ItemInternational Phd students’ first-year experiences: the case of students at the university of Kwazulu-Natal (UKZN).(2022) Oyewo, Adetola Elizabeth.; Manik, Sadhana.This study contributes to the literature on internationalization of higher education by adding to scholarship on students' destination choice on studying abroad and their expe1iences in host count1ies. South-south migration of students is an under researched field when compared to South-nmth migration. This study, couched in transnationalism, examined the reasons for international PhD students from com1tries in Afiica exiting their home count1y to study at the University of KwaZuluNatal (UKZN) in South Africa and their first-yeai· PhD expe1iences at UK.ZN. The study is unde1pinned by push-pull theories (Ravenstein, 1885; Lee, 1966; Mazzarol & Soutar, 2002) and the social capital themy of Bourdieu (1986). The study was qualitative using interviews and focus group discussions as date generation tools. Sixteen international PhD students from Africa, studying at UKZN were selected through convenience sampling. The findings indicate that international PhD students exit their home com1tiy because of several push factors, which collectively spur them to leaving their home cmmtiy to study at UKZN. International student migration to UKZN results in a brain gain for UKZN and a brain drain to the home com1tiy. The study advances theoretical insights into the push factors from other Afiican cmmt1ies, which were numerous; however the financial pull factors comprising fee remission and oppmtunities to tutor/ lecture at UKZN in SA ove1whelmingly propelled the mobility of international students from countries in Africa to UKZN in SA. The findings illmninate both positive and negative experiences about students' first-year PhD study at UKZN. The study fom1d that the students were accessing an array of social capitals at the host institution and within South Afiica. Positive experiences included academic tutoring/ lecniring and reseai·ch training towards completion of the PhD with initiatives such as the UKZN boot camps, workshops and the coho1t model. These expe1iences developed the hmnan capital of international students. Discursive positionality influenced students' expe1iences: the inability to speak isiZulu, Afrophobia, exclusion, and perceptions of 'being an outsider/foreigner. These created significant acculturative stresses for international students during the first year PhD. The study extends on the theo1ies of Mazzarol and Soutar and Lee. It makes a fiuther theoretical contiibution by providing a framework on the push-pull factors influencing international PhD students to study at UK.ZN and advances a framework on the provision of service quality. Several recommendations are provided to stI·engthen service delive1y for African international snidents to enhance the PhD students' experiences in their first year. ItemExploring the role of teacher learning community in accounting education in the context of rurality: a case study.(2023) Oduro, Sylvester Elvis.; Bhengu, Thamsanqa Thulani.; Ngwenya, Jabulisile Cynthia.This study explored the lived experiences of sixteen secondary school accounting teachers in one education district regarding the roles of teacher learning community programmes in the teaching and learning of accounting within the context of rurality. To secure equity in the segregated prodemocratic educational provision in South Africa, the post-apartheid education system has been characterised by a range of reform strategies to provide quality education which meets the demands of the 21st century and beyond. To ensure teachers’ understanding of the reform strategies and their implementation, the education system has been largely characterised by ongoing teacher learning community engagements that contribute to teacher professional learning. The study was grounded in the Community of Practice theory and the generative theory of rurality. Furthermore, a qualitative research approach supported by the interpretive paradigm was adopted in accordance with the study focus. A case study design involving both semi-structured individual telephonic interviews and a WhatsApp-based focus group discussion were used to generate data that contribute to the understanding of the lived experiences, interpretations, and the multiple meanings of the study participants. The data generated ware thematically analysed. The participants were purposefully selected through the convenience sampling. The outcome of the study revealed some important benefits of learning communities as well as contextual constraints that impact on their implementation. The benefits include accounting teachers’ mastery of the subject-matter and improved learning outcome, facilitating improvement strategies as well as nurturing teacher expertise to provide leadership in the accounting classroom. The study also established how learning communities produce creative and innovative mechanisms to facilitate the teaching and learning of accounting as well as how rural accounting teachers harness technology to enhance the effectiveness of learning communities. Given the above benefits, the study found that there was the need to revamp the implementation of learning communities for better outcome. Notwithstanding the benefits, this study also brings into focus the contextual challenges that constrain the implementation of learning communities in a rural context as well as inadequate teacher accountability that characterise the implementation of the learning community programmes. Given the findings, recommendations are made to effect the needed changes to improve the implementation of learning community programmes. ItemThe construction of violent femininities at a university campus in KwaZulu-Natal: students’ understandings of and exposure to gender violence.(2022) Naidu, Charnell Ruby.; Anderson, Bronwyn Mardia.This study explored university students’ understandings [and perceptions] of as well as exposure to female gender violence at a university in KwaZulu-Natal. Using qualitative research, the study is located within the interpretivist paradigm. The rationale for this study is based on the under researched phenomenon of university female students’ violence in all its forms. The study used purposive sampling and engaged in individual semi-structured open-ended interviews to generate data, with fifty-one purposively selected participants. Inductive and thematic analysis was used. The study used an eclectic theoretical approach which includes Judith Halberstam’s Theory of Female Masculinity, Raewyn Connell’s Theory of Gender Power and Michel Foucault’s Post Structural Theory so as to provide a comprehensive and nuanced insight into this complex phenomenon. The main findings showed that students understood gender violence with both males and female students as perpetrators, but with females disproportionately the victims. The students’ perceptions of female students’ use of gender violence and the forms it took according to the data were variegated in that their perceptions were both similar and differed in many instances. The forms of violence they mentioned ranged from physical, sexual, verbal, emotional as well as the use of social media platforms to derogate and humiliate individuals. The findings also reveal that female students were perpetrators of violence against other males and females, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and homophobic violence. Their engagement in violence challenged the stereotypical feminine status of docility. The findings further reveal that female students engage in gender violence for a multiplicity of reasons that may or may not be provoked. The study also found that alcohol and drug use was rife on campus and this exacerbated female gender violence. Evidently, the females being referred to and the males who witnessed or experienced female perpetrated violence showed the subversion of power from male domination and female passivity. These findings provide evidence that female student violence at university is prevalent and this has implications for future research in this field as well as implications for policy and practices at Higher Education Institutions. These finding have implications for a more holistic and inclusive approach in terms of tackling gender violence at Higher Education Institutions (HEI). ItemPoverty, school - aged pregnancy, parenthood and schooling in three township secondary schools in Kwazulu- Natal, South Africa.(2021) Mkhathini, Audrey Sibongile.; Morojele, Pholoho Justice.; Motsa, Ncamsile Daphne.The thesis consists of six manuscripts, that are collectively intended to explore how poverty affects the navigation of pregnancy, parenting and schooling of school-aged girls in three underprivileged township secondary schools in Durban in the Province of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, and the way in which the girls interpret their situations. The intention was to gain a deeper insight into the effect of poor socio- economic conditions on the pregnant girls and mothers‟ experiences, the navigation process and what they think could be done to improve their situation. The study was framed by the social constructionism theory to comprehend the daily life experiences of pregnant girls and mothers and the meaning they create from the situations that they face. Children‟s Geographies and intersectional models were further adopted to provide clear understanding of the intersection of poverty and the way in which girls challenge their situations. The study used qualitative narrative inquiry that illuminated pregnant girls‟ and mothers‟ situations and also the teachers‟ narratives. The research process took place in three secondary schools located in two poverty-stricken townships in Durban. Purposive sampling was used to select nine school-aged pregnant girls and mothers, two girls were from two schools and the other five girls were all from the same school. Participants‟ ages were between 15 to 19 years and they were in grades 10 to 12. To gather data from nine (9) participants, semi-structured individual and focus group interviews were employed. A participatory research method in the form of a mapping exercise and photo voice exercises were used for six participants to express their experiences, meanings and thoughts about their situation of negotiating parenting, pregnancy and of acquiring education in conditions of socio-economic scarcity. Teachers were also purposefully selected and were between 30 and 52 years old and had worked with pregnant girls and mothers from poverty- affected areas. Questionnaires and individual interviews were used to collect data from five teachers. The research process took place in pregnant girls‟ and mothers‟ natural settings where incidents that formed the girls‟ experiences when negotiating pregnancy, parenting, acquiring education and meaning as well as coping tactics, were formulated. The socially constructed beliefs based on culture and morality reduced the girls‟ space for social acceptance and optimism that could bring change to the life they are living. Social values became the source of negative interactions and reactions that pregnant girls and mothers experienced in their social circles, in their families, community and at school. That ranges from judgements to name calling - unfair treatment, rejection and loss of friendship that made girls live lives of guilt and regret. The study found that on top of well- known common disruptions that are brought about by pregnancy and parenting to all the school-aged girls, scarcity of means and poor familial relationships worsen the situation. This is because pregnant girls and mothers faced extra responsibilities and challenges that other school-aged pregnant girls and mothers with privileged economic background and favourable family relationships did not face. Namely, providing for themselves, the lack of basic needs and money, inability to access social assistance due to lack of adult guidance and knowledge that brought hardships and challenges to their schooling careers. The study maintains that the poverty that most girls experience is exacerbated by various factors that resulted from social or familial injustices and unreliable social systems. All of these impact negatively on the girls‟ navigation process. Hence, poor socio-economic conditions did not only become the sole determinant of the different experiences that pregnant girls and mothers faced in their journey, but it also brought numerous challenges that complicated the girls schooling journey. In addition, penurious conditions also exposed girls to powerlessness, dependency and lowered their selfesteem. This taught them to deny themselves and their personal needs and to prioritise their children and other people‟s interests and this interfered with their emotional and psychosocial development. The study further found that pregnant girls and mothers were subjected to various social injustices. In addition; pregnancy and parenting resulted in various surprising reactions and interactions for school-aged girls as it disclosed realities that hurt their feelings such as, witnessing the diminution of their effectiveness in their families and being replaced by their babies. All pregnant girls and mothers demonstrated great zeal to finish school to improve their babies and family‟s lives so they had to show resilience towards the odd situations that they faced to get education. This included, coming up with various strategies as their coping mechanisms which included, listening to their parents and teachers, ignoring negative reactions, making use of available assistance even if others laugh at them, and starting their days earlier and finishing them later than others. The study found out that the agency that girls demonstrated is not sufficient to take them to where they want to be but that they need support. Although they are pregnant and are mothers, they are still young, so community and family support is considered crucial for them to negotiate the situation in a stigma-free environment. The study concluded that the community, schools and homes are the best places that could constitute this kind of environment if it were to be encouraging and less judgemental. At the school level, School Management Team (SMT) and teachers should familiarise themselves with guidelines on learner pregnancy prevention and management and they should be more willing to be proactive and sensitive to the issue of poverty among pregnant girls and mothers. Also, they should ensure that there is a policy that will be followed by the school that should be known by all the teachers. The Department of Education should enrich the curriculum in such way that it equips learners with moneymaking and management skills. Different Government Departments need to work collaboratively with the Department of education in order to assist pregnant girls and mothers to achieve their goals by providing relevant guidance such as the procedure to access social security. ItemThe representations of contemporary legislation in South African Grade 12 Business Studies textbooks.(2022) Magwanyana, Thandokuhle Prince.; Ramdhani, Jugathambal.; Mtshali, Muntuwenkosi Abraham.The purpose of the study was to analyse the representations of contemporary legislation in South African Grade 12 Business Studies textbooks. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) was used as a contemporary theoretical approach to qualitative research with a view to examining the use of words and sentences. Employing a qualitative approach allowed for the extraction of rich data from the diverse meanings that different textbooks assign to current legislation, as portrayed in Grade 12 Business Studies textbooks. Qualitative research is unrestricted and adaptable. The study employs Critical Theory (CT) to demonstrate how bureaucratic, cultural, and social power in society influence the representations of legislation, such that what may be known about legislation is subjectively shaped by the values and social positioning of the dominant group. The main focus of this study is CDA, a social analysis programme that examines discourse critically; in other words, how language is used to address social change. The analytical tools used in the study were ―Omission‖, ―Insinuation‖, ―Presupposition‖, ―Modality‖, ―Topicalisation‖, ―Foregrounding‖, ―Register‖ and ―Connotation‖, as employed by (Huckin, 1997, 91, 93; McGregor, 2003, 4-6). Findings from the analysis of six South African Grade 12 Business and Studies textbooks indicate that the use of power is still embedded in the written words, to maintain control of society by those in the elite. The findings also indicated that school textbooks lack neutrality. The implications of the findings suggest that the South African Grade 12 Business Studies textbooks are overwhelmed with issues of power and control and hidden messages, even though no explicit linguistic features are articulated at the surface level. Awareness must be raised among policymakers, textbook creators, textbook users, facilitators, teachers, and schools, to make power relationships and social group illustrations in textbooks more reasonable. Grade 12 Business Studies teachers treat school textbooks used in the classroom as if they are neutral. However, there is a need for teachers to critically engage with school textbooks and to examine how and why specific texts are written or presented in particular ways. Grade 12 Business Studies teachers, in collaboration with subject specialists, scholars, and policymakers, must examine school textbooks. ItemThe nature of assessment tasks in secondary Business Studies textbooks in Eswatini, Lesotho and Botswana.(2022) Dlamini, Zodwa Treasure.; Manik, Sadhana.This research study focused on assessment tasks in junior secondary Business Studies textbooks in three Southern African countries: Eswatini, Lesotho and Botswana (ELB), thus addressing a gap in the scholarship on Business Studies textbook analysis. Business Studies is part of a new curriculum introduced in these countries and entrepreneurship, a significant thematic focus. The study analyzed the nature of assessment tasks against a background of problem-solving and critical thinking skills development for secondary school learners. This study analyzed two chapters in each of the three Business Studies textbooks from the three mentioned countries. Textbook content analysis was thus at the core of the study where the assessment tasks in the Business Studies textbooks were analysed. Two key themes of Entrepreneurship and Business Ownership were selected for analysis as the selected countries indicated high levels of unemployment and their new curricula showed a commitment to fostering entrepreneurship and business ownership amongst learners in the hope of building the economy. Whilst the study used a mixed-method approach, it leaned more towards a qualitative approach as the analysis involved an interpretation of the complexity of the assessment tasks in the Business Studies textbooks Literature related to textbook assessment tasks were reviewed for a general conceptual, theoretical and methodological foundation for the exploration. The study used a conceptual framework adapted from Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy and Umalusi and then further developed a Multi-Dimensional Framework (MDF) for this study to analyse the cognitive demand in the assessment study's findings highlight several gaps in postcolonial education in the two sections providing theoretical insights into the aim of Business Studies as a subject in order to ensure the sustainability of an entrepreneurial spirit in learners. Textbook quality was at risk in these two chapters for several reasons. The chapters demonstrated extensive short answer tasks that test lower order thinking skills (LOTS) facilitating superficial learning. Therefore, there is dissonance between the objective of including specific chapters in the textbooks (such as entrepreneurship and business ownership, which are innovations to the curriculum linked to neoliberalism) and the nature of the assessments and the kind of learner that would be developed in these chapters. The few essay type tasks in the textbooks, promote deep learning by assessing higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) like problem-solving and critical thinking skills which enhance the development of entrepreneurial skills. Additionally, tasks in the textbooks were sequenced in a manner that enhance continuity and progression of learning. Also, some essay tasks were authentic as they do simulate the real world situation but authentic assessment tasks did not dominate the two sections in all three textbooks. The research concludes with a framework called ‘Integrated Assessment Framework’ (IAF) to guide future analysis of end of chapter tasks. It is recommended that these chapters (Entrepreneurship and Business Ownership) be reviewed by the relevant education authorities and refined to foster greater critical thinking and problem-solving skills, to promote authentic, fit for purpose, context-driven deep learning which can serve as a germination bed for entrepreneurial activity and business ownership. ItemAn inquiry-based learning framework for teaching Geographic Information Systems in a rural ecology.(2022) Zondi, Thabile Aretha.; Hlalele, Dipane Joseph.This study explored the use of an Inquiry-based learning framework for teaching Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in a rural learning ecology. This qualitative study was premised on the transformative paradigm. Using Participatory Action Research, 17 stakeholders shared their experiences of teaching and learning of GIS. Critical Emancipatory Research (CER) was used to frame this study and it allowed for the formation of a reciprocal relationship amongst the co-researchers. Data was generated through conversations with a purpose, focus group discussions, reflective journals and classroom observations. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data for this study. The study identified four major impediments to the teaching of GIS in the particular context: lack of formal GIS training, traditional teaching approaches, inadequate resources, and a negative teacher attitude towards GIS. It was noted from these findings that there was a training gap and consequently, the co-researchers and I participated in training workshops focused on GIS content knowledge and pedagogy. An Inquiry-based framework was integrated into the training workshops and as a result of these workshops, the co-researchers started exhibiting a positive attitude towards GIS. Central to the findings in this study was the importance of communicative action and the collaboration of different stakeholders in addressing educational challenges. To conclude, based on the findings from this study an Inquiry-based learning framework is recommended for teaching GIS in a rural learning ecology. ItemNon-major accounting students’ learning in a threshold concepts-inspired tutorial programme.(2021) Padayachi, Sasha.; Maistry, Suriamurthee Moonsamy.Accounting 101 classrooms at universities in South Africa typically consist of large class numbers with both major and non-major accounting students. The students who are majoring in the discipline of accounting have elected to study accounting and qualify as chartered accountants or a similar profession. The students who are not majoring in the discipline of accounting have had accounting imposed upon them as a compulsory discipline in their chosen programmes. Historically, the pass rates and class averages in these classes are low, both internationally (Hove et al., 2010; McGee, Preobragenskaya, & Tyler, 2004) and in South Africa (du Plessis, Muller & Prinsloo, 2005). The pedagogy, curriculum, assessment style and the delivery of the accounting discipline have been designed with the competencies required by the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants (SAICA). The challenge inherent in this mixed classroom bears reference: as resources were limited, discipline experts were unable to provide non-major accounting students who do not want to become chartered accountants or those students who possessed an aversion to the discipline, with a design relevant to their specifications. This challenge necessitated a deeper understanding of non-major accounting students’ learning, as well as those students who possessed an aversion to the discipline, as their performance may contribute to the failure rate. This further necessitated the utilisation of possible innovative methods in order to assist students who do not wish to specialise in accounting in a South African context. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ways in which non-major accounting students experienced the learning of Accounting 101 in a tutorial programme based on the Threshold Concepts Theory. This innovative method was used to attempt to assist students to overcome the conceptual as well as the emotional barriers to their learning of Accounting 101, and to therefore think like an accountant, the purpose of the Threshold Concepts Theory. The qualitative methodology that was used is called Interactive Qualitative Analysis (IQA) and consisted of a two-phased methodology: focus groups and the use of semi-structured interviews to validate the results of the focus group phase. This qualitative study was informed by the principles of social constructivism, where the construction of knowledge and skills is a social process (Lucas, 2000). The learning paradigm or worldview that the Threshold Concepts Theory propounds is also that of social constructivism (Meyer & Land, 2008). The IQA analysis provided a Systems Influence Diagram (SID), which is a graphical representation of the themes or affinities that emerged during the learning journey of the participants. The holistic approach to learning adopted by the participants drove the entire study and influenced how effectively the participants interacted with the Accounting 101 threshold concepts tutorial questions. The design of these tutorial questions also influenced the challenging dynamics of the discipline content. The challenges found within the discipline content influenced the learning experiences of the participants, and in turn resulted in two ‘super-affinities’ that addressed the conceptual and emotional barriers to learning. The concept of ‘interprogramminarity’ was created for this study, which describes research conducted amongst programmes that housed the same discipline, namely, Accounting 101, for this study. This concept will allow discipline experts to use the tentative framework provided to teach non-major accounting students to think in the discipline when they embark on their learning journey. The framework also suggested that the personality traits of the students should be assessed prior to and upon completion of their learning journey, using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, so that students could be aware of which quadrant of the Eysenck Personality Theory they belonged to, and if there was any change when they mastered the discipline. ItemExploring the effects of environmental location and social inequalities on the emotional geographies of teaching and learning: a comparative analysis of three primary schools in Bloemfontein, South Africa.(2022) Masoka, Nkesane Samson.; Gaillard, Claire.This qualitative study explored the effects of environmental location and social inequalities on the emotional geographies of teaching and learning in three selected primary schools. Accordingly, a comparative analysis was conducted in three schools located in the Motheo District in the Free State – a province of South Africa. The research participants included principals, teachers, parents and learners from the selected Free State school communities. Data was collected by means of semi-structured interviews and observations. Given that the study sought to explore equity, democracy, peace and stability in the education fraternity, the critical paradigm was employed to interpret the data. The findings cannot be generalized across the entire province or district. The findings come from three South African schools that are different in nature – public peri-urban, public rural and urban private – with special reference to Bloemfontein, South Africa. The findings revealed that Kganya Public Peri-Urban School and Jahman Public Rural School’s teacher-leaner ratios exceeded the Education Department’s prescribed norm, and this impacted negatively on teaching and learning. However, the teacher-learner ratio of Groenvlei Urban Private School was below the Education Department’s prescribed norm, and learners received the full attention of the teachers. The findings also indicated that Groenvlei Urban Private School’s buildings met the basic infrastructure requirements and were much better than those of Kganya Public Peri-Urban School and Jahman Public Rural School, which were in a poor condition during the time of this research. Regarding family structures, the findings revealed that most of the learners attending Kganya Public Peri-Urban School and Jahman Public Rural School did not stay with their parents. However, all grade 7 learners from Groenvlei Urban Private School stayed with their parents, who were able to assist them with their day-to-day needs. The research findings further indicated that the learners' attitudes towards learning was mostly affected by the circumstances in which they found themselves, which included walking long distances to school, the school buildings and the school environment, which had little or no effect on the part of Groenvlei Urban Private School. The findings also showed that parental involvement at Kganya Public Peri-Urban School and Jahman Public Rural School was poor, while it was good at Groenvlei Urban Private School. Implications for the school community were tabled, whereby it was suggested that the Education Department should work together with the School Governing Body(SGB), principals, community leaders, church leaders, and all stakeholders to mobilise parental involvement in school activities. This could be done through workshops, church services, awareness campaigns, and community meetings. It was also suggested that a system of grade representatives be introduced at schools to oversee the daily activities of the learners and teachers in and outside the classroom. This would ensure that the school community and the community as a whole worked together for a better level of education in South African schools. On the part of the government, it was suggested that the government worked closely with all schools (including private schools) in order to bridge the gap that existed between them. The government should also reduce class sizes in public peri-urban and public rural schools to enable effective teaching and learning to take place. Moreover, the government should co-operate with nongovernmental organisations to assist with maintaining school buildings and undertaking renovations. Regarding economic inequality, it was confirmed as an obstacle to conducive teaching and learning (the inequality refers to learning resources poverty and unemployment). The government should play a pivotal role in changing the situation in schools. In conclusion, the government has to ensure that the inequalities revealed by this study are addressed in order to improve the quality of teaching and learning in South Africa. ItemGender, sexuality and violence: an ethnographic case study of 12-13-year-old schoolgirl femininities at a primary school in KwaZulu-Natal.(2022) Govender, Naresa.; Bhana, Deevia.; Moosa, Shaaista.This ethnographic study is situated at the intersection of gender, sexuality and violence in illuminating the experiences of 12- and 13-year-old girls in a primary school in KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa. Rejecting a dominant focus on girls as passive and docile, the thesis illustrates the complex ways through which young femininity is produced, accommodated and challenged in relation to heterosexuality. Given the relative scholarly silence around primary school girls’ constructions of heterosexuality in South Africa, the thesis asserts that such girls’ investment in heterosexuality is a contradictory pursuit: their desires and active agency are self-evident, but so are the oppressive ways through which their own actions serve male interests. I argue that the primary school context is an active site through which young femininities are produced, as girls reinforce and challenge gender norms. Firstly, I focus on the expectations and respectability accorded to the ‘proper girl’ status. Being a proper girl was a dominant expectation and pervaded girls’ experiences in their family, community, and school. Proper girl femininity rested on pre-dominant norms founded on sexual docility and subordination to gender and cultural traditions. These norms were emphasized in relation to male power, and the presumption of girls’ vulnerability and victimhood in regards to sex and sexual violence. Secondly, and notwithstanding these dominant messages, girls contested proper girl femininity. They drew on particular heterosexual strategies and were subjected to - and subjected themselves to - the societal compulsion towards obligatory heterosexuality. The study shows that girls invested in boys and boyfriends, modified their bodies and dressed and engaged in sexual talk and practices through which their existence as sexual beings was illuminated in direct contrast to proper girl femininity. However, their insistent expressions of sexual agency occurred in the context of rape culture at school. Thus, thirdly, the study highlights detailed accounts, from girls’ own perspectives, of the ways in which sexual harassment, violence and inequalities manifested at school through the insidiousness of rape culture. Nearly all the girls interviewed spoke of sexual harassment meted out by boys and other girls, which they either experienced or witnessed. However, girls’ attempts to contest and redress rape culture at school were limited as a result of the broader social and cultural system they lived in being based in turn on patriarchal conditions which offered little support for girls’ experiences of harassment and violence. In this regard, the girls spoke of how their teachers paid little to no attention to gendered and sexual relations as such within the school environment. Rape culture was tolerated and normalised. In this way, the school was found to be complicit in the casualisation of gender binaries, gender-based violence and misogyny. Culturally-embedded notions of emphasised femininity were also used as a powerful tool to regulate girls and a means of disassociating them from expressing agency and speaking out about their experiences of sexual violence within the school environment. Finally, the greatest significance of a study of this nature lies in its contribution to the designing of suitable intervention strategies to support South African primary schoolgirls in their experiences of gender, sexuality and violence. These strategies must take into account the complex and early formations of femininities that are outlined in this study. An approach that recognises girls’ pleasurable investments in the development of their own sexuality, as well as their potentially damaging investments, while also underscoring the need for a greater focus on younger girls’ femininity in South Africa, is more necessary than ever. This should be a vital and necessary step in working towards ensuring that schoolgirls are equipped with the skills and knowledge to negotiate their sexualities in more positive and gender-equitable ways, rather than in ways that are harmful to their sexual and emotional well-being. ItemYoung masculinities: an ethnography of 8–9-year-old primary school boys.(2022) Govender, Diloshini.; Bhana, Deevia.In this ethnographic study I set out to examine the construction of masculinities among 8–9-yearold primary school boys. This study was conducted in a racially diverse schooling context comprised of a mixed class of low-middle and low income Indian and black boys in KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa. A purposive sampling method was employed to select 25 boys for this study. In addition, 11 teacher participants were included to enable a broader lens for my analysis of young masculinities. Following the tenets of feminist poststructuralism, I capture the gendered lives of young boys by prioritising their own views and experiences. This study highlights the social processes through which masculine identities were formed – nuanced by race, socioeconomic conditions, culture, gender inequalities, and sexuality– all of which contributed to malleable and plural patterns of masculinities. These variables intersected to shape Indian and black boys’ social interactions, their negotiation of power and their racialised and classed subjectivities which constituted a significant force in their negotiation of masculinities. Departing from traditional adult framings of childhood passivity, the study findings foreground the complexities, contradictions and diverse ways through which young boys construct, redefine, negotiate and share their knowledge of gender and sexuality as active agents of masculinities. Violence and heterosexuality emerged as the most dominant and prevalent way of expressing hegemonic masculinity and male power. Violence was exemplified through performances of strength, fighting prowess, an esteemed physical body and the denigration of femininity. However, this was not a uniform experience for all boys: given their agency some boys sought to denounce hegemonic masculinity by adopting non-violent subject positions and developed a shared solidarity by caring for each other, thus transcending racial divides. Heterosexuality was also a normalising force that regulated boys’ sexuality in ways that constrained or empowered their masculinities. They actively invested in heterosexual masculinity, finding pleasure in it but also navigating the complex terrains related to compulsory heterosexuality, material and economic deprivation and competition for girlfriends. Nonetheless, teachers rendered boys' early engagement in sexuality obsolete due to dominant subjectivities of childhood innocence. ItemThe role of environmental education in climate change mitigation and adaptation: the case of Gwanda rural district, Zimbabwe.(2021) Sibanda, Arorisoe.; Manik, Sadhana.The purpose of this research was centred on the role of Environmental Education (EE) in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The study sought to explore the successes and challenges of EE efforts in climate change mitigation and adaptation among the communities of Gwanda rural district in Zimbabwe. An interpretive qualitative case study research approach was used to explore EE efforts in the rural drought-prone area in Zimbabwe. The participants comprised farmers whose livelihoods are dependent on natural resources and government support officials such as the Agriculture and Extension Services Department (AGTRITEX) and the Environmental Management Agency (EMA) officials). Data generation tools included semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and document analysis. A sample of 38 research participants from two wards of Gwanda rural district were used, and there were 19 research participants per ward. The Sustainable Rural Livelihoods (SRL) Framework and the Nested model of sustainability guided the study. The findings indicate a myriad of EE efforts by the government and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) that require local innovations in their implementation. The research indicated that there are numerous climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies being implemented in the Gwanda rural district. Some of these strategies are ineffective, whilst some are successful. There were inconsistencies and a lack of coordination in some climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies which are being implemented. The research indicated cultural resistance by some farmers who are not implementing mitigation and adaptation strategies that have proved to be successful in the district due to traditional beliefs and practices. Therefore, there is a need to embark on EE programmes to address issues that hinder the adoption of successful climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. All cultural beliefs and practices that hinder the implementation of successful climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies should be addressed through the engagement of traditional leaders. The study revealed that for EE programmes to be effective, they have to focus on harnessing local expertise that is collaborative efforts between extension agents and communities to craft EE programmes for local use. The research also indicated that a 'one size fits all’ approach will not lead to successful implementation of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies because there are situated vulnerabilities. COVID-19 has also worsened situated vulnerabilities in Gwanda rural district mainly due to recurring national lockdowns which inhibit the local communities’ access to treated seeds from local towns. Also, the retrenchment of workers has worsened the vulnerabilities of communities because a loss of income negatively affects capital assets which compromises generative resilience. Thus, the study advocates for the use of indigenous seeds that avoid inconveniences during national lockdowns because communities will be using locally available seeds which are well adapted to the local conditions. Two models were developed in this study towards this end, to illustrate the roles of EE in enhancing generative resilience and reducing situated vulnerability in Gwanda. The models developed are EE for Rural Sustainable Livelihoods (EERSL) and the Box Model for Rural Sustainable Livelihoods (BMRSL). The models were developed focussing on different levels of intervention: the micro, meso, and macro levels whilst extrapolating concepts of SRLF and the Nested model of sustainability. They illustrate that the key determinants of sustainable livelihoods in the context of Gwanda, are EE and financial funding. As a result, the study found that EE and capital assets are critical in reducing the vulnerability of communities in drought-prone areas. They also enhance resilience, environmental stewardship and promote sustainable livelihoods. The study suggests exploring African solutions to African problems and the harnessing of indigenous knowledge systems in developing local solutions to local problems. The data from the study can be utilised in EE programmes to boost the resilience of rural communities, which are vulnerable to climate change in Gwanda rural district, Zimbabwe. ItemMale university peer-educator students’ understandings of masculinities and their connection to gender-based violence.(2021) Ngubane., Sibusiso Siphesihle.; Singh, Shakila.Gender-based violence (GBV) is a serious concern in societies worldwide. In recent years there has been much focus on GBV at institutions of higher learning, with research showing female students being the main victims of violence perpetrated by men. Men being the main perpetrators of violence puts masculinities under the spotlight and calls for a deeper understanding of how men construct and conduct themselves. Against the backdrop of research investigating the link between masculinities and violence, this study focuses on male university peer-educator students’ (MUPES’) understandings of masculinities and their connection to GBV.1 Given the continued global efforts to involve men in the fight against GBV, and the realisation that peer education can improve students’ knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in different fields (e.g. sexual health issues, sexual violence prevention and social issues), the study sought to explore how MUPES’ understandings of masculinities contributed towards reducing GBV or maintaining the status quo. This qualitative study draws on gender theories that view masculinities as socially and culturally constructed rather than being biologically determined. Biological determinism positions men and women as inherently different and opposite, hence facilitating justified male power and female subordination. Important in understanding male power and GBV is how men construct hegemonic masculinity, which is a form that highlights that some masculine expressions are powerful and regarded as more valid than others. Understanding hegemonic masculine norms is key, as they are important components to disrupt for the prevention of GBV. The data were generated by means of a mapping workshop, individual interviews and focus group discussions with drawings from a purposively selected group of male students who lived at the university residences and were members of the Campus HIV/AIDS Support Unit (CHASU). The findings suggest that MUPES are aware of gender inequalities and how these promote violence, and understand GBV as emanating from asymmetrical gender power within sociocultural processes. The findings also highlight the hegemonic campus masculinities that were constructed around materiality, contributing to the unequal gender relations through female students’ perceived consenting behaviours that suggested legitimation to their subordination. The MUPES constructed themselves in complex ways, as their articulations vacillated between complying with and challenging hegemonic masculine norms. They viewed themselves as having the capacity to deconstruct the harmful campus masculinities and rework their own limiting identities, as well as to encourage positive change in other male students. The findings also point to the importance of peer education as a vital platform that enables male students to take the lead in discussions about gender norms that produce and promote GBV. Most of the male peer-educator students who participated in the study embraced the expectations and responsibilities that accompanied their position, their articulations being characterised by varying degrees of reflexivity. This study argues for the importance of encouraging young men to engage in reflecting on their own beliefs and practices, and then to extend that process to working with other young men, and thus challenge and rework the harmful masculinities that lead to GBV at universities. ItemGeographic information systems (GIS) diffusion in high schools.(2023) Hlatywayo, Johane.; Manik, Sadhana.Geographical information systems (GIS), the phenomenon for this study, was introduced as a section in the Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS) for school Geography in 2006 in South Africa. It also appears in the latest Curriculum addition, namely the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS), for Geography. It is taught in the further education and training (FET) phase of high school (Grades 10, 11 and 12) as a critical part of map work, which is assessed in Paper 2 of the geography examinations for these grades. An acknowledgement of the high failure rate of matric learners (grade 12) in the high stakes examination in Geography is testimony to the challenges that teachers and learners face. However, few studies have explored GIS diffusion locally, through the lens of teachers: their beliefs and views, the way it is taught and why, given that it is a practical component of the curriculum dependent on school resources, such as access to electricity, computers, GIS software and teachers’ innovativeness. Hence, there was a need to understand how GIS is taught and to identify the challenges which teachers face when they teach this section of the curriculum. The aim of the study was thus to explore GIS diffusion through the teaching of GIS in high schools in the Frances Baard district of the Northern Cape province of South Africa, a context where there is a dearth of research on GIS teaching in Geography. Key objectives of this study included an exploration of the pedagogical approaches used by geography teachers when they teach GIS and the reasons why they choose these approaches. The study also sought to examine teachers ’attitudes towards the inclusion of GIS in Geography in the FET phase and their views about teaching it. The study fell within the pragmatist paradigm, and a sequential explanatory mixed methods and multiple-case study design research design was adopted. Questionnaires, interviews, and classroom observations were used to generate data. Purposive convenience sampling was utilised to select the most accessible participants. In total, 60 geography teachers participated in this research. The study used Rogers’ (2003) diffusion of innovation theory and the technology acceptance model (TAM) as frameworks. The data from the interviews and classroom observations were analysed thematically using framework analysis, whilst the data from the questionnaires were analysed quantitively using SPSS, and the application of the Fisher’s test and ANOVA. The study integrated the findings and drew inferences using both qualitative and quantitative data. Teachers were found to have positive attitudes about the inclusion of GIS in the curriculum and they displayed an appreciation of its importance in society. However, the study found that the use of GIS in the classroom is constrained by several technical and non-technical challenges. It was revealed that seasoned teachers (who have been in the teaching profession for a long time) do not easily accept curriculum changes and need in-service training to enhance their knowledge and confidence in new content, such as GIS when it’s introduced into the curriculum. Further, the research noted that the majority of teachers used teacher-centred pedagogical approaches when teaching GIS, utilising mainly the textbook. It was a significant finding that the teachers lacked GIS training, and that they had inadequate GIS content knowledge. Furthermore, teachers 'integration of GIS in their geography lessons, was impaired by infrastructure challenges in the school with electricity and internet connectivity. The study makes theoretical contributions to the diffusion of innovation, as well as technology acceptance models from a GIS lens, in addition to Geography teaching in South Africa. Many teachers resorted to thus ‘teaching about GIS’ rather than ‘teaching through GIS’. As a result, ‘perfunctory GIS teaching’ was evident in the mechanical, minimal effort, unenthusiastic manner of teaching. Many teachers were ‘curriculum cramming’ - they hurtled through the GIS section of the CAPS and failed to integrate it with other Geography topics in the curriculum due to the curriculum and assessment demands for GIS. Whilst there is value in teacher-centred pedagogical approaches to teaching some aspects of GIS, the current curriculum is constructivist and teachers’ weak GIS content knowledge base contributed to influencing the pedagogical approaches which they opted to use when teaching GIS. The study advances an ecosystems model to understand and respond to the GIS teaching challenges facing Geography teachers in the Frances Baard district of the Northern Cape. Thus, the study recommends that it is critical for teachers to receive GIS support such as GIS training on compliance to CAPS and to build sufficient content and pedagogical content knowledge to be confident in teaching this section. The research also recommends that, in order to bridge the gap in GIS knowledge, a seeding model of GIS can be pursued in the province. Alternatively, the GIS lessons can be skype/zoom taught if there is a lack of access to electricity so that schools can learn simultaneously. These models can help reduce the failure rate in the GIS section of the matric exit examination and it can assist to promote the subject of geography, especially for those learners who are intent on pursuing GIS linked careers. Other insights gained from the data suggest that the pedagogical approaches used, the knowledge of GIS by teachers, and their attitudes towards GIS can be improved if other stakeholders (apart from the Department of Education and their district offices), such as the Environmental Systems Research Institute South Africa, universities and local municipalities that have access to GIS expertise and resources help to set up collaborative project endeavours to provide GIS expertise, to workshop teachers and to tutor learners in the GIS seeding of schools. ItemTeenage pregnancy and motherhood as barriers to girls’ access and success in education in a South African township: a qualitative study.(2021) Mcambi, Sithembile Judith.; Moletsane, Relebohile.This qualitative study aimed to examine the ways in which pregnancy and motherhood influenced a group of 16 purposely selected teenage girls living in a South African township to drop out from school. The study addressed the following research question: In what ways do pregnancy and motherhood function as barriers to teenage girls’ access and success in school? Located within the social constructivist paradigm, the study utilised a qualitative research design to address the research question. The data generation methods included in-depth individual interviews with the 16 participants, field notes and my reflective research journal. To understand the factors that influenced the girls’ or their parents’/guardians’ decision making regarding schooling, data analysis is informed by the gender socialisation theory (Elkin, 1968) and Bronfenbrenner’s (1977; 1979) ecological systems theory. Data was analysed using the thematic analysis method and the themes were used to inform the findings from the study. The key findings of this study suggest that most of the pregnancies were unplanned and/or unwanted. As such, they brought feelings of shame, regret and remorse to the participants as they felt that they had disappointed their parents and families. The findings suggest that a number of factors forced the girls to dropout of school. Some were suspended from school (despite the country’s policies prohibiting their exclusion), while others were pulled out of schools by their parents or guardians as punishment or to look after their children. Further, the girls reported feeling overwhelmed by the competing demands of motherhood and schooling, and were therefore, forced to withdraw from school to take care of their children. Stigma and rejection, withdrawal of support, including childcare and financial support, also forced some of the teenage mothers to leave school. At the personal and social level, discrimination and bullying from peers, inability to balance mothering responsibilities with school work also led to school dropout. However, for some, they saw their dropout from school as a temporary setback, and were determined to go back to school and complete. Their reasoning was that, with an education, they would be able to get out of poverty and to better take care of their children. The thesis draws implications for policy makers, curriculum developers, teachers and others stakeholders regarding interventions that would ensure adequate policy implementation in schools, and provision of support for pregnant girls and young women in the community and schools to enable them to stay and complete their schooling. ItemDiscourses of entrepreneurship in contemporary commerce textbooks in secondary schools in selected Southern African Development Community (SADC) Countries.(2020) Hutchinson, Maud Victoria.; Maistry, Suriamurthee Moonsamy.Strong emphasis has been placed on entrepreneurship in recent times as scholars and policy makers, including those in the field of education, regard it as a remedy for the social and economic challenges facing societies. Various programmes and courses promoting entrepreneurship can thus be found in the official school curriculum in many countries and numerous textbooks, specifically commerce textbooks are dedicated to the study of this phenomenon. In many classrooms, textbooks are a popular resource for the dissemination of ‘factual’ knowledge, such as entrepreneurship education to students. However, a number of studies have reported that the seemingly objective knowledge in textbooks that has been thoroughly screened by educational officials and approved for classroom use is not neutral but loaded with various ideologies and other one-sided incomplete knowledge. Against this background, this study adopted a qualitative critical research approach and applied the tenets of Multimodal Discourse Analysis (MDA) to critically analyse entrepreneurship discourses in contemporary commerce textbooks in selected Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries. MDA encompasses Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and Visual Semiotics Analysis (VSA). The CDA and VSA methods drew on the frameworks of Fairclough (1989; 2001), Huckin (1997), Machin and Mayr (2012) and Nene (2014) to uncover the construction of entrepreneurship in the selected commerce textbooks. The findings of the study indicate that, despite regular revision, the analysed textbooks present an ideological rather than a factual perspective of entrepreneurship. The main ideological formations identified were the ease of business formation; personal enrichment; foregrounding of males as exemplary entrepreneurs, leaders and managers; stereotyping of gender roles; women on the lowest rung of the entrepreneurship hierarchy; economic growth; job creation; solution to poverty; improved standard of living and effortless globalisation. This resulted in selective entrepreneurship knowledge being presented to students in textbooks, with little attention paid to the realities of this phenomenon. Moreover, the ideologies that emerged promoted neoliberal and capitalistic values and were gender biased and gender insensitive. Students are thus presented with a one-sided version of entrepreneurship. This can be attributed to the assumptions in entrepreneurship scholarship and the neoliberal capitalistic ideology that is entrenched in societies and educational institutions around the globe, as well as the fact that entrepreneurship is not gender neutral. Finally, textbooks are biased political and ideological tools. The implications of these findings are that the different stakeholders involved in the production of textbooks should scrutinise them on a regular basis and improve them by including the reality of entrepreneurship, such as business failure, hardship and the many taken-for-granted assumptions and ideologies underlying entrepreneurship scholarship. The quality of textbooks and whether they are suitable resources to impart entrepreneurship knowledge should also be taken into consideration. This would help to enhance learning and also convey only factual and up-to-date knowledge to students in classrooms. ItemSouth African primary school migrant teachers’ school-based experiences in the Arab Gulf countries.(2020) Anganoo, Lucille-Dawn.; Manik, Sadhana.This study explored the reasons for South African teachers from primary schools migrating to teach in the Arab Gulf. It also examined what were migrant teachers’ initial school-based experiences in the Arab Gulf countries and after six months including why they have these particular experiences. Theories of international migration (neoclassical, dual labour, new economics and social networks) relevant to the migration of the highly skilled and theories on migrant teachers’ experiences (Huberman, 1989; Day & Kington, 2008; Bailey & Mulder, 2017; Miller, 2019) and acculturation (Bense, 2016), informed the study. The data was generated from a qualitative ethnographic case study using interviews, focus group discussions and diary entries. The majority of the teachers in the sample migrated to primary and secondary schools in Abu Dhabi due to feelings of ‘relative deprivation’ as a result of economic reasons and the enormous perks offered by recruitment agencies in this destination. Their profiles revealed that they were also predominantly seasoned teachers of Indian descent. The pull factors influencing their decisions were greater than the push factors and these included the high salary earned abroad, better professional development opportunities, living in an Islamic country and easy travel to other destinations from the Arab Gulf. A key finding of the present study, was that of unencumbered movers in the sample: seasoned female migrant teachers who were single, with no children. Common migrant teachers’ experiences included having an abundance of resources that assisted in curriculum delivery, perceived ill-disciplined learners and a lack of parental involvement in public schools in Abu Dhabi, the language barrier inhibiting teaching and learning and xenophobia. Migrant teachers showed initiative in quickly learning how to customize their lessons according to each learner’s ability so that learners were able to pass their assessments. The findings revealed that those migrant teachers who integrated within a year, were attached to the Gulf society and chose to remain and some had returned for a second contract in the Gulf, whereas those migrant teachers who endured unpleasant experiences such as racial and professional discrimination, felt excluded and marginalised, and harboured thoughts of returning to South Africa. The professional identities of migrant teachers were clearly not fixed but altered through acculturation in the host country. ItemIntegrating indigenous knowledge into the teaching of weather and climate in the geography curriculum in secondary schools: the case of Manicaland in Zimbabwe.(2020) Risiro, Joshua.; Manik, Sadhana.The aim of this study was to explore integrating Indigenous Knowledge (IK) into the teaching of weather and climate in Geography in secondary schools in Manicaland Province of Zimbabwe. The study was motivated by the need to enhance and promote the integration of IK into the teaching of Geography in Zimbabwe. Available literature has shown that very little has occurred to integrate IK in the teaching of Geography in Zimbabwe. Most of the available literature has focused on the nature and importance of IK without explicitly focusing on the application of IK in teaching. This study therefore focused on the views of teachers and community elders regarding decolonisation of the curriculum and integrating IK in the teaching of weather and climate in Geography. The study further explored how IK can feature in the teaching of weather and climate in Geography. Finally, the study examined the challenges that might be faced in the process of integrating IK in the teaching of Geography. The interpretive paradigm guided the study. A Qualitative research method that made use of interviews and focus group discussions was used to collect data from the participants. The population sample included interviews with fourteen (14) community elders and sixteen (16) education practitioners. In addition, seven (7) focus group discussions with community elders and another seven (7) with educators were facilitated. Purposive sampling was adopted to select the participants of the study. The study revealed that integrating IK into the Geoography syllabus was strongly mooted as a way of decolonizing the curriculum. The community elders were of the view that the integration of IK in the teaching of Geography was a way of restoring Zimbabwean national heritage which had been lost due to foreign influences stemming from colonisation. The elders believed that, the teaching of Geography was supposed to incorporate African unhu/ubuntu values and experiences among the learners that build a total person. Teachers believed that integrating IK in Geography would enhance the use indigenous pedagogical practices resulting in a better understanding of geographical concepts. It was revealed that the teachers could use various pathways of integrating IK in the teaching of Geography. Both the community elders and teachers believed that local language/dialect usage, indigenous methods of weather forecasting and the role of spirituality should be integrated in the teaching of Geography and this would provide a much-needed authentic education in the Geography curriculum. Thus, indigenising the Geography curriculum can also be heralded as cultural and linguistic pluralism in the syllabus which is currently absent. However, disappointingly, many Geography teachers held negative beliefs of indigenous practices and they did not believe that IK held equal status with western Science. They provided simplistic ideas such as cultural songs in the lesson introduction as a way of integratiing IK into lessons on weather and climate. Several challenges to the integration of IK in the teaching of weather and climate in Geography were suggested by the participants and these included religious factors, government policies, modernisation, a lack of resources and assessment. The study advances a process model for the integration of IK in the Geography curriculum in Zimbabwe. It was observed that there was a need for future studies to research the use of indigenous knowledge and practices in classroom teaching to grow the literature in this field. ItemBlack African parents and school history: a narrative inquiry.(2019) Langa, Mauricio Paulo.; Wassermann, Johannes Michiel.; Maposa, Marshall Tamuka.This study set to explore narratives on how Black African parents experienced school history in the apartheid era and how these experiences informed the parents’ views of school history in post-apartheid South Africa. Literature on schooling during apartheid shows that most Black Africans’ experiences were characterised by difficulty. It also shows how school history was abused as a tool to promote the apartheid ideology. However, Black Africans’ experiences of school history are under-researched. This motivated the need to explore narratives of Black Africans, especially if one considers the fact that these Africans are now parents whose views may inform their children’s decisions on studying school history. This study was guided by two research questions: What are the narratives of Black African parents as they relate to school history in both apartheid and post-apartheid South Africa; and How do their narratives explain why their children do or do not do school history? The Narrative Inquiry methodology was employed to make sense of the lived experiences of the participants (Black African parents). The study was situated within the critical paradigm, which tallies with Critical Race Theory, which is the theoretical framework. The sample comprised ten participants, who were purposively chosen middle class Black African parents. The data was generated through semi-structured interviews enhanced by photo elicitation and was analysed through open-coding. The first level of analysis generated narratives which both diverged and converged. The findings from the second level of analysis showed that the participants had negative experiences of education in general and school history in particular during the apartheid era. As a result of these negative experiences, Black African parents admit to not wanting their children to study history, despite the acknowledgement that the post-apartheid school history curriculum has improved. This shows that the parents project their negative experiences of school history onto their children. This is not helped by the finding that while the apartheid government’s conception of school history deterred the participants from promoting history, the post-apartheid government has inadvertently continued to solidify the parents’ anti-history resolve because of the promotion of sciences over humanities. This phenomenon is theorised as Perpetual Stagnation a model that explains how Black African parents’ narratives in relation to school history have remained largely negative regardless of change in time and circumstances. Therefore, the study concludes that Black African parents viewed apartheid as monstrous and evil as well as oppressive system. Also, school history education under apartheid was viewed by participants as meaningless and memory discipline thus leading the participants to dislike the subject. Furthermore, the study showed that in post-apartheid South Africa Black African parents have much expectations for their children while at the same time admitting that school history curriculum has changed for the better since apartheid. In nutshell, the study concludes that while apartheid policies made the school history unlikable to participants, the post-apartheid policies of prioritising mathematics and science has equally made school history unlikable. This stagnation shows how some things have changed in post-apartheid era, while some have remained the same. ItemAn exploration of the intended, enacted and achieved environmental education curriculum within the Social Studies teacher education programme at a Nigerian university.(2020) Aladejebi, David Toyin.; Singh-Pillay, Asheena.The global environmental crises relating to issues such as climate change and environmental degradation has become a thing of great concern to all nations of the world. In response to the impeding environmental challenges the Nigerian Government established the Federal Environmental Protection Agency that developed the National Policy on Environment Education. This Federal Environment Protection National Agency is responsible for provision of policies and guidelines for the management of the Nigerian environment and for ensuring that the Nigerian population is environmentally literate. However, despite the policy intervention to safeguard the environment and natural resources as well as the Nigerian population’s high levels of literacy they are oblivious of the National Policy on Environmental Education goals and continue to degrade the environment. Consequently, the Federal Environmental Protection Agency identified inadequate environmental literacy as the factors responsible for Nigerian citizens degrading the environment. The National Policy on Environment Education identified teachers of Social Sciences as key role players to promote environmental literacy among learners at schools and the communities within which they work. It is worth noting that the level of environmental knowledge acquired by the teachers will determine what and how they will teach. Therefore, for teachers to effectively play their roles of raising the level of awareness of the Nigerian population about demonstrating environmentally friendly behaviour, the need to acquire adequate knowledge about and understanding of environmental issues cannot be underscored enough. In other words, the teachers have very important roles to play in raising citizens that would take informed decisions aimed at achieving the sustainability of the human environment and its resources for present and future uses. This qualitative study employs a case study research design within the interpretative paradigm in a bid to explore the intended, enacted and achieved Environmental Education Curriculum within the Social Studies Teacher Education Programme. The study draws on Remillard and Heck’s (2014) model of the curriculum policy, design, and enactment system for its theoretical framework. The study was carried out at AA University in Nigeria and seeks to establish how the Pre-service Social Studies teachers are trained to teach EE in schools. Six Social Studies lecturers and twenty- vii four pre-service Social Studies teachers were purposively selected for the study. The data generation was done through document analysis of two policy documents (the National Policy on Environment and AA University’s SS curriculum/lecture pack) to ascertain the level of alignment between both; other data generation instruments are open-ended questionnaire, individual interviews, focus group interviews and classroom observation, while the data generated from the responses of the participants was analyzed through content analysis. Findings from the study revealed that there is constructive alignment and convergence between the NPEE and the AA University’s Social Studies curriculum in terms of the need being attended to by both policy documents, the targeted audience, the goals of both curricula and the content area covered by both curricula. Furthermore, findings revealed a divergence between the intended SS curriculum and the enacted curriculum due to the fact that chalk and talk/lecture method was predominantly used rather than constructive teaching strategies advocated for the training of the PSSSTs as contained in the SS curriculum. In view of the divergence observed between the intended SS curriculum and the enacted curriculum, it becomes difficult to achieve what was advocated in the SS curriculum/lecture pack used for training the PSSSTs. Additionally, findings revealed that the learning of EE is enhanced by the availability of resources to the SS lecturers, as well as the knowledge of the benefits derivable from EE on the part of the PSSSTs while the learning of EE is constrained by use of inappropriate teaching strategies by the SS lecturers, lack of adequate EE content knowledge (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) on the part of the SS lecturers, insufficient EE content in the SS programme, insufficient financial resources as well as inadequate respect for the environment demonstrated by the PSSSTs. The study therefore recommends the use of appropriate teaching strategies (constructive approach) to train the PSSSTs, a review of the SS curriculum to include sufficient EE content, improvement in SS lecturers’ EE content knowledge (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and the provision of sufficient financial resources.