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Doctoral Degrees (Town and Regional Planning)

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    Assessing the sustainable urban development-urban liveability-inclusive physical development nexus in selected cities in north-central Nigeria.
    (2022) Blamah, Nunyi Vachaku.; Magidimisha, Hangwelani Hope.
    The continuous increase in the urban population worldwide has exacerbated the intensity of urban land use conversion and spatial consumption. This motivation for a better urban space led to the evolution of sustainable urban development, urban liveability, environmental awareness, inclusivity, and urban governance. Therefore, this research aimed to establish the intricate links between sustainable urban development, urban liveability, and inclusive physical development in selected cities in North-Central Nigeria. The theories examined were Citizen Participation, Dependency, Modernisation, and Infrastructure. The selected cities were Lokoja, Lafia, and Minna, all incidentally equidistant to Abuja, the Federal Capital City of Nigeria. This research employed a mixed-methods approach by collecting both qualitative and quantitative data. These data sets ranged from satellite imageries used for the spatio-temporal analysis and urban growth simulation through ArcGIS, Q-GIS, and the Artificial Neural Network. The extent of infrastructure provision and their methods were appraised using the instrumentality of the nearest neighbour analysis and the partial least square analysis using the SmartPLS. The research also appraised the stakeholders’ perceptions and methods of infrastructure provision through a word cloud analysis using NVivo analytics. In analysing the provision and condition of the infrastructure in North-Central Nigeria, educational infrastructure was found to be inadequate and poorly maintained; inadequate budgetary allocations exacerbated the problem of urban infrastructure overuse; illegal developments often overtook sites reserved for infrastructure; and funding, vandalism, and project continuity were cited as critical factors. The infrastructure that suffered the highest maintenance neglect was the urban water supply, education infrastructure, and the health care facilities. Political motivation and the population played the most significant roles in the region's urban infrastructure or project development. The triad of consumption, access, and equity was used to evaluate Hangwurian City Development's (HCD) proposed sustainable urban infrastructure development plan. Convergent validity was strong in the region, where the AVE was significant at 0.56 or more. A compact development model was found to be a valuable indicator for qualifying the cities. It was found that the challenge of planning regulation and siting of infrastructure could be addressed effectively, however, the public and private sector promoters of projects had to stick to their parts of the bargain. Cities across North-Central Nigeria had to undertake citizen-focused infrastructure planning and development. Therefore, the researcher concluded that city development and urban growth could be moderated through the instrumentality of adequate infrastructure provision and planning to prioritise the needs and desires of residents. This is achievable by adopting the Hangwurian City Development Model, which helps to promote cities without ills.
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    Planning and Social Housing in the context of spatial justice and right to the city in Alexandra Township, South Africa: 2001 TO 2016.
    (2022) Mndze, Siphumeze.; Mchunu, Koyi Humphrey.; Myeni, Sithembiso Lindelihle.
    This study aims to investigate the manner in which social housing contributes to spatial justice and the right to the city. It shows that social housing does not create spatial justice and the right to the city, although it contributes to them. The study applies concepts such as spatial justice, social justice, integration and participation. The theories that are applied constitute critical theory, Rawls’ theory of justice, new urbanism and smart growth theory. The concepts and theories help in guiding the argument in terms of investigating the manner in which social housing contributes to spatial justice and the right to the city. A mixed-method approach was used as the research methodology and design. Semi-structured interviews and questionnaire surveys were conducted with social housing beneficiaries in Alexandra Township, which is in the City of Johannesburg in South Africa and was used as a case study. The research findings demonstrate that in Alexandra Township there has been a noticeable but limited contribution of social housing to spatial justice and the right to the city. Through construction of social housing apartments, people had access to shelter and services such as water, electricity, and sewerage, but many still do not have access to sustainable job opportunities. Additionally, there is no consistent access to services such as sewerage, water, and electricity, with frequent outages and blockages in water pipes and sewerage. The rate of crime is high, and people do not enjoy access to amenities and facilities because of fear of being attacked by criminals. The thesis recommends that for social housing to contribute to spatial justice and the right to the city, consultation and participation with the beneficiaries must be undertaken; there needs to be alignment of policy and legislation to facilitate the contribution of social housing to spatial justice and the right to the city; spatial inequality in the cities must be dealt with; and urban safety and security must be improved. This study contributes to academic discourse by providing perspectives about social housing in terms of spatial justice and the right to the city. The research provides notions about re-conceptualisation of social housing policy and legislation in terms of the ideas of spatial justice and the right to the city. Additionally, the study provides notions and a platform for the scrutinisation and discussion of social housing within the context of spatial justice and the right to the city. Finally, this study presents a framework for social housing in relation to spatial justice and the right to city. The framework outlines organised thinking and orientation about social housing regarding its contribution to spatial justice and the right to the city. This thesis argues that future research needs to adopt a broader contextual approach to investigate and understand the urban planning processes leading to limitations of social housing in contributing to spatial justice and the right to the city for beneficiaries. Such future research should utilise procedural planning theory because it deals with making and implementing plans. Additionally, a comparative study which may assist in investigating, analysing, and evaluating social housing in different cities must be undertaken to detect similarities and differences. This must occur to compare social housing in terms of contributing to spatial justice and the right to the city in various cities. This may assist to broaden the thinking and understanding of the way social housing contributes to spatial justice and the right to the city.
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    Municipal governance under siege in South Africa: the comparative study of uMhlathuze and Mtubatuba local municipalities.
    (2020) Khuzwayo, Terence Sibusiso.; Mchunu, Koyi Humphrey.
    Many scholars in public policy are increasingly locked in the debate about the changing role of the state in meeting societal needs. This is amidst the spectrum of many perspectives on service delivery provision ranging from state-centric, market-centric, and citizen-centric approaches. While there is relative consensus on the need for the state to play a role in responding to the changing service delivery demands, there are stark differences in the literature about the nature, form, and texture of the role of the state. With the advent of the democratic government in South Africa, various state apparatus, including municipalities, are expected to play their significant role in responding to the changing societal demands as articulated in the 1996 Constitution. There is compelling empirical evidence to suggest that municipalities are under immense pressure to exercise their governance role amidst changing service delivery demands brought about by socio-economic and population dynamics, technological change, climate change as well as global pandemics. However, there is little understanding about how municipalities, given the wide array of perspectives, interpret and experience their governance role in responding to these changing service delivery demands. This understanding is critical to providing an empirical analysis of how different governance partners interface and relate to one another within the municipal space. This research project sought to respond to the gap in literature by bringing out the voices of key stakeholders within the municipal space into the governance conversation. These voices add flavour and colour to the unfolding governance conversation in a manner that not only enriches the debate but also suggests practical measures that assist governance systems for municipalities in South Africa.
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    Housing and socio-spatial integration in the post-apartheid urban communities, in South Africa: a case study of Shaka's Head, KwaDukuza Municipality.
    (2018) Mbambo, Sanele Brian.; Mchunu, Koyi Humphrey.
    This study assesses the potential for housing to attain socio-spatial integration in the post-1994 urban communities. Urban communities in South Africa have a history of segregation enforced through policy and legislation during the apartheid rule. Housing was used effectively as a tool to enforce urban spatial segregation through separate locations, urban restrictions, dispossessions and so forth. In the post-1994 period, housing continued to be utilised in driving further urban residential segregations through private housing developments promoting gated enclaves. Post-apartheid urban communities continue to reflect patterns of segregation. The study argues that class inequalities have maintained urban fragmentation and suppressed the role of housing in achieving socio-spatial integration. Neoliberal urbanism is used to understand class domination and the maintenance of hegemony which has appeared to be a fundamental root cause for persistent urban exclusion. Neoliberal urbanism seeks to enlarge the role of market forces in the housing sector, to privatise the provision of urban and social services, and to increase the role of elites in shaping the urban landscapes. The neoliberal urbanism ideology asserts that the city is envisaged as a playing field for the elites, whereby growing socioeconomic inequalities are managed by creating privatised, customised and networked spaces for consumption by urban elites. The study uses a case of Shaka’s Head, a socially mixed urban neighbourhood in Ballito, KwaDukuza Municipality. A qualitative approach was used for research methodology and design. In-depth interviews were conducted with government officials, the civic movement, low and high-income sections of the study area. Research findings show that in Shaka’s Head, there has been a noticeable but limited role of housing to achieve socio-spatial integration. Through housing location, it was possible to attain a multi-class urban neighbourhood, which is strategically located closer to economic opportunities. However, there has been an inability of social groups to create social relations and share in the local economy. The study concludes that, while housing has a potential to attain spatial integration, socially mixed neighbourhoods have remained socially fragmented. In achieving socio-spatial integration, the study recommends for institutional integration, effective participation, development of quality infrastructure and improved security.
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    Neighbourhood revitalisation and housing satisfaction : enhancing residents’ quality of life in public low-income housing in Lagos metropolis Nigeria.
    (2018) Olufemi, Omolabi Abimbola.; Adebayo, Pauline Wambui.
    This study examines declining housing quality and neighbourhood degeneration as factors that contribute to low levels of residential satisfaction and quality of life in public low-income housing estates in Lagos metropolis. Its main objective was to establish the relationship between housing quality and residential satisfaction and its implications for neighbourhood revitalisation. In developed countries, such conditions as residential neighbourhood blight and decay are often addressed by means of clearance and renewal programmes. In a developing country like Nigeria, such options are not feasible due to resource constraints and a shortage of housing stock. The study, motivated by an effort to particularly address the problem of housing for the low income group, adopted the needs theory, hedonic price theory, housing adjustment theory and new urbanism as it’s theoretical framework. It’s conceptual framework rested on the issues of neighbourhood’s habitability, affordability, residential satisfaction, urban blight and quality of life. A mix of quantitative and qualitative methods was used for data collection and analysis. The quantitative approach was utilized in which 646 completed questionnaires measuring housing and neighbourhood quality, residential satisfaction, quality of life and the respondents’ willingness to participate in a revitalisation scheme to examine the interrelation among the conceptual issues. Observation, key informant in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were also used to gather data. Chi-square test was used to test the relationship between housing quality and residential satisfaction. The Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted to determine whether there is significant variation in the level of residential satisfaction between the housing estates. The findings of the chi-square test revealed a significant positive relationship between residential satisfaction and housing quality variables. The result of the Kruskal-Wallis test revealed there was no significant variation in the level of residential satisfaction between these estates. The postulation that housing improvement through urban revitalisation made by low income households themselves in partnership with private sector will be a potent factor on housing quality improvement for an enhanced quality of life is a general policy approach to sustainable housing development. The research practically assists planners and policy makers who work on public low income housing on how to avoid adverse issues associated with poor residential neighbourhood and opens a way of thinking about future public low income housing programmes.
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    Towards a strategy for inclusionary inner city housing in Lagos, Nigeria.
    (2018) Oyebamiji, Okesoto John.; Adebayo, Pauline Wambui.
    Lagos with a population of more than 17 million, suffers an acute shortage of housing and general decline in the quality of existing housing stock. Low income earners are worst hit, because they lack the economic means to choose where to live. They desire to live closer to where they work, which in most cases is the Central Business District (CBD). However, the exorbitant cost of housing in the inner city makes it unaffordable for the poor, hence their exclusion from the inner city. This study examined the possibility of meeting the housing needs of the poor in the inner city of central Lagos through an inclusionary housing strategy. It is based on the assumption that the weak planning and control of land use and building development enable rapid and unregulated succession of residential land use by competing land use activities. The effects are twofold; the poor are inadvertently excluded from the inner city and there has been a rapid decline in the housing function. Among other theories, the classical urban land use theory, and the concepts of the compact city were employed to explain these problems and how they could be addressed. A hybrid research method that combines qualitative and quantitative approaches was used to conduct the study. The quantitative data was descriptively and inferentially analysed and presented in line with the themes that emerged. The study found that the majority of those that live in the inner city of central Lagos are in the upper economic echelon of the society, while the majority of low-income earners live on the city’s outskirts. In respect of residential location decisions, the concern amongst the high-income group is location, while the lower-income group decides on the basis of affordability. Based on these findings, it recommends the mandatory provision of affordable rental and rent- to- own inclusionary housing. A set proportion of inclusionary housing would thus be required as a pre-condition for new residential developments within the inner city. The study’s major contribution to knowledge is the introduction of inclusionary inner city housing as a strategy to meet the housing needs of low-income earners in the inner city of central Lagos.
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    Improving intra-urban pedestrian safety in the Lagos Metropolitan area : case study of Lagos Island Central Business District.
    (2017) Tugbobo, Babatunde Kayode.; Dayomi, Abiodun Matthews.
    This study investigated ways to improve intra-urban pedestrian safety in the Lagos metropolitan area. The study aimed to encourage increased pedestrian activity by identifying the practical steps that would result in significant improvements to pedestrian amenity, safety and linkages within Lagos Island CBD and the metropolitan area in general. To achieving these objectives, this study employed the use of scientific research methodologies. Data were collected in two phases: secondary and primary data sources. Secondary data includes review of relevant literatures. Quantitative data was gathered, primarily through a field survey (questionnaire), which proved efficient in gathering contemporary data on traffic and pedestrian characteristics. This sample size had 95% level of confidence with disproportionate 5% sampling error. Primary traffic and pedestrian data (including socio-economic and demographic characteristics, and an origin and destination count, etc.) at an aggregated level. Traffic and pedestrian datasets from the field study were adjusted by means of normalization, which enabled amalgamation of these datasets. Data analysis mainly involved statistical methods and the use of computer technology. The study’s findings show there has been a significant increase in the number of private cars on the roads. While the traditional pedestrian system is regarded as a way of life worldwide, in Lagos Island CBD, walking and pedestrians seem to be regarded as subservient and an inconvenience to the flow of automobiles. The empirical analysis revealed overdependence on motorization in all spheres of city life, with significant negative effects on existing road design and the future of Lagos. The study confirmed that the Lagos metropolitan area’s road network is old, outdated and dysfunctional, lacks pedestrian space and utilities. This is slowing down city activities and cannot support the ever-increasing pedestrian population. The study proposes modern intra-urban pedestrian transportation system and other NMT as an efficient alternative means of mobility. It notes that one of the most effective ways to reduce overdependence on motorized transportation is reduce the desire for such and embrace environmentally acceptable means such as a pedestrian system. Overall, this study seeks to enhance the quality of life and create a healthier city that is aesthetically balanced and sustainable.
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    An approach to spatial planning in Southern Africa with particular reference to Transkei's north-east region.
    (1986) Robinson, Peter Spencer.; Maasdorp, Gavin Grant.
    The aim of this research was to investigate how spatial planning could contribute to development in the peripheral regions of Southern Africa. It was undertaken at a time when conventional regional planning was under attack from several quarters and the very relevance of planning at regional scale was being questioned. This state of flux in regional planning doctrine and practice presented an opportune setting to establish a method embracing the most relevant components of the debate. The proposed approach to spatial planning took into account the main parameters determining the context within which both planning and development can occur in Southern Africa's peripheral regions. It was tested in a typical environment - that of north-eastern Transkei. The proposed methodology places particular emphasis on the integrative role of planning (sectoral and spatial) at regional scale and on the means of implementation. It was used to draw up a Spatial Development Plan for the region and to set the implementation process in motion. The impact of both the plan and the process were monitored and evaluated after two years. With some refinements, the methodology proved to be an effective means of planning for development and initiating a sequence of actions geared towards development in the region. The conclusions were that spatial planning has a role to play in increasing the productive capacities and improving the living conditions of people in peripheral regions. However, this role is constrained both by the structural dimensions of underdevelopment in these areas (which spatial planning alone cannot resolve), and by the extent of which planners are able to remain involved in the implementation of their plans as part of a continuous development process. It is apparent that more attention needs to be paid to consultation, communication and community liaison than to the technical side of planning. Thus planners need not only to return to the fields of procedural and substantive theory to bolster their doctrine; but they also need to adopt the approach of McGee's "dirty boots brigade".
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    Towards a framework for assessing settlement patterns and trends in South Africa to guide sustainable settlement development planning : a case study of KwaZulu-Natal province.
    (2011) Musvoto, Godfrey Gombana.; Adebayo, Ambrose Adeyemi.
    This study presents a framework for assessing settlement patterns and trends to guide sustainable settlement development planning in South Africa. The rationale for the study is the persistence of multi-faceted interrelated, settlement challenges. At the beginning of the post-apartheid period in 1994, the new democratic government in South Africa adopted progressive policies to promote sustainable human settlements that integrate the various facets of human activity such as transportation, housing and socio-economic facilities. However, unsustainable and inefficient patterns of apartheid era planning persist more than 15 years into the post-apartheid settlements. Compounding this situation are new, unsustainable emerging trends such as the peripheral location of mono-functional low income housing developments in cities. This study argues that the main reason for the persistence of settlement challenges is the absence of comprehensive frameworks for the formulation of sustainable development plans that are informed by substantive theory, best practice and also the dialectical relationship among various settlement facets. It therefore develops a new framework and model for assessing settlement patterns and trends to guide sustainable development plans. The operational method is informed by a new synthetic theory of settlement patterns and trends, application of the theory to international and local patterns of policies and dynamics, empirical synthetic techniques for assessing settlement patterns and trends including the deductive formulation of sustainable development plans in localities, based on these interrelated components of the framework and model. Empirical synthetic techniques for the practical assessment of settlement patterns and trends are based on the translation of key theories and concepts of the synthetic theory into measurables. The synthetic empirical techniques use EThekwini Municipality in KwaZulu Natal province, South Africa as the case study since the municipality contains settlement typologies and systems that are typical of the province. The analysis of EThekwini Metropolitan Municipality revealed that prevailing settlement patterns and trends are not sustainable. On the other hand the municipality‟s development plans are not responsive to the heterogeneous socio-economic characteristics of the population in different settlement typologies including Local Economic Development (LED) potentials in the nodes in different functional regions of the municipality. On these grounds, the research study proposes alternative sustainable settlement development plans for EThekwini Municipality. The thesis recommends a dialectical deductive formulation of development plans based on the new framework of assessing settlement patterns and trends developed by this research. As such socio-economic investment priorities must be informed by the potential of economic growth in different town centres and functional regions all the same being responsive to social, economic and physical characteristics of the population. Pro-growth and pro-poor LED strategies should also be adopted, depending on the nature and extent of heterogeneity in the factors of production in the different town centres and settlement typologies they serve. Therefore, sustainable development plans can be achieved in South Africa if this new framework and model is adopted to guide future settlement patterns and trends.
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    The political economy of urban and regional planning in South Africa, 1900 to 1988 : towards theory to guide progressive practice.
    (1989) Smit, Daniel Petrus.; McCarthy, Jeffrey J.; Kahn, Michael.
    The dissertation has three major objectives. The first is to examine the relation between the nature and trajectory of urban and regional planning in South Africa, and developments within the, South African political economy of which it is an integral part. The second is to contribute to the sparse literature on the history of urban and regional planning in South Africa. The third is to consider the historical record on and the prospects for facilitating progressive social change through planning in South Africa. An empirical analysis of the history of urban and regional planning for the period 1900 to 1988 provides the basis for the achievement of all three objectives. In attempting to fulfil the first objective Sate emphasis is placed on examining the relationship between territorial apartheid and planning. The experiential basis of the distinction often made between planning and apartheid by South African planners is explored. The conclusion reached is that whilst a distinction between the trajectory of professional town planning and territorial apartheid is sustainable, there has also been a very substantial measure of articulation. Special emphasis is also given to examining the relationship between planning and the specific nature and history of the accumulation process in South Africa. In this regard it is concluded that the accumulation process has bone both an indirect and direct relation to planning at different junctures. At times the trajectory of accumulation has simply provided a context which has affected the definition of social priorities and placed limits on what could be pursued through planning. At other times the momentum of accumulation has quite directly affected planning, providing opportunities for or requiring responses from planners. As far as the record on the social role played by planners is concerned, it is concluded that planning has not cut a particularly progressive profile. The emergence of a progressive planning movement in South Africa is however noted. Possibilities for pursuing progressive practices are identified against the background of a detailed analysis of the contemporary period.
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    Restructuring, migration and regional policy in South Africa : the case of Newcastle.
    (1997) Todes, Alison Elaine.; Smit, Daniel Petrus.
    The thesis proposed to critique the neo-liberal perspective on regional policy in South Africa, and its emphasis on areas of strength and advantage, on two grounds. First, that it neglects processes of economic restructuring, and the possibility of place-specific decline or vulnerability. However, South Africa's increasing exposure to international markets, ongoing economic crisis, and political change, provide a context in which such conditions are likely. Secondly , these concerns are marginalised through the assumption that households can and do move out of areas experiencing restructuring or decline , or from places with weak economic bases. This assumption, however, ignores the limits to mobility in the current conjuncture, and the role of place in survival. The thesis critiques these arguments theoretically, and empirically - through a brief examination of the dynamics of restructuring and migration in KwaZulu-Natal, and a more detailed analysis of the case of Newcastle . The study of KwaZulu-Natal shows broad patterns of restructuring over the century, and points to new forms of instability in the 1990s. The research demonstrates that Newcastle has experienced several rounds of restructuring. While aggregate employment was relatively stable by the end of the 1980s, there had been a significant shift in the nature of economic activity and the composition of employment. Further rounds of restructuring coupled with employment decline - occurred in the 1990s, and key industrial sectors are shown to be vulnerable. The study of migration shows that, while there is a relationship between urbanisation and economic development in KwaZulu-Natal, there are also exceptions to it, with people remaining in, and even moving to places with weak or declining economic bases. The research did not find a complete, disjuncture ' between urbanisation and economic development in Newcastle. However, as, a consequence of past investments in place and limited opportunities elsewhere, low-income households remained in Newcastle despite restructuring. The study therefore shows that restructuring and place-vulnerability are concerns in South Africa, and that migration cannot be relied upon as a corrective. These findings underpin the need for a renewed consideration of social concerns within regional policy, and for moving beyond the 'efficiency' versus 'equity' dichotomy.
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    Women's participation in housing delivery in South Africa : the extent of empowerment in post-1994 era, with specific reference to case studies in KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2002) Ndinda, Catherine.; Adebayo, Ambrose Adeyemi.; Burns, Catherine E.; Charthaigh, D. Chi.
    This study, Women's participation in housing delivery in South Africa: the extent of empowerment in post 1994 era, with specific reference to case studies in KwciZulu-Natal, begins with the premise that post-apartheid housing policies, compared to those of the apartheid era, have provided women with greater access to housing. In 1994 the housing backlog was estimated to be about 3.5 million units, with the majority of those in need of shelter being African women. This backlog was due to past policies that largely excluded women from ownership and access to capital or resources to build formal housing. The changes wrought by the democratic dispensation, such as constitutional provision for gender equality, promised women greater participation in the social , political and economic spheres of the country. The recognition of gender equality and housing as rights protected within the constitution was reinforced by pronouncements in various policy documents, such as the housing White Paper that underlined the need for women's involvement in shelter development. The aims of this study are to examine women's participation in housing delivery and to assess the extent of empowerment arising from their involvement in post-1994 housing development. The emphasis in this study on empowerment arises from the fact that housing set within a participatory and empowerment paradigm in the current housing policy. The study discusses participation in "shelter" as embodied in notions of self-help and as appl ied by implementing agencies such as the World Bank, local government municipals and non-governmental organisations. The analysis indicates that to understand women's role in the housing process, there is a need to move beyond the project approach used by implementing agencies, to a multi-relational approach that focuses on the relationships, processes, and levels of involvement at the implementation and post-implementation stages. The scope of empirical material is confined to KwaZuluNatal , although South African national past and present policy is analysed in the earl y chapters. The question this study raises is whether women will be able to make substantial improvements to the core structure provided through the subsidy, due to their weak economic position. Through a gender analysis of the participation process, the study sheds light on women's roles and examines the extent to which women, in particular, have been empowered. Both qualitative and quantitative research instruments were employed to gather data on women's involvement in housing development in the KwaZulu-Natal region chosen for the case studies. The specific areas studied were Nthutukoville, Glenwood II and Thembalihle in Pietermaritzburg and Luganda and Ezilweleni in Durban. The findings of this study show that women were involved at various levels in the housing delivery process and at varying degrees. The findings of this study yielded different levels of participation which were taken to be indicators of the level of empowerment. These were for instance, decision-making, implementation, post-implementation activities and small business development. In all the areas studied, all the top leadership positions were held by men; in the lower levels the gender representation was equal. In two areas, women played a central role in decision-making and this appears to have been influenced by the high level of consultation with the community. In three areas, women played a marginal role in decision-making, an issue that appears to have been influenced by their roles in the household as well as the influence of the local authorities in the projects. In all the areas except one, women held their stereotypical position of secretary. Where they held the position of treasurer, it was based on the stereotypical notion that they were more trustworthy in money matters than men. The representation of women in decision-making did not challenge the gender ideology that entrenches their subordination, an area that has to be addressed in housing projects if women are to take control of their lives. Few women compared to men were trained in construction. The reasons for this point to both a strong male bias as well as societal attitudes about gender roles in society. Both men and women learnt skills such as plumbing, plastering, and painting, on the job through their involvement in providing labour. The role of women in housing delivery extended to the post-implementation level where they were involved in urban greening and microenterprises. Women were also involved in the production and distribution of bricks in three communities but they did not benefit from selling to the subsidy beneficiaries, a situation that calls for government support of their activities through the awarding of supply contracts. The elements of these indicators point to the level of women's empowerment as shown in the areas studied. These indicators combined to form what this study refers to as the multi-relational linkages approach to women's participation in shelter delivery. Although various factors are shown to constrain women's involvement at the different levels, the model highlights the role of women and the sustainability of their empowerment as well as the gaps, and points to ways in which these can be addressed. This study therefore recommends the adoption of the multi-relational linkages approach in understanding women's empowerment in shelter delivery and future policy framing . The conclusion argues that women's participation in shelter development cannot be understood by examining their role in one aspect of delivery; the role of women in various aspects is what constitutes their empowerment.