Mechanisms behind the anti-diabetic effects of caffeine in a Type 2 diabetes model of rats.
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Caffeine has been used for many years and is one of the most extensively consumed active food ingredient throughout the world. Caffeine has been broadly studied in a variety of areas regarding human health and performance. Various reports have shown that consumption of coffee or caffeine containing drinks are associated with the reduction of type 2 diabetes related symptoms, promotes weight loss and acts as an antioxidant. However, the fundamental mechanisms have not been understood. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms behind the anti-diabetic effects of caffeine. Various in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models were used to achieve this objective. The results of this study showed that caffeine possessed strong antioxidant potential and was able to inhibit key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes in vitro. The results of this study further demonstrate that caffeine can modulate T2D-induced oxidative stress in various organs in vivo. Caffeine was able to reduce small intestinal glucose absorption, increase muscle glucose uptake ex vivo, improve pancreatic β-cell function and stimulate insulin secretions in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. Pancreatic histopathology showed that caffeine ameliorated T2D-induced pancreatic β-cell destruction and their functions at the end of the study. Data of this study suggest that caffeine can be used an anti-diabetic supplement in anti-diabetic foods and food products, however, a safer effective dose still needs to be identified. Hence, further studies are warranted in experimental animals and humans to determine the most effective and safer dose of caffeine for achieving its maximum anti-diabetic effects.