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Doctoral Degrees (Supply chain management)

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    An analysis of sustainable supply chain management practices within the eThekwini Municipality as a future smart city.
    (2023) Samuels, Alexander Bradley.; Mutambara, Tatenda Emmanuel.
    The concept of the Smart City is more relevant than ever in the contemporary realities of globalisation and ubiquitous digitalisation. In essence, the concept is a logical extension of all the implications that have come to pass of the ongoing changes brought about by the information revolution of the 21st century. Thus, the smart city can be seen as a kind of response to contemporary threats and challenges related to global environmental and social problems. Accordingly, consideration of this concept and the prospects for its implementation in contemporary practice becomes even more relevant. As urbanisation and the need for sustainable development continue to grow, cities around the world are striving to transform into smart cities that leverage technology and innovation to enhance the quality of life for their residents. Sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) plays a vital role in achieving these goals by ensuring the efficient and responsible flow of goods, services, and information throughout the city. The primary objective of the study was to assess and evaluate the current sustainable supply chain management practices within eThekwini Municipality and to develop a framework for enhancing these practices to support the municipality's transformation into a smart city. The research objectives for the study were to explore the existing sustainable supply chain management practices within the eThekwini Municipality; to evaluate the dimensions of a Smart City being utilised in supply chain management practices within the eThekwini Municipality; to determine the best practices that could add value to sustainable supply chain management practices within eThekwini Municipality. The following theories were used to support this study, stakeholder theory; diffusion of innovation theory; triple bottom line; service quality gap model. The study utilised an exploratory case study method to assess the current sustainable supply chain management practices within eThekwini Municipality in becoming a future smart city. A qualitative research semi-structured face-to-face interview approach was used which provided more value when determining the critical issues experienced during the supply chain management practices. Purposive sampling was employed, with the sample size consisting of ten participants, with a 59% response rate was recorded. NVivo 20 was employed as the software tool for thematic analysis for this qualitative study. Based on the themes generated from the in-depth interviews, there were four main themes, Roles, Divisions, and Understanding; Dimensions; Priority and Measurement; and Challenges, Factors, and Recommendations. The results show that the eThekwini Municipality has achieved substantial advancements in its supply chain management practices to incorporate sustainability. All three research objectives were successfully achieved. These strategies include developing sustainable transportation practices, encouraging circular economy programs, and boosting supplier collaboration to increase social responsibility. A proposed conceptual framework was recommended to support the sustainable supply chain management practices of eThekwini Municipality as a future smart city.
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    Public procurement system challenges at selected higher education institutions in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    (2023) Gurayah, Jayrusha Ramasamy.; Naude, Michelle Jane.; Mbhele, Thokozani Patmond.
    Over the last decade in South Africa, public procurement has evolved significantly and attracted much scholarly research interest. There are challenges that exist in public procurement from provincial to national levels, these challenges are a combination of various areas of concern in the public sector. The researcher has unpacked these challenges into clear study constructs. The key procurement challenges resonate with the quality of PEOPLE, PROCESS and TECHNOLOGY amassed by the individual higher education institutions. In this study three higher education institutions were selected. The procurement policies and principles that entrench the higher education institutions (HEIs) in terms of delivering high levels of service and maintaining financially viable institution. Universities as institutions of higher learning have a mandate in ensuring that efficient and effective public procurement occurs at all levels. Against this backdrop, this study explored and identified the public procurement challenges at higher education institutions in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). The procurement system in these institutions exposed a gap on qualified and capable talent, in accord processes and the dearth of adoption emerging technology to achieve efficiency and effectiveness of procurement systems. The findings of study revealed the challenges, inefficiencies and technological barriers in the procurement systems. To model a financially and operationally feasible, 4 IR technological driven procurement system, a conceptual model was created with an agile and resilient procurement system's potential in consideration, with a focus on building adaptability and demand responsiveness. The main aim of this study is to identify the public procurement challenges of the selected HEIs and to detail the public procurement system by focusing on the main constructs of the study: people, process and technology. This study made use of an exploratory and descriptive qualitative research approach. The research setting will be the campuses of the selected HEIs. The gathering of primary data via semi-structured in-depth interviews were collected. A sample size of thirty procurement employees and management of the three HEIs were interviewed. Thematic analysis was used as the data analysis technique. The qualitative data was analysed and processed by NVivo.20 software.
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    Impacts of supply chain integration on resilience in state-owned logistics enterprises in Namibia.
    (2023) Shooya, Anatolia Tshanyengandje.; Mbhele, Thokozani Patmond.
    The study investigates supply chain integration (SCI) strategy and its impact on supply chain resilience within Namibia's state-owned logistics enterprises, explicitly focusing on the Port of Walvis Bay in the Erongo region. Despite the recognised synergistic effect of SCI on enhancing resilience, its application in Namibia's state-owned logistics enterprises, especially in Port Walvis Bay, requires specific investigation. Motivated by the need to determine SCI's implementation extent and its impact on resilience in these enterprises, the study aims to (a) to establish the impact of internal integration, (b) to determine the effect of supplier integration, (c) to establish customer integration's impact, (d) to determine the impact of information integration, and (e) to examine the relationship between supply chain integration and resilience. The study employed a quantitative questionnaire survey in six logistics industries in Walvis Bay. Data analysis employed structural equation modelling with the partial least squares method. The findings indicate that supply chain integration significantly contributes to resilience and substantially affects state-owned logistics enterprises in the Port of Walvis Bay, Erongo region. However, this relationship is not linear but contingent on the level of supply chain resilience. The study highlights the critical role of supply chain resilience as a mediator between integration and state-owned logistics enterprises, contributing to a better understanding of industry dynamics. This insight is valuable for practitioners and policymakers aiming to enhance the performance and resilience of regional state-owned logistics enterprises.
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    The assessment of sustainable supply chain management practices amongst selected manufacturing firms in Ghana=Ukuhlolwa kwezinqubo zokwenganyelwa ukusimamiswa kwezindlela zokusatshalaliswa kwempahla ezimbonini ezikhiqizayo eGhana ezikhethekile.
    (2022) Nsowah, Johnson.; Phiri, Maxwell Agabu.
    The study investigated whether the design and application of sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the Ghanaian manufacturing business enhance their financial performance and make them environmentally and socially responsible. The study was guided by six theories: the contingency theory, the resource-based view (RBV), the relational-view theory (RVT), the innovation diffusion theory (IDV), the stakeholder theory and the resource dependence theory (RDT). The study was underpinned by a pragmatist paradigm and followed a mixed-methods methodology, which combined interviews and surveys questionnaires to gather qualitative and quantitative data from a sample of 303 employees of Ghanaian manufacturing firms and 20 individuals who lived nearby. The data analysis findings revealed that relational, instrumental, knowledge and moral factors have a significant and positive direct effect on SSCM practices. Moreover, SSCM practices have a positive and significant effect on the economic, environmental and social performance of manufacturing firms. Barriers to the adoption of SSCM practices were also revealed. The findings led to the recommendation that firms need to use environmentally friendly materials for their products and introduce standardized procedures for recycling and disassembling products. In addition, manufacturing enterprises should collaborate with suppliers to ensure that they also adhere to sustainability standards in their processes and deliver services/products that support sustainability goals. Iqoqa Ucwaningo lwahlola ukuthi ngabe ukwakhiwa nokusetshenziswa kwezinqubo zokwenganyelwa kwezindlela zokusatshalaliswa kwempahla ngendlela ecabangela ingomuso emabhizinisini akhiqizayo eGhana, kuyakuthuthukisa yini ukusebenzisa kwawo izimali, nokuthi kuyenzeka yini ukuthi anakekele imvelo nemiphakathi. Ucwaningo lwalulandela izinjulalwazi eziyisithupha: icontingency theory, iresource-based view (RBV), irelational-view theory (RVT), iinnovation diffusion theory (IDV), i-stakeholder theory neresource dependence theory (RDT). Lolu cwaningo lusekelwe yipharadaymu yokungenzeka lwase lulandela indlelakwenza engxube eyahlanganisa izinhlolovo nemibuzo eyisaveyi lapho kuqoqwa imininingo eyikhwalithethivu neyikhwantithethivu esampuleni labasebenzi abangama-303 bezimboni zaseGhana ezikhiqizayo nabantu abangama-20 abahlala eduze nazo. Imiphumela yohlaziyo lwemininingo yaveza ukuthi izimo eziphathelene nobudlelwane, nezinto ezisetshenziswayo, ulwazi nendlela yokuziphatha kunomthelela obalulekile nomuhle, kulezi zinqubo zokwenganyelwa kwezindlela zokusatshalaliswa kwempahla ngendlela ecabangela ingomuso. Okunye futhi ukuthi lezi zinqubo zinomthelela omuhle nobalulekile kwezomnotho, emvelweni nasekusebenzisaneni kahle nemiphakathi kwezimboni ezikhiqizayo. Kwavela nezithiyo ezikhona mayelana nokwamukelwa kwezinqubo zokwenganyelwa kwezindlela zokusatshalaliswa kwempahla ngendlela ecabangela ingomuso. Imiphumela yaholela ekuthini kuphakanyiswe ukuthi izimboni emikhiqizweni yazo zisebenzise izinto ezingayicekeli phansi indalo nemvelo, nokulandela izindlela ezihlelembekile zempindakusebenzisa nokuhlakaza imikhiqizo. Okunye futhi ukuthi amabhizinisi akhiqizayo kumele asebenzisane nalabo abahlinzeka ngezimpahla ukuze kube nesiqiniseko sokuthi nabo bayazilandela izinqubo ezihlelembekile nezicabangela ingomuso nokuthi bathumela imisebenzi/nemikhiqizo esekela izinhloso ezisimamayo.
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    The influence of dimensions of organisational culture on supply chain performance in selected state-owned enterprises in Zimbabwe.
    (2018) Musanzikwa, Michael.; Ramchander, Manduth.
    This study aimed to explore the extent to which organisational cultural factors, like time orientation, profit orientation, and ownership orientation have an influence on the supply chain performance of state owned enterprises (SOEs) in Zimbabwe. The main objective of the study was to explore the influence of dimensions of organisational culture on supply chain performance in SOEs in Zimbabwe. There were seven specific objectives. The first research objective was to review literature on organisational and supply chain management. The second research objective was to examine the extent to which SOEs in Zimbabwe were effective in terms of financial targets, customer satisfaction, internal business processes, and learning and growth perspectives. The third research objective was to understand the influence of time orientation on the supply chain metric of delivery in SOEs in Zimbabwe. The fourth research was to understand the influence of time orientation on the supply chain metric of flexibility in SOEs in Zimbabwe. The fifth research objective was to understand the influence of profit orientation on cost reduction in supply chain activities in SOEs in Zimbabwe. The sixth research objective was to understand the influence of ‘no ownership culture’ on decision-making in supply chain management in SOEs in Zimbabwe. The seventh research objective was to assess the level of customer satisfaction in SOEs. The researcher used mixed methods, which entailed a combination of both qualitative and quantitative designs. The population for the study comprised managers, employees, and clients of eight SOEs in Zimbabwe. The researcher used a combination of sampling strategies. Judgmental sampling was used to select the SOEs that were studied. Managers and employees were selected using random sampling while clients were selected through convenience sampling. Questionnaires and interviews were used as research instruments. This thesis presents the findings thematically, in line with the research questions. When answering the first research question, it was established that the SOEs were not meeting financial targets, not satisfying customers, internal business processes were not efficient and learning, and growth targets were not met. The study also found that the organisational cultural variables such as time and ownership orientation in the SOEs were weak and affecting, flexibility and timely delivery of goods and services negatively. It was established that there was no urgency because there were no ownership claims to profit. With regard to customer satisfaction, it was found out that the SOEs were failing to meet the needs of clients. In its contribution to new knowledge, the present research found that organisational cultural variables such as time, ownership and profit orientation have a direct influence on the behaviour of human resources and an indirect effect on customer satisfaction, cost saving and profitability in the SOEs. Based on the study, it is therefore recommended that commitment of leadership on human behaviour is necessary for effective supply chain performance and strategy implementation. It is also held that constant environmental scanning, strategic alliances (private-public partnerships), rationalisation of salaries and benefits and sound corporate governance are essential.
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    Closed-loop supply chain opportunities for SMME retailers in the South African fashion industry. Amathuba e-closed-loop supply chain kosomabhizinisi abasafufusa eNingizimu Afrikha embonini yengqephu.
    (2021) Muhwati, Chenai.; Salisbury, Roger Hans Theodore.
    Enhancing the social and environmental sustainability of the fashion industry’s supply chain has become an important topic in recent commercial and scholarly discussions. Consequently, closed-loop supply chains are emerging as opportunities for stakeholders to extend their roles and reduce post-consumption waste. This circular approach has been pioneered by large international retailers in developed countries, with research focused on their perspectives. As a result, SMME stakeholders have been neglected, but they contribute substantially to South Africa’s emerging economy. This study addresses the gap in the literature by investigating the potential for closed-loop supply chains for South African based SMME retailers in the fashion industry. Furthermore, consumer perceptions of this approach had not been probed in African countries. Research also shows that younger consumers are more inclined to support sustainable practices. As a result, this study selected to explore the responses of university students as potential consumers and supporters of the activities of closed-loop supply chains to evaluate possible market opportunities. As an accessible, emerging economy committed to introducing more sustainable practices, South Africa provided a suitable location for the study. The study used a mixed methods approach to better establish the presence of opportunities through evaluating perceptions, from multiple stakeholders, regarding the collection, recovery and redistribution of used fashion. Qualitative data were collected using interviews conducted with twelve SMME retailers of new and used fashion, one Cut, Make and Trim stakeholder, and one non-profit organisation. Quantitative data were gathered from questionnaires answered by 300 university students from the University of KwaZulu-Natal. The findings reveal that there are opportunities for SMME retailers to adopt and coordinate closed-loop supply chains in South Africa. They also reveal that there is consumer willingness to participate in the activities of these systems. Based on these findings, the study provides a comprehensive decision support model to enable SMME retailers and their partners to exploit the opportunities presented by closed-loop supply chains, despite the limitations of their relatively small size and their operation in a developing country. Iqoqa Ukwengezelela ekusimamiseni inhlalo kanye nesimo emkhakheni wengqephu mayelana nemboni yokuhlinzeka ngezinto ezizoba izihloko ezibalulekile emuva kwezingxoxo ezifaka ukudayisa kanye nongoti. Umphumela walokho, ukuvala kokuhlinzeka kuletha amathuba kulabo abayingxeye ukuqhubezela iqhaza kanye nokunciphisa incithakalo. Lokhu kungumzungezo wokwenza kahle okuqhakambiswa abathengiselwa emazweni asethuthukile, nalolu cwaningo olugxile kweyabo imibono. Umphumela walokhu kube ukunganakekelwa kosomabhizinisi abasafufusa, kodwa kunikela esimisweni sokuvela komnotho eNingizimu Afrikha. Lesi sifundo silungisa igebe mayelana nemibhalo ephenya okungenzeka kwabahlinzeka abangosomabhizinisi eNingizimu Afrikha embonini yengqephu. Uma sinezezela, iso labathengi kule ndlela yokwenza alikaze livukuzwe eNingizimu Afrikha. Ucwaningo lubuye lutshengise ukuthi abathengi ebasebancane ibona abanogqozi lokusekela ukusebenza okusimeme. Njengomphumela, isifundo sakhetha ukuphenya izimpendulo zezitshudeni eNyuvesi njengabathengi kanye namasekeli ezenzweni ezivale i-loop yabahlinzeki nokuhlonza okungaba amathuba emakethe. Njengoba kufinyeleleka, ukuphakama komnotho kuzibophezela ekwethuleni ukwenza okusimeme eNingizimu Afrikha, kunika isizinda esikahle sokufundwayo. Okufundwayo kusebenzise izindlela zokwenza ezixubile ukwakha amathuba amanje ngokuhluza ukuma kwezinto, kwababambe iqhaza abahlukene, mayelana nokuqoqiwe, nokutholiwe kanye nokusabalalisa osekusebenzile kwengqephu. Ulwazi lwaqoqwa ngokwekhwalithethivu kusetshenziswa izingxoxo ezenziwa nabathengelwa abasebasha kanye nokusebenzisa ingqephu, ukusika, ukwakha nokwehlisa kwababambisene nokuthi kungabibikho nzuzo enhlanganweni. Ulwazi ngekhwantithethivu lwaqoqwa ngamaphepha emibuzo eyaphendulwa abafundi baseNyuvesi yakwaZulu-Natali. Imiphumela iveza ukuthi kunamathuba kosomabhizinisi abasafufusa ekuthatheni nasekuzimaziseni ukuvalwa kwe-loop yabahlinzeki eNingizimu Afrikha. Luphinde lwaveza ukuthi abathengi abekho madolonzima ekubambeni iqhaza kuzo zonke izinhlelo. Ngokuncika kule miphumela, lesi sifundo sinika ukusekelwa kokuthathwa kwenzinqumo ezisekela osomabhizinisi abasafufusa kanye nabalingani babo abaxhaphaza amathuba athulwe okuvaliwe kwe-loop yokuhlinzeka, ngaphandle kwemikhawulo emincane ngokosayizi kanye nokwenziwayo ezweni elisathuthuka.
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    Adoption of electronic banking distribution channels in South Africa: the Unified Theory of Acceptance and use of technology.
    (2020) Nzama, Mbuso Emmanuel.; Mbhele, Thokozani Patmond.
    Globally, every industry is on the path of a technological revolution that is radically shaping how people and organisations relate to the world and to one another. The Fourth Industrial Revolution’s (4IR) digital technologies are transforming supply chain management from a linear model to a more integrated model in which information flows in multiple directions. The invention of e-banking has provided customers with a whole new experience of banking services. In South Africa, banks have invested heavily in technological solutions. However, socio-economic complexities and challenges are slowing down the adoption of e-banking channels. This study examines the key determinants of the adoption and acceptance of electronic banking through the theoretical constructs of the extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model (UTAUT2). The first research objective of the study was to determine the magnitude of acceptance and utilisation of downstream electronic banking distribution channels by generation-based clients. The second objective was to determine the effect of the cultural factor, uncertainty avoidance, on the use of electronic banking distribution channels. The third objective was to establish the downstream supply chain customer experience on the underlying impact of facilitating conditions on electronic banking systems. The penultimate objective was to determine the degree to which the downstream electronic banking simplicity practice influences usage of electronic banking distribution channels. The final objective was to develop the integrated electronic banking model that influences the downstream site generation-based customers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data in this study where the purposive and simple random samplings were selected. The study applied a quantitative approach to a 307 sample size of students doing post-graduate qualifications from three Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Durban. The collected data were analysed using univariate, bivariate and multivariate methods. The findings revealed that facilitating conditions, effort expectancy, and social influence are key determinants that explain the users’ adoption and use of e-banking channels in South Africa. The study also revealed that uncertainty avoidance influences the use of e-banking channels. The retail banks can use these findings to further improve their electronic channels feature in the future.
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    The antecedents and outcomes of supply chain collaboration: a study of Ghana’s downstream petroleum sector.
    (2020) Acquah, Innocent Senyo Kwasi.; Naude, Micheline Juliana Alberta.; Soni, Sanjay Shantilal.
    Organisations are becoming increasingly conscious of the fact that optimising the performance of the whole supply chain, instead of the individual organisations that constitute a supply chain, is the way to go. At the same time, uncertainty and changing customer expectations have made it abundantly clear that no single individual organisation has a monopoly over the efforts that lead to increased customer satisfaction. Products in Ghana’s downstream petroleum sector are mainly imported and therefore, susceptible to currency fluctuations. Furthermore, these products are undifferentiated, and the market, characterised with small margins making competition very keen, hence, internal efficiency and cost reduction are the keys to profits and survival. Though collaboration is one of the catalysts to competitive advantage and firm performance through cost reduction, how it relates to the dimensions its as antecedents and outcomes are, however, largely overlooked and neglected in the literature. Accordingly, it is inconclusive as to how the dimensions of collaborative culture, uncertainty and trust, influence supply chain collaboration as well as how supply chain collaboration influences the individual dimensions of collaborative advantage and firm performance in Ghana’s downstream petroleum sector. Drawing on the literature, this study, investigated the antecedents and outcomes of supply chain collaboration by examining through a comprehensive model, nine antecedents and seven outcomes of supply chain collaboration in the downstream petroleum sector. Collectivism, long-term orientation, power symmetry, uncertainty avoidance, benevolence, credibility microlevel uncertainty, meso-level uncertainty and macro-level uncertainty have been identified as the antecedents to supply chain collaboration. At the same time, process efficiency, business synergy, offering flexibility, quality, innovation, operational performance and financial performance were the outcome of supply chain collaboration. Theoretical underpinnings were drawn from Transaction Cost Economics (TCE), Resource-Based Theory (RBT), Resource Dependency Theory (RDT), Contingency Theory (CT) and Extended Resource-Based Theory (ERBT) to design the framework for the quantitative study. A mixed-methods approach, specifically the explanatory sequential mixed methods design made up of a quantitative survey of respondents, followed by semi-structured interviews, was adopted for the study. In the quantitative phase, a research model, made up of seventeen constructs, was developed and empirically tested, using the Partial Least Squares (PLS) approach to Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) with survey data of 166 usable responses. To further explain the quantitative findings, eight semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed, using thematic analysis in the second qualitative phase of the study. Whereas SmartPLS 3 was used to examine the relationships among the constructs in the quantitative phase, Nvivo version 12 was used to analyse the semi-structured interview data in the second qualitative phase. The quantitative findings revealed statistically significant results for eleven out of sixteen hypothesised paths. The qualitative results converged with most of the hypothesised paths in the quantitative model. Given the findings, the study recommends that more considerable attention is given to collectivism, long-term orientation, power symmetry, uncertainty avoidance, micro-level uncertainty, meso-level uncertainty, macro-level uncertainty, credibility and benevolence if firms in the downstream petroleum sector are to encourage and promote supply chain collaboration. Moreover, the relationships between supply chain collaboration and the dimensions of collaborative advantage (i.e. process efficiency, offering flexibility, business synergy, quality and innovation) and firm performance (operational performance and financial performance) need careful attention, if managers in the petroleum downstream are to reap the benefits of supply chain collaboration. The contributions of this study are three-fold: first, the study contributes to the supply chain collaboration literature by answering the call for a sub-construct level exploration of the antecedents and outcomes of supply chain collaboration. The study’s second contribution to the supply chain collaboration literature is in the use of an explanatory sequential mixed methods design, involving a first quantitative phase and a follow-up second qualitative phase. Finally, the study provides a developing country perspective that augments the evolving literature on supply chain collaboration, its antecedents as well as its outcomes.