A comparative chemistry of coa® herbal medicine and herbal extracts of Vernonia Amygdalina (Bitter leaf) and Persea Americana (Avocado).
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The aim of this study is to investigate the phytochemical compounds present in standard COA®, dichloromethane (DCM), ethanol (EtOH), hexane (HEX), and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) , extracts of COA® compared to leaf extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Persea americana collected from Cape Coast (Ghana) and Durban (South Africa) by phytochemical screening techniques and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Findings from this study revealed that leaf extracts of P. americana and V. amygdalina have been used in many local African communities for management of various diseases. Ethnomedicinal use and pharmacological properties of leaf extracts of P. americana andV. amygdalina may justify polyherbal formulation involving the two plants in the treatment of diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and other diseases. Outcomes of the preliminary phytochemicals screening showed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and glucosides in ethanolic leaf extracts and standard COA®. GC-MS study of standard COA®, COA® extract and leaf extracts of P. americana and V. amygdalina collected from Ghana and South Africa had 60y phytochemical compounds identified in the hexane extract of COA® extract, 47 in DCM, 37 in ethyl acetate, 18in ethanol and 11 in standard COA® herbal medicine. The identification of phytochemical compounds and pharmacological actions was based on the name of the chemical compound, retention time and molecular formula from GC-MS analysis. The major phytochemicals common to COA® extract and leaf extracts of P. americana and V. amygdalina were heneicosane, phytyl acetate, pyrene, octadecanoic acid, eicosane, 2-methyltetracosane, pentadecanoic acid, hexadecanamide, and octadecanamide. Most of these major phytochemicals are present in ethanolic extracts of both COA® and leaf extracts of P. americana and V. amygdalina Leaf extracts of P. americana and V. amygdalina collected from Ghana have more phytochemicals compared to that of South Africa. The finding, of this study, confirm the presence of P. americana and V. amygdalina leaf extracts in COA® herbal medicine. It also confirms the profound variations in phytochemicals of P. americana and V. amygdalina leaf extracts due to the effects of environmental factors and geographical locations.