Defining the role of high-dose isoniazid in the treatment of multi-drug resistance tuberculosis: isoniazid resistant profiling.
Ngema, Senamile Lale.
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Background: High-dose isoniazid is recommended in short-course regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). However, there is no substantial evidence supporting its use in the presence of INH resistant mutations. Therefore, this study aimed to establish the efficacy of INH in the presence INH resistance associated mutations. Methods: We selected 94 clinical isolates obtained from 65 patients from the IndEX (CAP020) study specimen biorepository. Isolates were selected based on whole genome sequencing results showing evidence of INH resistant conferring mutations. Twenty-one isolates had inhA promoter gene and/ inhA coding region mutations, 35 had katG mutations, and 20 had both inhA promoter and/ inhA coding region plus katG mutations. Additionally, 18 INH susceptible clinical isolates were included in this analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were done in different concentration ranges depending on the mutation present. INH susceptible and H37Rv (0.016-0.256) μg/ml, inhA (0.256-4.0) μg/ml, katG (1.0-16.0) μg/ml and inhA plus katG (4.0-16) μg/ml. Results: Among 94 isolates, 36 were excluded: 11 MPT64 antigen negative, 23 non-growers and two were contaminated. Fifty-eight isolates from 55 patients were left for analysis. Eleven isolates had inhA mutations, 23 katG mutations, 12 had double mutations in inhA and katG, and 12 were INH susceptible. MICs obtained varied within isolates ranging from 0.016 to >64.0 μg/ml. InhA, katG, inhA plus katG mutations and INH susceptible isolates had median INH MIC of 8.0 (4.0-64.0), 4.0 (95% CI, 4.0-8.0), 64.0 (95% CI, 64.0-64.0), and 0.48 (95% CI, 0.32-1.0) μg/ml, respectively, confirming the association between INH MICs and genotypic profile. The MDR-TB and pre/XDR-TB had median INH MIC of 8.0 (95% CI, 8.0-32.0) and 48.0 (4.0-64.0) μg/ml, respectively. We found association between cavitary disease and increase in INH MICs for inhA mutants, median of 64.0 (64.0-64.0) μg/ml, and previous TB history and increased INH MICs (8.0[95% CI, 8.0-64]. Conclusion: This study demonstrated highly variable MIC range with significant overlap in MIC range among the mutant groups. Furthermore, inhA mutants demonstrated unexpectedly high MICs raising a concern for the ongoing use of the high-dose INH in our setting. Our findings suggest that the current one-size-fits all approach to MDR-TB short-course regimen requires urgent review.