent announcement that Nigeria is now a superpower in Africa in terms of economic growth, is one of the factors that prompted the study. On the other hand, South Africa had been enjoying the status of being a superpower economically in Africa for decades. On top of that the recent reports say that Nigeria will continue to increase its economic budget from Nairas 4, 4 trillion this year to 8 trillion in 2016 (Reuters, 2015: 17). This shows that South Africa needs to work harder to reclaim its status. But the arguments amongst the economists that Nigeria will not enjoy the status for a long time is one issue that is discussed in the study. They economic analysts believe that Nigeria is far behind from South Africa in terms of infrastructure. The living conditions of Nigerian people have not changed. What does this mean in terms of the prospects for either of the two countries claiming a place on the UNSC? This is the core question addressed in this study. The study followed a qualitative research paradigm which leaned more towards desktop research. Data were collected using existing sources – both historical and current – as well as document analysis. Statements and comments by experts on the issues addressed in the study were also solicited and analysed in order to get a better sense of the current situation and postulate on the likely prospects for each of the two countries. The findings show that both countries have advantages and disadvantages that will either bolster or retard each country’s prospects should the permanent seat in the UNSC become available. These are both endogenous and exogenous. The conclusion is that both Nigeria and South Africa have prospects and challenges. Therefore, the recommendation is that neither of these countries should take it as a given that it will automatically get the UNSC seat should it become available.
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    International financial institutions (IFIs) and economic development in Africa: the case study of Zimbabwe and Ghana.
    (2015) Mamvura, Kudzai Lovejoy.; Hadebe, Sakhile.
    International Financial Institutions (IFIs) are all financial institutions operating on an international level, by giving loans to governments for large-scale projects, restructuring and balance of payments in the hope of economic growth and development. Examples of these institutions are the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the African Development Bank (AfDB), and the World Trade Organization (WTO). There has been huge interest and high contention among many researchers and scholars on the subject of the relationship between IFIs and African economic development. There is no doubt that African economic development is lacking considering the social, political and economic troubles that African countries and its people continue to endure even over half a century since the first independent African state. This dissertation seeks to understand the correlation between these financial institutions and African economic development. This involves analyzing the different financial institutions, distinguishing whether their role has been significantly positive or not, as well as outlining the consequences of their influence in the affairs of African countries. This dissertation starts from the involvement of the Bretton Woods institutions in the development of the African continent, up to the involvement in development of the African oriented institutions, discussing their progress, together with the challenges they face. Using the Participatory Social Learning Theory, economic development will be defined as a solution to create faith and dialogue between experts, authorities and the people for the purpose of growth, individually and communally to establish rational and functional systems and bureaucracies for social and economic progress; in other words for the common growth and good of the people. Zimbabwe and Ghana will be used as case studies to fully understand the relationship between IFIs and the economic development of the continent. This will be a desktop research but qualitative in nature. It will use purposive sampling for a better understanding of the relationship between IFIs and African economic development. The dissertation concludes by giving recommendations, for the full realization of real economic development as suggested by the Participatory Social Learning Theory as well as providing the outcomes of the study which shows that some financial institutions have the potential of economically developing the continent if genuine people are put into power and implementation is carried out efficiently. Lastly this dissertation will show that some financial institutions have had a positive impact on economic development in Africa, at the same time others have had a marginal role or impact on economic development in Africa, particularly in Zimbabwe and Ghana.
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    An examination of the relationship between the African Union (AU) and the International Criminal Court (ICC) : the cases of Kenya, Sudan, Rwanda and Liberia.
    (2015) Nhlangulela, Bernard Khanyisani.; Mngomezulu, Bhekithemba Richard.
    This dissertation examines the relationship between the African Union (AU) and the International Criminal Court (ICC). The case studies of Kenya, Sudan, Rwanda and Liberia were used. These countries have had dealings with the ICC at different moments. The study wanted to establish if the concerns raised by African leaders and their countries about the manner in which the ICC conducts its business in Africa is appropriate, justifiable and credible. Realism was used as a theoretical framework which guided the study. The study was conducted in the wake of calls for African countries who are signatories of the ICC to pull out of The Hague-Based Court and establish their own court, because there is a perception that the ICC is targeting Africa while leaving out leaders in other continents who continue infringing on the rights of other people. The research methodology which was followed in carrying out research for this dissertation falls within the qualitative paradigm. Both empirical and non-empirical data were collected for the study. The research instrument was a questionnaire which was distributed among purposively selected informants. Non-empirical data was collected through document analysis and the usage of other secondary sources such as books, journals, etc. The findings revealed that there are certain inconsistencies in the manner in which African countries deal with the international community. They rely on the international community for help, while on the other hand perceiving the international community as the enemy. With regards to the ICC, some African leaders posit the view that they are being singled out and targeted for prosecution. Ironically, some of the staff members of the ICC are African citizens. The second irony is that Africa has the largest number of countries that are signatories to the Rome Statute. Thirdly, there are many cases in Africa where human rights violations have occurred. Given these findings, it is recommended that before taking any drastic action against the ICC, the African political leadership should get the facts right and do self-introspection with the view to establish if their case has strong basis.
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    Managing policy networks : a case study of KwaZulu-Natal Community Crime Prevention Association.
    (2015) Zuma, Nokuthula Ellen.; Rieker, Mark Ivan.
    This research focuses on analysing the KwaZulu-Natal Community Crime Prevention Association (KZNCCPA), using theories on managing policy networks. In particular, the research looks at the KZNCCPA network management styles. KZNCCPA is a crime prevention network aimed at encouraging social networking and community engagement in the fight against crime. While an independent community crime prevention forum, the Association is located under the Provincial Department of Community Safety and Liaison (DCSL), which provides them with support, depending on the availability of material and financial resources. For effectiveness, KZNCCPA has formed alliances with many stakeholders and participant organisations – including the South African Police Services (SAPS) and Community Policing Forums (CPFs) - and formalised these in several memoranda of understanding (MoUs). This study therefore aims at analysing the management of this crime prevention process in KwaZulu-Natal. Using different network management theories to unpack the realities of managing within the KZNCCPA, the study investigated the management style, strategies of collaboration, advantages and challenges endemic at KZNCCPA. Based on the data collected through focus groups observation and document review, the researcher is convinced that different participants who are involved in the KZNCCPA have different views about the challenges of managing policy networks. It also was discovered, in the focus-group interviews, that members of the network do not have sufficient resources to execute their activities and plans. The study also discovered that in addition to many management styles similar to public networks, the KZNCCPA has unique strategies used by the Executive Committee (EC). These included the usage of command and control, instead of consensus, in keeping its member agencies in check. Its closeness to government also ensured that in as much as being part of the association is voluntary; many members were not exactly free to leave the Association for fear of disbandment and de-legitimisation. This reluctance to leave was also associated with advantages of being in the Association; resource-sharing, political clout, technical support from government, as well as recognition. The study concluded by acknowledging some challenges faced by KZNCCPA, and advocating for more information dissemination with regards to networks for crime prevention; given the seriousness of crime in South Africa, and KZN in particular.
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    An implementation analysis of the children's Act number 38 of 2005 (Part B Chapter 13 and 14) : a case study of the Department of Social Development, Umzinyathi District.
    Ndlazi, Lulama Sthembela.; Rieker, Mark Ivan.
    This study examines public policy implementation with specific emphasis on the implementation of the South African Children’s Act number 38 of 2005. The main area of concern for the current study is Chapter 12 of the act which focuses on foster care. Public policy is examined in general in order to provide a better understanding of why and how policies and Acts emerge. The study looks at policy implementation issues of the Children’s Act number 38 of 2005, foster care. The Children’s Act governs all the laws relating to the care and protection of children. It further defines the responsibilities of all involved (parents and care workers) and underscores provisions regarding court proceedings. The study examines how the Foster Care aspect of the Children’s Act number 38 of 2005 was implemented in uMzinyathi district of Kwazulu Natal. The study reveals that the social workers selected for the study (except for the newly appointed amongst them) are aware of and have been capacitated on the areas of foster care as contained in the said Act. The study further reveals that the implementation of this Act has met with some obstacles which borders on lack of resources; processes to be followed when placing a child and the misinterpretation of the Act by other stakeholders involved in the implementation of the Act. Against the backdrop of the findings, recommendations are made to inform policy and praxis in the subsequent implementation of the Act.