Hybrid generalized non-orthogonal multiple access for the 5G wireless networks.
Zitha, Samson Manyani.
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The deployment of 5G networks will lead to an increase in capacity, spectral efficiency, low latency and massive connectivity for wireless networks. They will still face the challenges of resource and power optimization, increasing spectrum efficiency and energy optimization, among others. Furthermore, the standardized technologies to mitigate against the challenges need to be developed and are a challenge themselves. In the current predecessor LTE-A networks, orthogonal frequency multiple access (OFDMA) scheme is used as the baseline multiple access scheme. It allows users to be served orthogonally in either time or frequency to alleviate narrowband interference and impulse noise. Further spectrum limitations of orthogonal multiple access (OMA) schemes have resulted in the development of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) schemes to enable 5G networks to achieve high spectral efficiency and high data rates. NOMA schemes unorthogonally co-multiplex different users on the same resource elements (RE) (i.e. time-frequency domain, OFDMA subcarrier, or spreading code) via power domain (PD) or code domain (CD) at the transmitter and successfully separating them at the receiver by applying multi-user detection (MUD) algorithms. The current developed NOMA schemes, refered to as generalized-NOMA (G-NOMA) technologies includes; Interleaver Division Multiple Access (IDMA, Sparse code multiple access (SCMA), Low-density spreading multiple access (LDSMA), Multi-user shared access (MUSA) scheme and the Pattern Division Multiple Access (PDMA). These protocols are currently still under refinement, their performance and applicability has not been thoroughly investigated. The first part of this work undertakes a thorough investigation and analysis of the performance of the existing G-NOMA schemes and their applicability. Generally, G-NOMA schemes perceives overloading by non-orthogonal spectrum resource allocation, which enables massive connectivity of users and devices, and offers improved system spectral efficiency. Like any other technologies, the G-NOMA schemes need to be improved to further harvest their benefits on 5G networks leading to the requirement of Hybrid G-NOMA (G-NOMA) schemes. The second part of this work develops a HG-NOMA scheme to alleviate the 5G challenges of resource allocation, inter and cross-tier interference management and energy efficiency. This work develops and investigates the performance of an Energy Efficient HG-NOMA resource allocation scheme for a two-tier heterogeneous network that alleviates the cross-tier interference and improves the system throughput via spectrum resource optimization. By considering the combinatorial problem of resource pattern assignment and power allocation, the HG-NOMA scheme will enable a new transmission policy that allows more than two macro-user equipment’s (MUEs) and femto-user equipment’s (FUEs) to be co-multiplexed on the same time-frequency RE increasing the spectral efficiency. The performance of the developed model is shown to be superior to the PD-NOMA and OFDMA schemes.