The activity of nybomycin against mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Niehaus, Abraham Johannes.
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Nybomycin was discovered in 1955, but was never developed for clinical use. The compound was noticed again in recent years when it displayed bactericidal activity against certain fluoroquinolone-resistant bacterial species. The work presented here aims chiefly at describing the effect of nybomycin on Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The study is made up of three parts. In the first part, in vitro nybomycin susceptibility testing was conducted with various fluoroquinolone-susceptible and fluoroquinolone-resistant bacterialspecies. All M. tuberculosis isolates displayed low nybomycin inhibitory concentrations regardless of fluoroquinolone resistance. Similar susceptibility results were obtained for N. gonorrhoeae isolates, but results obtained with other bacterial species were less promising. In the second part, in silico investigations were conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action of nybomycin in M. tuberculosis. Results show that nybomycin binds to M. tuberculosis gyrase enzyme with an affinity at least similar to that of fluoroquinolones. No clear differences in binding affinity were observed when gyrA mutations, commonly associated with fluoroquinolone resistance, were considered. The results suggest that the mechanism of action of nybomycin against M. tuberculosis involves inhibition of gyrase enzyme. In the third part, M. tuberculosis mutants with increased nybomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations were selected and compared with the wild type organism through whole genome sequencing. None of the isolates harbored any mutations commonly linked to known drug resistance mechanisms. This indicates that M. tuberculosis likely employs a novel mechanism of resistance against nybomycin. This may further signify that nybomycin has an additional mechanism of action against M. tuberculosis, besides the action on gyrase enzyme, as suggested by the in silico results from this study. Twenty-two genes were identified through whole genome sequencing that may potentially be linked to the mechanism of resistance and possibly an additional mechanism of action.