ItemThe psychology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus: a systematic review of the affect that Human Immunodeficiency Virus /Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome has on the mental health of children and adolescents.(2022) Essop-Mansoor, Waseela.; Nene, Khanyisile.Background: Child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) is frequently neglected, although it is estimated that one in every five of them has a mental condition. Viruses like HIV is an example of a potential warning sign that can lead to a child or adolescent developing mental health problems. Method: This paper is a systematic review and narrative synthesis of quantitative studies conducted on HIV/AIDS and mental health in children and adolescents within the last decade (2012-2022). Databases such as Google Scholar, Ebscohost, Springer, Sabinet, GALE Cengage, APA PsycNet, and SAGE Research techniques were searched and a total of 16 empirical studies that examined the affect that a positive HIV diagnosis has on the mental health of youth were considered. Study components were recorded in the form of a matrix table which included: year of publication, authors, title of article, aims of the study, sample, socio-ecological level of influence, key findings as well as identified interventions. Conceptual content analysis was then applied as a method of studying and retrieving meaningful information such as the frequency of key mental health themes and mental health conditions pertaining to CAMH, that emerged in the primary literature, which was summarised in the matrix table. Results: A total of 90 articles were retrieved via an online desktop search and through rigorous screening based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, only 16 articles deemed eligible for inclusion and further analysis. Conclusion: An HIV positive (HIV+) diagnosis can influence CAMH on an individual-level, family-level, community-level and structural-level. In addition, CAMH can be affected by the cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioural viewpoint. Furthermore, several interventions that were identified on the various levels displayed on the socio-ecological model deem beneficial in enhancing the mental health of HIV+ children and adolescents. ItemThe financial and psychological cost of raising a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: a qualitative study.(2019) Geldenhuys, Anouska.; Memela, Nonjabulo Cynthia.This is a qualitative research project looking at the financial and psychological challenges and needs of parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Raising a child with ASD can be a very challenging and strenuous experience. Families who are raising children with ASD appear to experience an overwhelming amount of stress and consist of many responsibilities whilst not having much support from others, signifying the need to study this phenomenon further. The study involves a sample of biological mothers living in Gauteng who are the primary caregivers of a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder. This study focuses on parents’ lived experiences and their perspectives of the psychological and financial costs of raising a child with this neurodevelopmental condition. The findings of this study correspond with findings from other literature; highlighting the significance of these challenges. Results indicated that parents living with an ASD child experience various psychological challenges such as feelings of grief and fear, physical and emotional exhaustion, disruption to the family’s lifestyle, and tremendous financial strain; influencing their well-being. This study aims to highlight the financial and psychological needs of parents interviewed in this study to create insight and awareness to others living with Autism Spectrum Disorder as well as professionals working with these families. ItemThe psychological effects of violence on children: an exploratory study of a sample of black primary school children from the Natal Midlands.(1994) Mason, Barbara Lynn.; Killian, Beverley Janet.Abstract available in PDF. ItemAssessing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) specific knowledge in educators and identifying demographic predictors pertaining to educators’ knowledge of ADHD within the South African context.(2021) Sim, Gina Dionne.; Collings, Steven John.Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most researched and controversial of all the childhood-onset disorders. It is also one of the most common disorders, with a high diagnosis rate in South Africa. Research over the last two decades shows a diagnosis prevalence rate of between 5 and 10%, thus making it one of the most commonly occurring disorders affecting South African children and adolescents. Despite its high rate of prevalence, ADHD is a condition that is largely misunderstood amongst parents, educators, and even medical practitioners such as doctors. Research has shown that educators have a basic understanding of ADHD but are not familiar with the more complex details related to its symptoms, treatment and associated features. This raises concern as educators are uniquely placed in the system to perform an instrumental role in the process that leads to ADHD referral and diagnosis. Therefore, this study aimed to measure levels of general knowledge amongst educators in the areas of ADHD associated features, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. It also set out to identify if there were any demographic predictors relating to educators’ level of ADHD knowledge. Knowledge levels were measured using the KADDS Knowledge of Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (KADDS), which is a questionnaire that measures an educator’s level of ADHD knowledge using the categories mentioned above. The KADDS questionnaire was administered along with a demographic questionnaire to 172 educators from primary and secondary schools located in the central Durban area. A demographic questionnaire was also administered to the same sample. Results from this study demonstrated that South African educators based in Durban had an overall level of knowledge rate of 47.14%. The scores obtained during this study fall within the average range of scores obtained from studies using the KADDS instrument, both nationally and internationally. The possible relationship between educators’ level of ADHD knowledge and their demographic characteristics was investigated using correlational analyses. The variable “sex”, which refers to the biological endowment (male/female) was the greatest contributing variable of all the options used in this study. The female sex in this study were found to have greater knowledge of ADHD than their male counterparts. These finding are relevant within the South African context as mental health and the stigma it carries is a barrier to seeking knowledge and being educated on such disorders as ADHD. The findings from this study contribute to the body of knowledge on levels of knowledge among educators in South Africa. Recommendations arising from this study include educators having increased exposure to pre-service and in-service ADHD related training. Educators also require practical experience and exposure to children suffering from ADHD, which will increase their understanding and knowledge of this disorder. Knowledge of self-efficacy as a variable, and its positive association with ADHD knowledge requires further exploration. Finally, it is recommended that further research is conducted on the role that gender plays in terms of the levels of ADHD knowledge among educators. ItemExploring trainee psychologist's self-care practices at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.(2021) Nkosi, Thobile Goodness.; Mtwentula-Ndlovu, Ntombekhaya Antoniette.Self-care is a crucial culture that mental health practitioners need to embrace to promote their overall well-being. The application of self-care among trainee psychologists is foundational in establishing sustainable wellness and professional development for health professionals. Trainee psychologists are expected to deal with the global impact of the burden of mental health, while they manoeuvre their own professional development. The training process alone is marked with multifaceted cases that require prominent levels of alertness, critical thinking and self-awareness. Such skills are often affected by, stress, burnout and an imbalanced personal, and professional life. This may result in professional impairment. The primary purpose of this study was to explore and describe experiences of trainee psychologists’ level of engagement in self-care practices, to promote their mental health care. In conducting this study, a qualitative research approach was adopted. To gain a rich insight on the participants’ experiences; a semi-structured interview guide was used to interview Seven University of Kwa-Zulu Natal trainees who were enrolled in a master’s clinical psychology programme. Data collected for this study were interpreted and analysed using the Health Belief Model as a conceptual framework. Findings from this study demonstrated that trainees, in the programme, experienced challenges that included poor completion of the research component, poor supervision alliance, detrimental power dynamics, difficulties in transitioning from coursework to internship, and difficulties in balancing professional life and personal life. These challenges, negatively impact the trainees’ mental health. However, adopted self-care strategies such as exercise, personal therapy, socialising and spirituality, contributed positively to their mental health. Support was the widely preferred coping skill adopted by trainees. The findings suggest that educating trainees about self-care practices can be a vital part of helping trainees to establish a sustainable mental wellness culture. ItemType A behaviour pattern and coronary heart disease in the South African Indian population.(1991) Barry, Timothy Aiden Bose.; Wassenaar, Douglas Richard.Abstract available in PDF. ItemChurch leaders' understandings of how Christian beliefs inform mental illness identification and remediation in effected members: a scoping review.(2021) Nhlumayo, Lethukuthula Nkanyiso.; Valjee, Sachet Rabindranath.Introduction: Christianity is the world’s leading religion with an estimated 2.3 billion followers, with evidence of influence both in the developing world and amongst developed nations throughout the globe. Literature has demonstrated that church clergy across varying contexts and communities serve the function of mental health gatekeepers and are often the first access point for their community, particularly among people living in low socio-economic settings without adequate access to professional mental health services.However, some issues raised by previous studies were that certain Christian beliefs have been linked with promoting stigma, internalized shame and delayed help-seeking. This study aims to synthesize and map past research that investigated church leader’s representation of how Christian beliefs inform mental illness identification and remediation (referral pathways) in vulnerable church members. Method and Analysis: A scoping review was performed to gain an overview of the available evidence from literature concerning this topic. The data was screened using the PRISMA-ScR flow diagram according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Relevant databases were sourced for literature and a total of 11 studies were eligible for final review. Results and Discussion: Data from the literature was synthesized in table format according to: Author(s) and Year, Study Title, Aims and Objectives, Operational Definition of Concepts, Methodology, and Results. Thematic analysis was used on the data to describe the existing literature and gaps in narrative format. Four themes were identified from the data; 1) Clergy’s conceptualisation of mental illness, 2) Role of Clergy in remediation/intervention regarding suspected cases of mental health issues (referral pathways) 3) Impact of socio-cultural context, 4) Reviewed Study’s Recommendation. These themes were found to be prominent dynamics among studies that investigated clergy’s representation and treatment of mental illness. Conclusion and Recommendations: Four overarching themes were identified among studies that investigated church clergy’s representation and remediation pathways of mental illness for vulnerable church members. Future research should focus on researching the usefulness of clergy and mental health practitioner collaborations in mental health treatment, which can benefit vulnerable church members. ItemAn exploration of university students’ views on intimate femicide in South Africa.(2021) Ngubane, Nokubonga.; Frizelle, Kerry Lyn.Most of the research regarding views on intimate femicide has been conducted abroad, while views concerning the phenomena have not been researched extensively in South Africa. The aim of this qualitative study was therefore to explore university students’ views of intimate femicide in the South Africa context It explored, firstly, the student’s views on the reasons for the occurrence of intimate femicide, secondly, their views on howIPVincidences are portrayed in the media and, thirdly, their views on the appropriateness of existing interventions at addressing the scourge. The study analysed transcriptions of semi-structured interviews conducted with 11 students from a university in South Africa. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data through the lens of ecological theory. The participants identified an array of intersecting factors at different levels of influence that they believe are driving femicide in South Africa. For example, participants felt that intrapersonal emotions like ‘jealousy’ and emotional dependence played a part in femicide. ‘Participants identified parenting practices and the witnessing of childhood violence (a mesosystemic factor) as contributing towards the formation of hegemonic masculine identities, which they viewed as playing a role in femicide. The participants were critical of the tendency for the media (an exosystemic factor) to adopt a ‘sensationalist’ reporting style and disproportionately cover femicides committed by high-profiled individuals, which ultimately does little to educate the public on the issue. The participants viewed protection orders (a macrosystemic factor) as a mere, ‘piece of paper’, leaving women vulnerable to femicide. In sum, the participants proposed (in keeping with the ecological framework) that intimate femicide is a social issue that requires interventions at the individual, interpersonal, community, cultural, political, and institutional levels. Overall, this study concluded that students are aware that various factors at various levels of influence are driving femicide and that these insights might have been partly mediated by their studies. It also found that students are an active audience of media representations of femicide. Lastly, students pointed to the need for multi-level interventions to address femicide. The findings provide insight into media representations of intimate femicide and how journalistic accounts can be adjusted to encourage advocacy. The study also multi-systemic interventions that could contribute to addressing this phenomenon. ItemExploring the perceived preparedness of clinical and counselling psychology students for the newly acquired roles as intern psychologists.(2021) Ngubane, Mbalenhle Felicia.; Sliep, Yvonne.Background: The training of clinical and counselling psychologists in South Africa has continuously received research attention as it is arguably rich in diversity and presents with the nuances of contextual factors influencing the training and wellbeing of trainee psychologists. South African psychology is inherently embedded in the politics of apartheid ideology and colonial oppression, marginalisation, elitism, unequal power relations and social control (Macleod & Howell, 2013. Consequently, the traditional training model has also been under scrutiny to ascertain its efficacy, given the contextually diverse challenges clients present for psychotherapy. The overall objective of the study is to identify the influential factors that contribute to the trainee psychologists’ perceived preparedness for their newly acquired professional roles. Methodology: The study explored the perceived preparedness of clinical and counselling trainee psychologists for their professional roles, using a qualitative research approach. The qualitative approach allowed the researcher to uncover the underlying trainee psychologists’ subjective experiences of the master’s training programme and the perceived impact on their professional competence. The researcher conducted five one-on-one in-depth interviews with intern psychologists who were enrolled at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. The accumulative data was categorised into codes using the stepwise thematic analysis method. Themes were consolidated with the help of the ecological systems model, adopted as a methodological framework, characterised by an integrated, holistic approach that is relevant when exploring subjective experiences. The ecological systems theory gave insight to the exploration of contextual factors that have an impact on students’ personal and professional development. Findings: The emergent findings of the study indicate that most participants reportedly experienced the professional training as being stressful, identifying concurrent academic, clinical, and therapeutic demands deeply entrenched in the training process. Moreover, trainees as illustrated in the findings, constantly put themselves under significant pressure to perform well despite not sharing their challenges with other trainees in the programme. Over the years, the increasing demands of the training have evidently become the fibre of the development of psychologists. The interviewing process provided participants the opportunity to retrospectively reflect on the nuances of their training experiences, which positively contributed to building their emotional and intellectual insight pertaining the technical and soft skills acquired in the first year of training. ItemSnatched for sex: a qualitative systematic review exploring the most prevalent beliefs and attitudes about human trafficking for the purposes of sexual exploitation in Africa.(2022) Kweyama, Nontobeko Thandeka.; Collings, Steven John.Despite the growing body of literature detailing the beliefs and attitudes with regard to human trafficking stimulated by sexual exploitation, there are knowledge gaps that require a systematic review and meta-analysis of this discourse. Arguably, human trafficking poses human rights violation challenges in contemporary times and most countries worldwide are grappling with it in one way or another. Human trafficking has catastrophic consequences in most developing countries in Africa, which serve as origins, destinations, or transit for citizens being transported to distant lands where they are subjected to enslavement through labour or transactional sexual exploitation. Apparently, the topic is still shrouded in clandestineness owing to under-research and very little effort aimed at curbing the scourge. Feminist Theory was adopted as the conceptual framework. This study is typically a desk top research; hence, no human subjects participated in it. The systematic review was conducted in accordance with the protocol recommended by the Campbell Collaboration (2001), one of the most widely used and recognized protocols for systematic reviews applicable in Social Sciences. The primary sources of data for this review were studies and articles published between 2000 and 2021. Data generated from qualifying studies were meta-analysed and therefore disseminated into distinctive themes. This study systematically reviewed the most prevalent perceptions around human trafficking specifically motivated by sexual exploitation. A systematic review of the most dominant beliefs and attitudes regarding human trafficking for sexual exploitation and the meta-analysis of the findings, can potentially influence future practice and recommend areas for prospective research, and most importantly, the study findings can raise awareness regarding this human rights scourge. The findings of this study attest to the fact that the most prevalent beliefs and attitudes regarding the trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation in Africa include: (1) lack of a secure socio-economic status, (2) the victims of human trafficking are to blame for their victimisation, (3) women and children are the only victims of human trafficking, (4) demand propels the trafficking of women and children, (5) the statistics depicting the victims of human trafficking for sexual reasons are understated in African countries, (6) the victims of human trafficking are not easily traceable, (7) Africa serves both as a source and destination of trafficked women and children, (8) transit countries do not play a role in human trafficking, and (9) finally, law enforcement is at its lowest ebb in African countries. The findings indicated that human trafficking for sexual exploitation is induced by poverty. The study found that women and children fall victim to human trafficking as they try to escape from poverty. Consequently, socio-political insecurity predisposes women and girls to human trafficking. In addition, the study found that human trafficking is mainly motivated by sexual exploitation; although men can also be subject to trafficking, women and girls are the main targets, as the fundamental reason underpinning human trafficking is embedded in transactional sex and prostitution. Lastly, the study concludes that most researchers misrepresent African countries as they often paint Africa ‘black’ regarding the continent’s role in human trafficking. Researchers tend to portray Africa as a ‘dark’ continent grappling with intractable trafficking challenges. The recommendations include the need for governments and international organizations to encourage and support formalized cooperation and coordination of institutions and relevant stakeholders to end human trafficking in Africa. Most importantly, the scantiness of knowledge on sex-trafficking demands that African states redirect their energies towards curtailing the trafficking of women and children. Human trafficking is a scourge that requires responses that reflect respect for human rights, including the best interests of children. ItemThe application of African psychology to the South African clinical context: a scoping review.(2021) Kayat, Brandon George.; Cartwright, Duncan James.This scoping review identifies research on the existing applications of African Psychology to the clinical context in South Africa. This scoping review endorsed the methodology of Arksey and O’Malley (2005) in terms of their six stages of conducting a scoping review. These were identified as the identification of the research question, the identification of literature relevant to this question, the selection of studies through a thorough inclusion and exclusion of sources, the charting of the data, the collection, summarising and reporting of the data and the conducting of a consultation exercise; these were applied accordingly, resulting in 76 sources that were analysed to identify the existing applications, relevant concepts and significant challenges facing African Psychology. Pre-existing applications were observed to include implicit or explicit applications or extensions from African Psychology, adaptations to mainstream models, and the development of unique models endorsing concepts specific to African Psychology (such as uBuntu therapy and Swa Moya), and the collaboration of psychologists with traditional healers, participatory action research, community psychology as well as initiatives in the training of psychologists were also evident. Concepts such as uBuntu, Badimo, uMvelinqanqi, traditional healers and rituals had the highest prevalence in sources embracing African Psychology. In terms of the challenges, multiple definitions and conceptualisations of African Psychology present problems for the standardisation of any particular African Psychology model or framework. Secondly, there exists several epistemological and ontological differences between African and mainstream psychology. This creates a concern for the empirical testing of proposed African Psychology applications in terms of their effectiveness as well as their standardisation. The study found that there remain large gaps in the application of African Psychology to the clinical context, despite the growing interest in African Psychology in South Africa. ItemExploring ‘cultural countertransference’: a qualitative study of therapists’ understanding of the interface between culture and countertransference.(2021) Chichevo, Lilian Nyasha.; Cartwright, Duncan James.There has been limited research on the relationship between culture and countertransference. Although extant literature indicates that culture-induced countertransference has a profound effect on therapeutic alliances with clients from culturally diverse population groups, this association between the two concepts remains relatively unexplored. In the South African multicultural context, there is no published research exploring the understanding that therapists have of the interface between these two concepts. The qualitative research design enabled the therapists to provide comprehensive descriptions of their culture-induced countertransference experiences. These culture-induced countertransference experiences were explored and analysed utilising Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis perspective. The therapists’ experiences and perceptions were obtained through semi-structured interviews conducted with nine registered and practising therapists from KwaZulu-Natal. Four superordinate themes were obtained from the data, namely: (1) Awareness of Countertransference and Culture; (2) Cultural Aspects Inducing Countertransference; (3) Affective, Behavioural and Cognitive Reactions; and (4) Managing the Countertransference Experiences. The main findings indicated that therapists acknowledged an interface between culture and countertransference. Additionally, the therapists made a distinction between cultural countertransference and general counter-transference. Cultural countertransference was perceived to originate from the beliefs, assumptions, biases and unresolved conflicts within the therapist, triggered by various cultural aspects, including language, racial and ethnic diversity, cultural practices and age. The interplay of these triggers and origins resulted in the countertransference being manifested through affective, behavioural and cognitive reactions. Furthermore, the study revealed that there were slight differences in the management of cultural countertransference in comparison with general countertransference. The discussion of the findings drew on the Structural Theory of Countertransference and the Theory of Multicultural Counselling and Therapy in understanding the therapists’ perceptions of cultural countertransference. ItemExploring mental health awareness and the well-being of secondary school teachers working in under-resourced rural schools in Bushbuckridge Municipality, Mpumalanga.(2021) Dibakoane, Kgahliso Antoineth.; Mtwentula-Ndlovu, Ntombekhaya Antoniette.South African rural secondary schools provide a particularly unique environment. They are under-resourced, overcrowded and continuously marred by violent actions from the learners. The study aimed to explore mental health awareness and well-being of secondary school teachers working in under-resourced rural secondary schools in Bushbuckridge Municipality, Mpumalanga Province, and the impact that mental health might have on teacher performance. This was a qualitative study, which adopted an explorative design. A purposive sample of nine teachers from two secondary schools, with five participants from school A and four participants from school B, which are schools in Shatale circuit, Bushbuckridge, was interviewed. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants highlighted various factors contributing to the mental health of teachers working in under-resourced rural schools, which are culture, heredity, the teachers’ past experiences, workload, limited support, limited resources, and the different roles that teachers play, including care giving, role modelling and facilitating. All these have an impact on the mental health of teachers and influence their wok performance. It became evident in this study that the teachers’ understanding of mental health was associated with environmental factors and biological factors. The participants’ understanding of mental health revolved on how a person behaves or reacts to situations and to a particular problem. The research findings further elicited the need to prioritise the mental health of teachers in rural schools. Interventions, including workshops and seminars, should be organised regularly in rural schools to increase teachers’ awareness of the importance of mental health. Thus, an Employee Assistant Program (EAP) should be established for public school teachers, who are facing various challenges that impact on their mental health, and thus affecting their work performance. ItemThe adjustment experiences of the aged when entering a retirement home in South Africa.(2021) Bussy, Danielle Vivian.; Cartwright, Duncan James.In our modern society, many elderly people inevitably reach a stage where they have to make the decision to move into a retirement home; which can be a majorly stressful event. Although several overseas studies have explored the adjustment process of the elderly from their previous living situations (either independent or inter-generational living) to a retirement home, literature related to this process for the elderly in South Africa is limited. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore the adjustment experiences of the elderly (persons aged 65 and above) into a retirement home in South Africa. The study adopted a qualitative descriptive approach; with a group of ten elderly people (four men and six women) participating in an hour long, semi-structured interview with the researcher at BBGE (name protected for confidentiality) retirement home, Durban, South Africa, to make sense of their adjustment experiences. Research questions aimed to understand; how the elderly made sense of their experiences moving into the home, how they described challenges faced in the process, as well as how the adjustment experience impacted their sense of self-definition and interpersonal relatedness. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyse the data gathered in interviews. The findings were filtered into eight super-ordinate themes namely; moving into the home, dealing with different types of loss, dealing with traumatic ruptures in attachment, changes in understandings of self-identity, relationships within the home, institutional living, mindsets and adjustments, and the South African context. It was found that the adjustment process did not necessarily have a significant impact on the elderly’s self-definition or relatedness from a personality perspective, however, lifelong developments of the elderly’s personality styles had an effect on the adjustment process; by either enabling them to adjust with relative ease, or causing distress and ultimately a failure to adjust into the home adequately. ItemChanges in perceptions of others in black and white South African adolescents: the effects of participation in a youth development programme.(1994) Ferguson, Margaret Gardner.; Basson, Clive James.Abstract available in PDF. ItemAn investigation into the role of struggle songs in youth driven protests: perspectives of youths in Mdantsane, Eastern Cape, South Africa.(2020) Zamisa, Masixole.; Sekhesa, Thabo.The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of struggle songs in youth driven protests from the perspectives of youths in Mdantsane, Eastern Cape, South Africa. The study was guided by three objectives which were to explore which aspects of struggle songs, resonate with the youth today; to explore what emotions are evoked by singing of struggle songs; to explore the role of the songs in youth driven protest action. The study made use of the Social Identity Theory (SIT) proposed by Tajfel and Turner. The Brain stem reflex; Rhythmic entrainment; Evaluative Conditioning; Emotional Contagion; Visual imagery; Episodic Memory; Musical expectancy, often refered to as the BRECVEM model was also used as a supporting theoretical framework. This study was based on the qualitative approach to research. The researcher used purposive sampling and snowball sampling to select participants for both individual interviews and focus group discussion. Thematic Analysis was used to analyse and interpret results. Three main themes were identified as: Youth and struggle songs; Emotional reaction; Role assigned to struggle songs during a protest. The findings suggest that, firstly, the youth in Mdantsane use struggle songs because they are relevant to the current struggles. Secondly, they reveal that some of the songs evoke strong emotions which in turn influence the conduct of the youth during the protest. Lastly, the results suggest that the struggle songs are deployed strategically to serve certain roles for the benefit of the group. Recommendations for further studies were also provided and discussed in this study. ItemChildren in residential care: an evaluation of current practice and recommendations for differential placements.(1994) Chaloner, Ann Jillian.; Killian, Beverley Janet.Abstract available in PDF. ItemEating disorder symptomatology among black female teenagers in a rural area of KwaZulu-Natal: a cross-sectional study.(2021) Munyai, Neani Patrick.; Wassenaar, Douglas Richard.The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of eating disorder symptomatology and statistical relationship between eating disorder pathology and body image among Black female teenagers in a rural area of KwaZulu-Natal. Furthermore, the influence of body mass index (BMI) and socioeconomic status were explored. A literature review of eating pathology was conducted and the content thereof was compared to the study hypotheses. Different theories (the vulnerability model, social comparison theory, cognitive behavioural theory and bioecological theory of human development) were adopted to examine multiple potential vulnerabilities and maintenance of eating disorders amongst Black female teenagers in rural areas. Research in this field has revealed that acculturation to a Western value system and body image ideals appear to affect the prevalence of eating disorders among Black women. There is a paucity of South African research on cross-cultural attitudes and behaviours associated with eating disorders among Black teenagers in rural areas. The sample comprised 184 Zulu female public high school learners in a rural area of KwaZulu-Natal between the ages of 13 and 19 years. Data were collected with a demographic questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Inventory. The results showed a possible link between dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs and eating disorders. No correlation was found between socioeconomic status and eating disorders. Most of the participants (52.2%) were classified in the normal weight category (BMI), whereas the remaining participants were classified in the obese class III and underweight, which may suggest that some of the participants may have displayed patterns associated with eating disorders. The results are discussed in relation to the literature, recommendations for future research based on the limitations of this study, are made. ItemThe experiences of black professionals in corporate South Africa: navigating the black identity in predominantly white corporate workspaces.(2021) Mathenjwa, Bongiwe Innocentia.; Mahlawe, Samukelisiwe.Public places, parks or beaches are no longer clearly marked “Whites only”. However, the scourge of racial discrimination is still lingering in the post-apartheid South African corporate environment. During colonialism and apartheid, institutional racism became entrenched into the South African societal systems and institutions, also influencing policies, operations, and organisational cultures (Sivanandan, 2006). Furthermore, Black South Africans endured significant discrimination and outright denial of civil, social, political, educational, and economic entitlements throughout the apartheid era. Huge socio-economic disparities between racial and ethnic groupings continue to exist in employment, income and wealth, work-related promotions, and other sectors of the new South African economy. Professional office settings conceal subtle but pernicious manifestations of racism (Baker, 1995). It is against this background that this research seeks to investigate the experiences of Black professionals in corporate workplaces in South Africa. The theoretical framework underpinning this study is encapsulated in the Identity Negotiation Theory (INT), which enables the study to observe participants’ interaction with their colleagues and their work-related activities in White-dominated work environments. The research employs a qualitative case study approach based on the interpretive paradigm. The participants who took part in the study were nine Black professionals occupying senior management positions in corporate offices in South Africa. The study found that Black South African professionals go through negative experiences because of working in White-dominated environments. These experiences are categorised as being a numerical minority at a workplace, everyday Black professionals are subjected to stereotypes at the workplace, discrimination or subtle racism towards Black South African professionals, Black professionals adopt code-switching strategies in the face of White power structures; experiencing emotional toll as a result of being a racial minority at the workplace and poor policy implementation in the South African work environment. The study recommends that certain interventions and measures be put in place to encourage organisations to create safe and conducive work and business environments for the growth and development of the previously marginalised groups.