The negative impact of rural-urban migration in KwaDukuza Municipality.
Mthiyane, Douglas Bongani.
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The South African unemployment rate is currently at 29% (Statssa, 2019). This means that South Africa has a high rate of unemployment. Economists have indicated that of every four people, three are job seekers. The purpose of this study is to determine the negative impact of urbanisation in KwaDukuza Municipality (KDM). The World Bank assertion is that more than 80% of the world’s gross domestic product is derived from urban areas. (World Bank, 2018). The researcher is of the view that there are negative influences that come along with urban population growth to towns and cities. The study sample constitutes of ten participants from Ntshawini informal settlement in KDM and that is where the survey was conducted. The group was obtained through a convenience or accidental sampling. The second group consists of iNduna (traditional leader), two ward councillors, three entrepreneurs with KwaDukuza Central Business (CBD), and three municipal officials. The interviews were conducted individually to this group and mainly in their working environment. The group was obtained through purposive sampling. The research data were gathered through sending survey questionnaires to Ntshawini residents and conducting interviews with the purposive sample. Secondary data was drawn from government publications and KwaDukuza Integrated Development Plans. The high rate of population growth in KwaDukuza is due to the lack of sound economic opportunities from the other three local municipalities of iLembe District Municipality. KwaDukuza seem to be more vibrant in job creation activities compared to its counterparts. The neglect in regard to the provision of basic infrastructure in the rural areas in all four local municipalities of iLembe is another factor that has resulted in high rural-urban migration to KwaDukuza. Rural economic hubs can create rural economic activities and assist in managing rural-urban migration. The underdevelopment and backlog in terms of economic hubs and basic services backlog can be traced back to the discriminatory laws of 1913, and is also a consequence of the policies pursued by the Nationalist Government after 1948. Currently KDM has the largest population and the youth unemployment alone stands at 31%. High unemployment in the KDM has led to a high crime rate and other social ills. The unprecedented population growth rate has led to a strong demand for basic services such as water and sanitation and land for housing. As a result of the prevailing unemployment, the municipality is under pressure to consider other avenues to improve its economic status. There are a number of measures that have been taken jointly with other municipalities in the district to formalise towns within deep rural municipalities such as Ndwedwe and Maphumulo. Formalising towns within the two rural municipalities would allow the municipalities to bring in services that are available in KwaDukuza, such as waterborne toilets and other services. The creation of economic hubs has already been started in order to control the exploitation of resources within one municipality. The rural-urban migration challenges facing KwaDukuza have resulted in environmental degradation. The lack of waste collection has resulted in environmental pollution due to insufficient resources for refuse collection from the densely populated informal settlements. Population growth in the town and suburban areas has put pressure on the existing sewer infrastructure. As a result there are frequent sewer leaks that iLembe District has attributed to aging and insufficient infrastructure to cater for the rapid population growth.