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Masters Degrees (Biblical & Historical Studies, Theological Studies & Ethics)

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    Apartheid and theological education: an investigation of the theological education provided at St. Bede’s Theological College in Umtata, 1950-1992.
    (2023) Kasaba, Emilio.; Denis, Philippe Marie Berthe Raoul.
    The Church of England came to South Africa with British missionaries, and settlers who had a hard time with indigenous people whom they tried to evangelize. The Church grew under Robert Gray the first Bishop. Before Gray, the bishops from India managed the South African places. Bishop John William Colenso came with a follower named Henry Callaway whom he inspired to do good work among the natives. Callaway had a passion for the growth of the Church to other parts of the country. He became the first bishop in the new diocese called the Diocese of St. John, which was established in Transkei. The National Government could not allow whites to mix with blacks. The early Anglican missionaries realized the need for the growth of the church which depended on the establishment of colleges. Three theological colleges were established, St. Peter’s in Rosettenville, St. Paul’s in Grahamstown and St. Bede’s in Umtata. The first two were for whites, while St. Bede’s was specifically for native students for ministry. So, the establishment of the theological colleges was racially-based. Apartheid had a huge impact on theological education in the Anglican Church. This research looked at St. Bede’s Theological College as a case study on the separation of races in the Anglican Church of South Africa. The primary and secondary sources, used for the study are, the archives and the interviews with former students of St. Bede’s and people who had closer contact with St. Bede’s Theological College in Umtata. The aims of the study to understand the impact of apartheid, with its racial separation of people, on theological education and know more about Transkei as a homeland, whose independence was only recognized by South Africa. The used Critical Race Theory analyses race and matters around race, power, justice and equity. Participants did not observe racism in the college but rather in the effects of apartheid on the college.
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    An analysis of the Methodist Church of Southern Africa's contribution to the intersection of theology, gender and development.
    (2023) Waqu, Siviwe.; Zwane, Sithembiso Samuel.
    Abstract available in PDF.
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    Isitabane of faith: an auto-ethnographic exploration of Isitabane lived reality in the Shembe Faith Tradition.
    (2021) Mazibuko, Siphelele Sabathile.; Van Der Walt, Charlene.
    (queer people) experience discrimination, isolation, exclusion and homophobic attacks due to their sexual orientation and gender identity in the South African contexts. LGBTIQA+ voices are made invisible and silenced through the use of Bible scriptures, culture, and tradition embedded in patriarchal systems. The aim of this study is to explore the lived reality of isitabane within the independent Shembe faith tradition, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. This study looks at the embodied experience of a queer persons within the African Independent Church (the Nazareth Baptist Church) through narrative and explores the experience of participants who witnessed her navigating her journey as a queer individual in the hetero-patriarchal church in KwaZulu-Natal. The researcher shares her experience and tells how she came to understand herself as a queer within this church, and how faith people responded to this identity. The study focuses on six snapshot themes and extracts six dominant themes (understanding lesbian sexuality as rejection of men rather than women attraction, a link between male violence and lesbian sexuality, a link between faith-heterosexuality and reproduction, a human being cannot be ditched, queer bodies and dress, and naming) from these snapshot themes and interview discussions, which form a significant part of the lived reality or embodied experience of isitabane identity within the independent Shembe faith tradition. Queer theory was used in this study, which took a phenomenological approach to explore the lived reality of isitabane within the independent Shembe faith tradition. The findings of this study challenge the essentialist perspective of ideological notions of gender and sexuality in association with sex assigned at birth. Findings suggest that the independent Shembe faith tradition and other African Independent Churches ought to be engaged in a contextual bible study, which may assist the church in reworking its vocabulary, policies, and related theories, in order to enable it to collectively engage and negotiate gender and sexual identities, as well as issues pertaining gender and sexuality in a life-affirming way. This will assist many silenced queer voices to be heard. Participants emphasise the oppression, isolation, discrimination, hate crime, hate speech, and homophobic attacks experienced by queer people within South African contexts, especially within its religious landscape, due to their gender identity and sexual orientation.
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    The Catholic Church and COVID-19: a critical appraisal of how Our Lady of Good Health Parish in the Archdiocese of Durban Operated during the lockdown restrictions.
    (2023) Bembele, Gino David.; Kumalo, Simangaliso Raymond.
    This study is a critical assessment of how the Catholic Church in the Archdiocese of Durban has navigated through COVID-19. The researcher selected Our Lady of Good Health Parish in the Archdiocese Durban to see how it responded to the pandemic from the time of its discovery in March 2020 to the time restrictions were lifted in April 2021. This study argues that Our Lady of Good Health Parish responded appropriately to the pandemic by implementing all the regulations that were promulgated by the government and the Catholic Church itself. The research followed a qualitative approach, and data was collected through interviews from 12 respondents from Our Lady of Good Health Parish. The primary data was analysed thematically. The study found that there were both positive and negative consequences that arose because of COVID-19, most of the congregants had been impacted and had to alter their church routine. There was a huge decrease in the attendance levels at the Catholic Church, the Parish had implemented social distancing measures, there was a loss of the essence of the church, there was an online church sermon trend adopted and sacraments could not be replaced with phones or online services. The study recommends that the Parish must identify workable and practical strategies to enhance the return of the faithful to the Church, involve its faithful and many other stakeholders of interest in the making of plans for how they can go forward as a church, must observe and learn from other congregations, and must ensure that they take the COVID-19 epidemic as a lesson that would inform other crises in the future. The research recommends that studies must be carried out to help the faithful on how to deal with the negative consequences of not physically attending church during pandemics such as Covid-19. Such studies would provide ways of promoting church attendance after the pandemic since several faithful still find it difficult to return to church.
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    From Bishop Phillip Russell to Bishop Nkosinathi Ndwandwe: an examination of the causes of decline in membership at the Cathedral of the Holy Nativity in Pietermaritzburg from 1976-2021.
    (2023) Khanyile, Siboniso Artwell.; Kumalo, Simangaliso Raymond.
    There is a noticeable exodus of members globally from the mainline Protestant churches. As a result, in other parts of the world the infrastructure that belonged to the mainline Churches is being sold to the secular world. The Anglican Church in Natal is not immune from this phenomenon. This research study uses the Cathedral of the Holy Nativity in Pietermaritzburg as a case study to examine the causes of membership decline in the Anglican Church in Natal from 1976 to 2021. The Cathedral of the Holy Nativity is the mother Church of the Diocese of Natal. The causes of membership decline were examined through interviews that were conducted in terms of the Covid-19 protocols imposed by the University of KwaZulu-Natal Research Office, with the previous members and current (2021) leadership of the Cathedral. In addition, desk research was undertaken utilising Diocesan and Parish archives, on-line resources, journal articles, published books, and other literature made available through the University’s library services and elsewhere. The study found that the Cathedral of the Holy Nativity in Pietermaritzburg began as a unified Parish of white congregants in 1976, with black congregant members only beginning to join in the early 1990’s, following the repeal of the Group Area Act No. 41 of 1950 on 30 June 1991. Notwithstanding, the Cathedral has suffered the decline of both white and black congregants within 45 years of its existence. Among other things, the study found that social ills, politicaland secular-landscape changes, as well as the presence of untransformed imperialist doctrines, liturgy, and practices contributed in different ways to the exodus of congregant members. This work has the potential to challenge the leaders and laity of not only the Anglican Church of Southern Africa, but mainline churches both in South Africa and globally to undertake serious introspection and self-correction, to find new ways to attract and retain its members.
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    Women-headed households within the Catholic church in Kavango west region in Namibia: exploring the intersection of gender, theology and development.
    (2022) Hausiku, Johannes Hamuyimbi.; Zwane, Sithembiso Samuel.
    This study aims at using the logic of the “three-legged” African pot to depict the intersectionality of Gender, Theology and Development. It discusses the lived reality of women heading households within the Catholic Church in Kavango West Region. Central to the choice is developing a grassroots theology from below that springs from the role of their faith/theological resources drawn from the Catholic Religious rituals in sustaining themselves and contributing to social development in the area. As it discusses the lived reality of Catholic women heading households using the logic of the “three legged” African Pot, the “first leg” is gender which depicts the disruption of the dominant narrative of patriarchy within the intersection. The “second leg” is theology which is developed from grassroots faith experiences from below. The “third leg” is development which is an integration of climate change, urban migration and economic growth. This third leg is mainly where the study seeks to apply these women‟s developed theologies from grassroots faith experiences from below, in sustaining their livelihoods and contributing to social development and transformation. This study proposes two theologies from grassroots faith experiences of Catholic women heading households. The analogy of the “three legged” African pot further serves to demonstrate the intersectionality of the themes in the study, namely; women and economy (women in development + women and gender + gender and resilience), gender and theology, theology and development as proposed by Haddad as key theorist in the study in dialogue with Ackermann, Swart and Adonis.
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    Prophecy, signs, and wonders in the Acts of the Apostles and in the Apostolic Fathers: a socio-rhetorical reading.
    (2023) Balatseng, Mosala David.; Tshehla, Maarman Samuel.
    The key research question of this work is: How the early Christian thinkers conceived of the role of the Spirit in the church, and especially the role with respect to operation of the gifts of the Spirit in prophecy, signs, and wonders. The methodology employed in this endeavour is socio-rhetorical criticism (SRC). SRC sets multiple contexts of Interpretation in dialogue with each other. It utilizes all the components of classical methods of persuasion namely ethos, pathos and logos embedded in the text and context to help us mine a more complete picture of the message of the author. It also utilizes sociological insights to help us construct reality from text, context, culture, and ideology. These multiple perspectives help us to see much more from the text than any one perspective ever could. With the help of SRC the Book of Acts of the Apostles and the Apostolic Fathers are surveyed. With respect to the Book of Acts of the Apostles the researcher will zero in on references to the operation of the Holy Spirit. Utilizing Intertexture (recitation, recontextualization and reconfiguration) to see how the author appropriates other texts and applies them to the current topic as well as social, cultural, and ideological textures in the narrative and plot structures of the text, an attempt will be made to reconstruct the attempt of the author to persuade the reader to adopt the author’s point of view. It will be noted that in the Book of Acts of the Apostles, a sub-cultural relational stance (thaumaturgic) towards Paganism and Judaism (Revolutionist, utopian, conversionist, gnostic manipulation and thaumaturgic stance) was taken by the church. Concerning the Apostolic Fathers, the researcher will utilize insights from sociology such as the conversionist, revolutionist, utopian discourses embedded in a counter-cultural relationship to the dominant culture. The researcher will then enquire as to whether Pentecost is to be viewed as a once-off historical event or whether it is to be viewed soteriological-historically utilizing Spirit-Hermeneutics as a theoretical framework. In terms of ideology, the author is an Evangelical and therefore embraces faith as an epistemic commitment that is therefore to be taken as a starting premise as all claims of ultimate authority must necessarily be taken. Finally, the insights gained above will be analyzed and prove the biblical veracity of Continuationism as not only legitimate but to be expected throughout church history.
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    Being impalume: a religio-cultural perspective of Bemba married men’s construction of masculinity in northern Zambia.
    (2022) Mwakasenga, Upendo.; Siwila, Lilian Chelo.
    According to Bemba traditional culture, there appears to be some religio-cultural contrast in place concerning the requirements and expectations of what an ‘ideal man’ is, and how this is perceived and measured by many people in religious and cultural spaces. The defining factors of a man as presented in Bemba matrilineal society seem to differ from how he is constructed in religious spaces, and this is a problem. In Bemba matrilineal society, a married man will traditionally reside at the home of his in-laws. As a married man, and by this tradition, he is expected to build a house at his in-laws’ place, and is given a piece of land for this purpose while he lives with their daughter. Such marriage practice is for in-laws to assess their son-in-law, and determine if he is an ideal man for their daughter. The son-in-law therefore works very hard and looks forward to a time when the in-laws will call him impalume. In this research, I call this ‘the practice of impalume’, and use the term to indicate how an ideal man is constructed in traditional Bemba marriage. Many masculinity scholars focus their studies on the evils of hegemonic masculinity—which is aggressive, dangerous, and deadly to women and children—and indicate that there is a need for redemptive masculinity; a form of masculinity which can help men shift away from destructive and harmful versions in favour of a life-giving form which protects women and children. Religion has further been blamed for reinforcing concepts of masculinity which are destructive or harmful. The study attempts to understand the religious and cultural perspective of being Impalume for Bemba married men. An ideal man in traditional Bemba matrilineal society is called Impalume, meaning an ‘ideal man’ who is a courageous, strong, brave, and bold warrior; a man who is dependable, responsible and able to keep and protect his family. I was drawn to this topic through my personal experience as a theologian working among the Bemba people, finding that my interest in masculinity studies lies in the African context. This is an empirical piece of research, which employed qualitative methodology to collect data from the field in Kasama, the heart of the Bemba Kingdom. Three congregations from within the United Church of Zambia were selected, where married men living with their in-laws were interviewed over focus group discussions, using guiding questions. The study employed theories of masculinity, focusing on hegemonic, subordinate, and redemptive masculinity, using the concept of impalume to discuss the criteria of the ‘ideal man’ as understood both in Bemba culture and within the Christian context. The objectives of the study, which helped me to shape this research, are as follows:• To understand what it means to be impalume among married Bemba men, from their religio- cultural perspective. • To explore the religious and cultural perspectives of married Bemba men, and the implications of being impalume. • To analyse potential redefinitions of impalume, in an attempt to provide positive concepts and perceptions of masculinity for married men in a matrilineal society. The study explores the roles of men as husbands in a matrilineal society, demonstrating that they are not central within the family structure, are subordinate to their father-in-law, and have less authority over their wives and children. The study also shows how the practice of impalume is not harmful to women and children, but does have some effect on married men in a matrilineal society.The study, from the data collected, reviews the benefits of being impalume, and recommends the practice of impalume as a tool for peaceful, progressive, caring, loving, respectful, and trustworthy teachings on the construction of masculinity. At the same time, the study reviews the challenges posed to married Bemba men, as they face issues such as economic disempowerment, slave labour, and gender-based violence. The study shows how the example of married Bemba men, as a construction of masculinity, can resonate with the religious construction of masculinity—redeeming men in matrilineal societies, and limiting harmful ideologies of masculinity in favour of masculinities which are life-giving. This study challenges religious, feminist and masculinity scholars to think about the men who are abused by their fellows, and to consider ways by which they may be redeemed.
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    A critical examination of the relevance of John Wesley’s economic ethics in contemporary South Africa with specific reference to unemployment, poverty and inequality.
    (2023) Lethale, Sejanamane Solomon Gregory.; Haddad, Beverley Gail.
    John Wesley did not specifically seek to propose structured “economic ethics”, but rather was the chief tutor to the people called Methodists on the economic ordering of their lives during 18th century England. While Wesley taught and preached among the poor, he never pronounced on the Elizabethan Poor Laws, the most comprehensive yet poorly implemented government sponsored program aimed at fighting poverty. The study notes that John Wesley’s mother, Suzanna Wesley, had an immense influence on him. Since she was a conformist as John later became, choosing to turn a blind eye to inefficiencies in the state. It is from this context that his ethics emerged. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to illumine his economics ethics. Conditions of unemployment, poverty and inequality in contemporary South Africa will also be illumined in the study. This study argues that while Wesley’s teachings may appear primordial, they can be appropriated to the current situation in South Africa. Specifically, the study argues that John Wesley’s economic ethics are premised on the four economic principles of the need for government intervention, honest and life-enhancing work, poverty alleviation and the equitable distribution of wealth. Furthermore, the study concludes that these principles remain relevant and can be appropriated to contemporary South Africa in addressing the socio-economic contexts of unemployment, poverty and inequality. On the basis of this appropriation, the study develops three propositions: a political dispensation which focuses on employment creation, the building of an inclusive economy, and mobilization for social cohesion.
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    Feminist critique of the Karanga people of Zimbabwe’s understanding of infertility as a woman’s reproductive health right.
    (2021) Maseko, Lindiwe Princess.; Siwila, Lilian Cheelo.
    Infertility is a global reproductive and health challenge in the 21st century across traditional to modern-clinical contexts. Despite attempts to remedy it, infertility remains a reality that leaves a vulnerable space to some Karanga women, as it is understood to disqualify them from womanhood. This context reflects that Karanga infertility conception has contributed to the silencing of some Karanga women over their reproduction, which exacerbates the deterioration of their reproductive health. Writing from an African feminist perspective, this study critiques the Karanga people of Zimbabwe’s understanding of infertility as a woman’s reproductive health rights, asking how a feminist critique of the Karanga people’s understanding of infertility can contribute to Reproductive Health Right in Zimbabwe. Using a non-empirical qualitative research method, the study collected data from written texts and analysed it through gender and thematic analysis. This study is further supported by an African woman narrative theology (Ayanga 2016), making reference to Oduyoye’s (1999) personal story and the reproductive justice framework (Chiweshe et al. 2017), so as to understand infertility as a lived reality within an African heteropatriarchal context that exemplifies the Karanga as patriarchal, and its response to infertility. From this analysis, this study acknowledges fertility as a key traditional religious and cultural value among the Karanga people, which impacts their conception of infertility in a problematic way. In this research I disclose infertility as a religio cultural construct embedded in a patriarchal systematic reality of the Karanga, leaving some Karanga women vulnerable in terms of their reproductive health rights and well-being. The research reveals that the Karanga understanding of infertility lacks a ‘just’ theological dialogue that goes beyond Karanga women’s biological progeny in responding to infertility. The study recommends inviting the Karanga to transform and understand infertility in a way that affirms the reproductive health and rights of a Karanga woman in the contemporary Zimbabwe.
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    A theological analysis of the ecumenical dialogue between the Anglican and Roman Catholic churches: the case of women’s ordination.
    (2021) Bweupe, Petronella Bwalya.; Rakoczy, Susan Francis.
    The restoration of unity among Christians is at the centre of the Second Vatican Council. The restoration of unity among christians is at the centre of the Second Vatican Council. Christ the Lord founded only one church. However, many Christian churches present themselves to the world as the true heirs of Christ. Although Christians claim to be followers of Christ, they differ in mind and practice and each take their different paths as if Christ were divided. For the Vatican Council Fathers, such divisions contradict the will of Christ, scandalise the world and disrupt the holy cause of preaching the Gospel to all nations. Theological thinkers have extensively debated on how the practice of women’s ordination have dominantly challenged the unity between the Anglican and Roman Catholic churches. It is in this context that the study examines the ecumenical dialogue between the Anglican and Roman Catholic churches on a gendered ministerial position of the two churches. It explores in detail how women’s ordination is an issue of divergence between the two churches, hindering their progress to full communion. Within the wider context of the mainline churches, the dissertation applies the South African context in examining how matters surrounding women’s ordination have influenced unity at the local level. This study was motivated by the question of how current approaches to ecumenical dialogue between the Anglican and Roman Catholic churches impact on issues of gender. To explore the ecumenical dialogue on women’s ordination in the two churches, the study is informed by the theoretical frameworks of feminist ecclesiology, and African women’s theologies. The methodology is purely theological. Using the available literature, the research examines the efforts in the ecumenical dialogue as established by the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission (ARCIC). A look at some selected Second Vatican Council documents which have provided a theological direction to ecumenical relationship with the Roman Catholic Church and other Christian churches are considered. Given the nature of the study, the correspondence between Canterbury and Rome on women’s ordination from 1975 to 1986 greatly informed the study. It also relied heavily on the official statements from the Lambeth Conferences from 1920 to the present day. Finally, the study turned to receptive ecumenism as a preferred method in ecumenical dialogue between the two churches. Christ the Lord founded only one church. However, many Christian churches present themselves to the world as the true heirs of Christ. Although Christians claim to be followers of Christ, they differ in mind and practice and each take their different paths as if Christ were divided. For the Vatican Council Fathers, such divisions contradict the will of Christ, scandalise the world and disrupt the holy cause of preaching the Gospel to all nations. Theological thinkers have extensively debated on how the practice of women’s ordination have dominantly challenged the unity between the Anglican and Roman Catholic churches. It is in this context that the study examines the ecumenical dialogue between the Anglican and Roman Catholic churches on a gendered ministerial position of the two churches. It explores in detail how women’s ordination is an issue of divergence between the two churches, hindering their progress to full communion. Within the wider context of the mainline churches, the dissertation applies the South African context in examining how matters surrounding women’s ordination have influenced unity at the local level. This study was motivated by the question of how current approaches to ecumenical dialogue between the Anglican and Roman Catholic churches impact on issues of gender. To explore the ecumenical dialogue on women’s ordination in the two churches, the study is informed by the theoretical frameworks of feminist ecclesiology, and African women’s theologies. The methodology is purely theological. Using the available literature, the research examines the efforts in the ecumenical dialogue as established by the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission (ARCIC). A look at some selected Second Vatican Council documents which have provided a theological direction to ecumenical relationship with the Roman Catholic Church and other Christian churches are considered. Given the nature of the study, the correspondence between Canterbury and Rome on women’s ordination from 1975 to 1986 greatly informed the study. It also relied heavily on the official statements from the Lambeth Conferences from 1920 to the present day. Finally, the study turned to receptive ecumenism as a preferred method in ecumenical dialogue between the two churches.
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    Burial societies, African religion and the Church.
    (1994) Warnecke, Werner G. G.; Nurnberger, Klaus Bilfried.
    Abstract available in PDF.
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    A critical examination of the theology and praxis of the SACC, 1968-1988.
    (1992) Chikane, Frank.; Cochrane, James R.
    Abstract available in PDF.
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    Eternity and the now: an exploration of Paul's understanding of a new creation in Gal. 6:15 and 2 Cor. 5:17.
    (2018) Mahony, Michael Anthony.; Decock, Paul Bernard.
    This thesis forms the first part of a programme of research whose ultimate aim is to draw upon Saint Paul’s vision of a new creation in Galatians and Second Corinthians in order to provide a new window of access into the Christian hope of eternal life for people of this secular age. Many contemporary people are deeply concerned about the Cosmos (they would not term it ‘Creation’) but have lost all conception of a Cosmos of eternal dimensions, one which includes the human species in its resurrected state. As such, this programme of research, while drawing upon academic scholarship, is ultimately addressed to the woman and the man ‘in the street’. This present thesis, albeit the first step in the broader programme, confines its scope to how a new creation would have been communicated by Paul to the communities which he addressed of the early church. After the introduction and methodological issues, the study proper opens in Chapter 2 with a summary of the theology of the apostle Paul the author of the two NT letters concerned. Paul’s personality will also be touched upon here because of the forthright way in which Paul expresses himself in these letters. Building upon recent studies by a number of biblical scholars, Chapter 2 includes a study of how the previously scholarly Pharisee Saul, would have acquired his original sense of a new creation from his Jewish background as well as from his own Christ-encountered theology. In Chapter 3 (Second Corinthians) and Chapter 4 (Galatians) interpretations of the new creation texts are undertaken within the context of the principal themes of the two letters and the particular characteristics of the two communities being addressed. What emerges from this analysis is that, in spite of widely differing views amongst biblical scholars, Paul’s understanding of new creation can be seen to manifest the three-fold characteristics of being anthropological, cosmological, and ecclesiological. This present thesis recognises this but attributes more significance to the anthropological. While eschatological considerations are often associated with the cosmological dimension, this, of course, is not exclusive, all three elements can have eschatological characteristics. Two other aspects are addressed which seem to be understated in the existing literature, namely the importance of individual and corporate identity in the communities being addressed by Paul, and the nature of the relationship between new creation and the Pauline concept of ‘being in Christ’. In addition, a concern is raised which is absent in the literature. In the interpretation process for these two elliptical Greek texts the influence of some secondary sources over and against that of the texts themselves, as reflected in the prevailing translations of these texts, is interrogated. Accordingly, in these chapters, the following questions are raised and answers proposed for them: Why is Paul able to introduce the words of a new creation, καινὴ κτίσις, without any prior explanation? What accounts for the abruptness with which these words appear? Also, the practice of including verbs into the two texts (as the vast majority of translations do in varied ways in order to express the interpretations arrived at) is (controversially) critiqued, and an alternative approach – with alternative interpretations and translations – proposed; ones which further enhance the relationship between the concepts of ‘a new creation’, and of ‘persons being in Christ’. Chapter 5 summarises the main conclusions arising from this study, and identifies areas of further research (particularly those related to the subjects of mystery, love and identity in new creation). A closing ‘Afterword’ illustrates the significance of καινὴ κτίσις for today.
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    The local church is a visible hermeneutical community.
    (1996) Mngadi, Thembinkosi Themba Paul.; West, Gerald Oakley.
    "No abstract available in the pdf"
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    Cultural practices among the Sena in Nsanje District Malawi : HIV and AIDS and the African Evangelical Church.
    (2009) Chibambo, Lucy Thokozile.; Ward, Edwina Deborah.
    This study focuses on the cultural practices that contribute to the increase of HIV and AIDS in Nsanje district of Malawi. The study also proves the hypothesis that the African Evangelical Church has not responded effectively to the cultural practices that influence the spread of HIV. As a result, this has led to the high prevalence rate of HIV in the Nsanje district. Data was collected using content analysis. The findings of this research are that people of Nsanje district have maintained their cultural practices within the context of HIV and AIDS. The key cultural practices that have been maintained are widow cleansing, widow inheritance, bonus wife, fisi (hyena) custom, polygamy and bzyade. The study has also found that sexual intercourse is used in most rituals as a tool for purification. It is a great challenge for church and the community to modify or stop these cultural practices because some of the people in Nsanje district claim that these cultural practices have been practiced since the existence of their forefathers in Nsanje district. The study has also found that there are multiple sexual partners involved in the sexual rituals which increase high risk of the spread of HIV. Therefore, the study recommends that the community together with the church should take a stand in responding to the cultural practices in an attempt to combat the spread of HIV.
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    The Church's relationship to the agency of the assets of people living with HIV/AIDS in rural South Africa: a case study in Marapyane Community, Skilpadfontein.
    (2007) Sabushimike, Leonidas.; De Gruchy, Steve M.
    This thesis explores the relevance of Asset Based Community Development (ABCD) as a development strategy with people living with HIV/ AIDS. Contemporary development theory suggests that the assets and agency of the poor are crucial in any development process, and these ideas are important in ABCD. Many commentators have noted the relationship between HIV/AIDS and poverty, and that community development is a key response to this. The question therefore is whether ABCD is still appropriate and relevant in a situation in which HIV/ AIDS undermines the assets and agency of the poor. The research takes the form of an in-depth case study in Marapyane village in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. The findings of interviews with a series of key informants helps to gain an overview of the impact of the pandemic in the community, and the study then draws on interviews with nineteen people living with HIV/ AIDS. It notes the range of assets that they have access to, and argues that the ABCD approach to community development is still relevant and appropriate. At the same time, however, it notes a range of important factors that need to be established for the ABCD approach to succeed. The research encouraged PL WH to work towards one goal, the community has to stop discrimination against PL WH, and PL WH have to be included in all processes of community development. The use of skills that are among PL WH need to be encouraged and supported by the community, PL WH are called to connect with other local institutions in order to work together for the benefit of all members of the community. Local institutions are encouraged to contribute resources that will work to empower the capacity of PL WH so that they can be able to fulfill their development dreams. PL WH are to have a clear agenda and well-organized strategy that can eradicate poverty effectively. PL WH are also encouraged to consider the land as their main resources and basic asset that can be utilized in poverty alleviation and avoid unnecessary urban migration as much as they can use. But the Thesis looked the agency of PL WH not those who are already sick who need care, this means that early test will also be considered as another way of contributing in the effectiveness of the ABCD.
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    Hebrews 9:1-28, in the light of the anthropology of sacrificial ritual, with special reference to Pedi responses to the text.
    (1995) Masoga, Mogomme Alpheus.; Draper, Jonathan Alfred.
    This research looks at the function and importance of ritual in the Hebrews Epistle, in particular chapter 9: 1-28. The text is dealt with in the light of the theories of the anthropology of sacrificial ritual, and with special reference to Pedi responses to the text. Thereafter, the theories of sacrificial ritual are introduced. The interesting part of the thesis rests on the Pedi responses to Hebrews 9: 1-28. The responses were collected after Bible-study workshops conducted in the Northern Province of this country at the following places: Mmasealama, Ga-Dikgale and Setlhong. Most of the respondents, the majority of whom were women, were either illiterate or semi-literate. This study argues for a new paradigm in studying the New Testament in the South African context, a new paradigm which takes into account African voices. Lastly, it looks at the importance of rituals for the bloody province of Kwa-Zulu Natal and in the broader South African situation.