ItemAn investigation of the role of migrant entrepreneurs in job creation in the hairdressing industry: a case study in Pietermaritzburg KwaZulu-Natal.(2023) Chibambo, Sibusisiwe.; Govender, Jayanathan Perumal.Immigrants may be found more proportionately amongst the self-employed because they may be excluded from more formal wage opportunities, hence they may be driven into self-employment and forced to become creative and problem-solving. African Migrants may be found within the informal sector. A conducted in the city of Johannesburg concluded that migrant SMMEs played a role in changing the economy of the city. Therefore, we may assume within the same setting that numerous employment opportunities are being created by African migrants within the informal economy. The study was conducted in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal Province. Data was collected through purposive sampling which enabled an in-depth investigation. The data collected answered the research questions of 1) What motivated male migrants to leave their country of origin and migrate to Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, 2) Why do male migrant select the hairdressing industry in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, 3) When migrant hair salon owners hire South African women does this serve as a counterfeit against migration issues and/or municipal regulations (due process) and 4) What present and future threats have the participants experienced or foresee happening? The study adopted an explorative process of which aimed at understanding why male migrants hire South African women in the hairdressing industry. The study examined the role played by migrants in the informal economy and their contribution towards employment within the hairdressing industry. ItemYouth livelihood vulnerability in the era of Covid-19: the case of Phoenix in the greater Durban area.(2023) Govender, Sarojini.; Gumede, Mabuyi.The COVID-19 pandemic has created enormous social, economic, and political challenges worldwide. The study assessed the Youth Livelihood Vulnerability in the era of COVID-19: The Case of Phoenix in the Greater Durban Area of KwaZulu-Natal in the Republic of South Africa. This study aimed to investigate the impact on youth livelihood vulnerability, the economy, and particularly the unemployment that the COVID-19 pandemic caused. To interrogate this phenomenon, data employed from oral evidence cutting across different race groups of the area was collated, interpreted and analysed. The findings indicate that the community’s ability at the grassroots level to identify the peculiarities of its immediate environs regarding youth livelihood amid the hazards of COVID-19 will be of value to the government. This will help fine-tune the government’s strategic effort of tapping grassroots initiatives to address the situation. This study, therefore, recommends full cooperation between the government and all the other stakeholders, including the youth, who should combine this with self-help projects handled individually, in groups or through collaboration with constituted authorities of the community. Areas for further research should include the extent and pattern of cooperation between the government and grassroots communities in South Africa under COVID-19 in response to youth livelihood vulnerability during the era. ItemInvestigating the coping strategies of women in the changing world of technology in the workplace: a case study of Nampak Mobeni, Divfood.(2020) Ngubane, Nonhlanhla Samukelisiwe.; Mahlangu, Mbalenhle Prosperity Ednah.In light of the growing concerns of the impact of technology on job security, this study explored the coping strategies of women in the changing world of technology in the workplace. The study took place in Nampak Mobeni, Durban. This study was prompted by the need to gain an in-depth understanding of the challenges that women encounter in the workplace as a result of technology. This research aims at investigating coping strategies in the changing world of technology in the workplace. To do this, the study had to begin with an analysis on the new world of technological change. The study is situated within the critical realism tradition. A mixed method approach was used to address the research objectives Although the study privileged women, a disproportionate number of women employees at the case study meant that the researcher had to accommodate men so that they speak through the voices of women. Data was collected through questionnaires and interviews. The findings show that women are severely constrained as far as technological know-how is concerned. This then negatively impacts their efforts to climb the promotional ladder in the workspace. Since their level of education is generally low, coping with further studies to catch-up with a new paradigm of technology is severely constrained. This therefore puts them in an uncomfortable situation, resulting in untold stress. The study strongly recommends, as a matter of urgency, counseling, and other emotional support systems must be prioritised at Nampak-Mobeni to assist in the emotional requirements of women. These support systems must acknowledge the centrality of women and the support they need from the employer for quality working experiences. ItemAn investigation into the challenges confronted by long-distance female truck drivers in South Africa.(2021) Maphumulo, Zipho Brandon.; Govender, Jayanathan Perumal.There are many professions which have historically been dominated by males, and long-distance truck driving is a case in point. This notion is supported by Naysmith and Rubincam (2012) who stated that the long-distance truck driving profession is very much dominated by males and that has been the case for many years. However, in recent times an increasing number of women have been steadily entering this profession and Reed and Cronin (2003) concurs with this statement by stating that a growing number of women in Western nations like the United States of America have been entering this profession in the past few decades. Moreover, this trend has transcended to developing nations like South Africa as the country has seen an increasing number of women entering the sphere of long-distance truck driving in the last decade. However, many issues arise as a result of the under representation of women in the long-distance truck driving profession. When elaborating further on this, Sicard (2012) stated that since women are still a minority in this sector, they are then exposed to a lot of challenges; it is those challenges experienced by those women working in this very male-dominated sector that this study will be seeking to uncover. Some of the structural barriers within this profession have not been removed and consequently result in some of the challenges that long-distance female truck drivers experience, as identified by (Naysmith and Rubincam, 2012). Furthermore, this study was conducted as a secondary research whereby useful literature exploring the role of women in the transport sector was consulted and then carefully analysed employing Content Analysis. Interestingly, it discovered that women working in the transport sector all share similar challenges in their line of work as they are a minority in this sector. This research established that female long distance truck drivers, female taxi drivers and female bus drivers face the similar challenges within their respective professions in South Africa. The challenges of work-life balance, sexual harassment, health and safety being the very common ones. Lastly, in South Africa the legislation governing the workplace protects the rights of women and labour laws like the Employment Equity Act of 1998 motivates for their employment into previously male dominated industries like long distance truck driving. Therefore, this makes the South African long-distance truck driving sphere more favourable for women to achieve their professional aspirations and for this reason we are more likely to witness them entering this profession in huge numbers every year. ItemThe rise of the female entrepreneur: liberation through escaping various gender-based limitations faced by working class women in South Africa.(2020) Herbst, Denika Lorraine.; Govender, Jayanathan Perumal.Female entrepreneurship has been noted as a potential solution for economic instability, unemployment and inequality in developing counties like South Africa, by numerous researchers and theorists. Women have been undermined as a result of patriarchy and women in South Africa even more so due to apartheid. South Africa is currently facing alarmingly high rates of unemployment (29%) and disturbing, frequent occurrences of discrimination, and the economy is crumbling as a result. With women making up around 51% of the total population, and around 43.8% of total employment in South Africa, and considering the current state of South Africa, it is time their value and impact is noted. Currently, only 9 out of every 100 women in South Africa are involved in total early-stage entrepreneurial activity, a shocking statistic. One study found that prospective female entrepreneurs in South Africa have the ability to create over 972,000 jobs, over 803,000 new businesses and inject over R175billion into the South African economy, in just five years. Female entrepreneurship can potentially put an end to unemployment, rid the workforce of discrimination and stabilize the South African economy. This study identifies the motivators and intentions of female entrepreneurs in South Africa as well as the potential female entrepreneurism holds to create social and organizational change. A descriptive quantitative study was conducted on 58 respondents who filled out a five section questionnaire specifically designed to gain a base knowledge of information on female entrepreneurs in South Africa. The data was analysed and processed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 26 to gain insight into the positive effects of female entrepreneurship in South Africa. The empirical research methodology performed included descriptive statistics, cross-section analysis, and analysis of variance to identify the positive effects female entrepreneurism has n South Africa and the untapped potential it possesses to create change. A strong impact entrepreneurship has on liberating women from working class limitations as well as the ability it possesses to create social and organizational change, has been highlighted throughout the findings of this study. It is recommended that this area be further studied in order to harness these aspects to create social and organizational change for all. ItemAn evaluation of effectiveness of employment equity implementation at Impendle Municipality.(2018) Shabalala, Nontobeko Amanda.; Bernard, Rowena Bronwen.Employment equity implementation is particularly important in South Africa as the country was characterised by segregation laws that existed during the apartheid era. The segregation resulted in inequitable representation of different demographic groups in the workplace. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of employment equity at Impendle municipality. The research aimed to explore the epidemic of poor audit outcomes owing to hiring of personnel with no qualifications and/or skills but reflecting numbers in compliance with employment equity. The main focus of the study was based on four objectives identified, i.e. targeted recruitment and selection, retention, diversity management as well as training and development. The research employed quantitative approach using descriptive research design. The research made use of a survey strategy because of its dependability. Probability sampling was made use of using the stratified sampling approach where sixty six (66) participants were selected out of a target population of eighty (80) by guidance of the Sekaran and Bougie (2013:431) table of sample size. The questionnaire was used for data collection because of its ability to reduce the variability of responses as well as the fact that it facilitated collection of data at a minimal cost. The research made use of self-administered structured questionnaires containing closed-ended questions, where respondents were provided with a set of answers from which to select the perceived response. The questionnaire responses were analysed using descriptive data analysis by use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 20. The results of the study revealed that targeted recruitment and selection of employees from within designated groups achieves employment equity and that retention strategy has a positive impact in fulfilling employment equity. In terms of diversity management and training and development, the study revealed that these are still development areas as diversity as well as training and development are not working towards attainment of employment equity. This implies that there is still a wide rift between employment equity and practices by employers in South Africa. It is recommended that further studies that will cover a number of municipalities be conducted in order to get a fair representation as employment equity is an important national blip. ItemExploring burnout among police officers in the South African Police Service (SAPS) at Elukwatini SAPS, Mpumalanga Province.(2019) Nkosi, Letta Nolusindiso.; Pillay, Kathryn.Employees in the South African Police Service (SAPS) work under constant physical, emotional and psychological stress due to the demands of their work. This results in anxiety and trauma, which sometimes leads to burnout, and even suicide. The motivation for this study is the lack of research relating to this topic, specifically within the South African context. Many studies focus on employees in the helping professions such as psychologists and social workers, however there is limited scholarship on the police profession. This study was therefore conducted with the aim of exploring burnout among police officers in the South African Police Service (SAPS), specifically at the Elukwatini SAPS, in Mpumalanga province. I used a self-developed semistructured interview schedule to elicit information from participants through face to face interviews. Open-ended questions were used as a framework to guide the interview process with each interviewee. The findings of this study reveals that a variety of factors contribute towards burnout amongst police officers at Elukwatini, including the threatening and challenging conditions under which they work, both in the field and with regard to their administrative duties. The results reveal that police officers work long hours and also perform extra duties due to staff shortages. In addition, departmental stressors which include, limited chances for advancement, shortage of working equipment/resources, position/role dispute, position/role overload, unfair practices in relation to compensation, and overtime contribute to both physical and emotional exhaustion. ItemChallenges faced by King Cetshwayo District Municipality regarding compliance with disability equity in KwaZulu-Natal.(2018) Njeke, Nompumelelo Mandisi.; Dlamini, David Vusi. ItemImpact of employee strike action on employment relations in selected Accra, Ghana, public universities.(2016) Abiwu, Lawrence.; Dlamini, David Vusi.The study investigated the impact of employee strike action regarding employment relations in selected public universities in Accra, Ghana. The study sought to explore the effect of strike action on employment relations, determine its impact in the workplace, identify its causes, determine the factors that promote sound employment relations and identify the measures of addressing strike action in the public universities. The study adopted both descriptive and exploratory research as the main research design. It employed mixed method design where both quantitative and qualitative data was collected from the participants. A sample size of 306 was chosen for the participation in the study based on the total population of about 1500 staff. Purposive and stratified sampling techniques were used to select the participants for the study. The study utilised both questionnaires and interviews as the main data collection instruments. Reliability and validity of the research instruments were tested using Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient and Factor Analysis. The quantitative data was analysed using SPSS version 21.0, while the qualitative data was analysed manually using thematic analysis. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were also employed in the study. The quantitative results revealed that employee strike action affects employment relations in terms of loss of remuneration (67.5%) and unhealthy relationship (73.5%). The qualitative result on the other hand complimented the quantitative results which revealed that strike action leads to loss of remuneration (n= 5) and unhealthy relationship (n = 5). Furthermore, the quantitative results showed that the main causes of strike action in Ghanaian public universities include demand for increment in wages and salaries (87.5%), inadequate funding (79%), books and research allowances (82%) and poor working conditions (87.5%). The results of the qualitative study also agreed with these findings. In light of these findings, the study recommends payment of adequate salaries, improvement in working conditions and payment of books and research allowances for lecturers as measures to address strike action in the public universities in Ghana. ItemEffects of labour legislative changes regarding temporary employment services in KwaZulu-Natal mining and construction coastal sectors.(2016) Ntshangase, Sindisiwe Charity.; Dlamini, David Vusi.This study has been conducted to shed light on the effects of labour legislative changes regarding temporary employment services in KwaZulu-Natal mining and construction coastal sectors. This study employed an exploratory research design. Since this study is exploratory in nature, both purposive sampling and stratified sampling was used. The participants were chosen from the temporary employment services (TES) in Durban and Richardsbay. A qualitative approach was employed to collect data. Thirteen structured interviews (13) were conducted out of the maximum of twenty (20) interviews that are required for a qualitative study to understand the perceptions of management of TES’s, client companies as well as trade unions. Eight five percent (85%) of the participants agreed that TES’s contribute positively towards the labour market as well as our economy and concluded that it is fair for the government to impose legislation to regulate this industry rather than an outright ban of the industry as this would have adverse effects on the economy and the already low employment growth rate in South Africa. Fifteen percent (15%) of the participants argued that TES’s should be banned completely as they are exploitative in nature and do not create employment but merely act as intermediaries. Findings also revealed that most TES’s state that the common notion that companies approach them as they provide cheap labour is false as companies only approach them to ease the administration burden of recruitment and hiring. This study found that due to the nature of the mining and construction industry, this sector is unable to carry all of its employees on a full time basis hence the need for the existence of TES’s. The non-registered TES’s will now be totally eliminated and the abuse of employees by non-compliant TES’s will be minimised. Most TES’s have responded positively towards the changes as they suggest that it is better that to be banned, however they raise that the word “deemed” in the provisions is still being defended in court as there are several applications submitted contesting it as it causes confusion on who the real employer is between the TES and the client company. ItemPerceptions of managers of affirmative action in ABSA Bank, KwaZulu-Natal (KZN).(2016) Phili, Sanele William.; Dlamini, David Vusi.The effects of affirmative action (AA) in the workplace have sparked serious debate in South Africa and have attracted criticism from various population groups. This study investigated the perceptions of managerial employees on the implementation of AA at Absa Bank in KwaZulu-Natal. The objectives of the study were to elicit managerial perceptions of the implementation of affirmative action in ABSA; to investigate the manner in which affirmative action is being sustained at ABSA; to understand managerial perceptions regarding the performance of affirmative action candidates in the ABSA; to establish management willingness to mentor affirmative action candidates; and to establish the bank’s reasons for complying with Employment Equity policy. The research approach adopted in this study is the mixed-methods approach, which is a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. The study is both exploratory and descriptive, which is used to share participants’ perceptions regarding the implementation of affirmative action in their workplace. The questionnaire and an interview schedule were the primary tools used to collect data from managerial employees at ABSA. The quantitative data collected from the respondents was analysed with SPSS version 23.0; and the qualitative data was analysed through NVIVO software. The quantitative results were presented through the descriptive statistics in the form of graphs, and cross tabulations; while the inferential techniques included the use of correlations and chi-square test values, which were interpreted using the p-values. Both thematic and content analyses were used for the qualitative study. The findings in this study suggest that about 84% of the respondents feel that the implementation of AA at ABSA Bank is effective. The findings further indicate that 80% of the respondents perceive the practice of AA at ABSA Bank as consistent with those of the banking industry. About 63% feel that the management of ABSA Bank considers the opinions of employees when AA policies are implemented. ItemA study of graduates' experience of unemployment in Durban, South Africa.(2016) Moerane, Paballo.; Narsiah, Inbersagran.Since the statistics on employment constitute one of the yardsticks in determining how well an economy is fairing, it is not surprising that tackling unemployment is a topmost agenda item for most countries, including South Africa. However, despite government’s renewed focus in tackling the problem in South Africa, youth unemployment has been on an upward trend and is now much higher than that of adults. While one can appreciate the magnitude of youth unemployment in South Africa due to the publication of various statistics, it is however worrying that most research that has been conducted on this phenomenon has ignored the subjective experience of unemployment. This study explored the subjective experience of graduate youths unemployed and residing in one of the cities that is most affected by youth unemployment in South Africa (Durban). A qualitative descriptive approach was used in the study design, data collection and data analysis. Multiple purposive sampling was used to select 20 participants who met stringent inclusion criteria. A semi-structured interview guide was used to conduct eight in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions (6 participants in each group). The data was thereafter analysed using qualitative content analysis. The qualitative content analysis yielded four themes: (1) the reality of unemployment; (2) engaging with the reality of unemployment; (3) the impact of unemployment and (4) combating the destructive reality of unemployment. A further 15 sub-themes were also arrived at. An exploration of the experience of unemployed graduates provided insights into the reality of unemployment from the youth’s perspectives. The participants discussed a number of strategies that might be used to better their experiences and these were considered as recommendations for practice and policy. ItemLabour market flexibility, wages and livelihoods in the clothing value chain : a study of clothing manufacturing and clothing retail workers in Durban's surrounding areas.(2012) Haripersad, Yajiv.; Bhengu, Sithembiso.One of the most significant changes within capitalist nations during the late twentieth century is the transition of the capitalist mode of production from Fordism to Post-Fordism. Changes in macro-economic market conditions, production processes and labour processes are part of the transition. These changes are felt not only at the level of the aggregate economy, economic sectors, firms and labour markets. They have an impact on the employment relationship and the way workers make their livelihoods. This dissertation provides empirical evidence of labour market flexibility in the clothing manufacturing and the clothing retail sectors and demonstrates that the number of hours worked and wages earned have implications for the livelihoods of workers. The research was undertaken in a clothing manufacturer and clothing retailer situated outside of Durban. The clothing manufacturer is located within an industrial area in Tongaat and the clothing retailer is located within a regional shopping centre in Westville. ItemA review of validation research on structured employment interviews : exploring the threats to validity.(2000) Garbharran, Ameetha.; Hill, Sonia.The main purpose of this study was to explore the threats to internal and external validity that international research on structured employment interviews may have been prone to. On the basis of this exploration, suggestions were rendered on how the perceived threats to internal validity could have been managed. In addition, commentary was offered on whether or not the threats to external validity appear to have been actualised in the international studies that were compared. These constituted the secondary aims of the study. In order to accomplish the primary aim of the study a qualitative approach was employed. Using the literature on the threats to internal and external validity as a fundamental point of departure, studies on the two main variants of structured employment interviews (viz. behaviour description interviews and situational interviews) were analysed. This analysis yielded an insight into the potential threats that are likely to have impacted on the validity findings that were obtained in these studies. On the basis of these insights, suggestions, pertaining to how the threats to internal validity could have been managed, were proposed. In addition, a meta-analytic technique, for comparing the findings across multiple studies, was employed to comment on whether or not the threats to external validity appear to have manifested in the studies in question. These combined insights served as the foundation for offering a South African perspective on the threats to internal and external validity, which included recommendations on how they could be effectively managed in validation research in the South African context. ItemThe formulation of competencies for general workers within an international foods manufacturer.(2000) Ambrose, Jacqueline.; Bonnin, Deborah Rosemary.The problem investigated within this research is how an organisation can overcome its skills gaps, whilst ensuring national and international recognition of those skills, and contribute to an increase of skills nationally. This problem is addressed through the formulation of competencies. The eclectic approach forms the theoretical paradigm of the studies. The methodology used for the formulation of competencies is an adaptation of Spencer and Spencer's (1993) classic competency study model. Competencies formulated are aligned with the latest developments within the South African vocational qualification system and incorporate elements of the behaviourist approach. The study is conducted in an international food manufacturing company. The target population consists of male Zulu-speaking workers. Education levels established through assessments indicate that the population is situated at an adult basic education level of four, the equivalent of a grade nine within the formal schooling system. Demographics show that workers have on average more than two years' experience within their current job roles and their mean age is forty years, an indication of their experience within the manufacturing environment. ItemFactors affecting the retention and recruitment of medical laboratory specialists in South Africa : a case study of anatomical pathologists and virologists in KwaZulu-Natal.(2012) Cassim, Nadeem.; Ruggunan, Shaun Denvor.The aim of this study is to assess the factors affecting the retention and recruitment of medical laboratory specialists in South Africa. South Africa experiences a significant shortage of medical laboratory specialists. The shortage has many negative implications on the quality and sustainability of the country‟s healthcare services. However, whilst medical laboratory specialists play an integral role in the country‟s healthcare system, there has been no research conducted on the labour market for these specialists and the reasons that facilitate the shortage. Through a qualitative case study of anatomical pathologists and virologists in KwaZulu-Natal, this study overcomes this gap by assessing the factors that negatively affect the retention and recruitment of these specialists. The objectives of this study are: to examine the national and international labour markets for South African medical laboratory specialists; to determine the consequences that the shortage has on South Africa‟s healthcare system; to assess whether social factors play a larger role than economic factors do in the retention and recruitment of South African medical laboratory specialists; to investigate the efficacy of non-work related factors in the retention and recruitment of these specialists; and to explain the labour market for these specialists in relation to the human relations, human capital and job embeddedness theories. Findings suggest that social factors play a larger role in the retention and recruitment of South African medical laboratory specialists. Additionally, the factors affecting the retention and recruitment of these specialists comprise of factors found within the work settings, as well as factors that are found outside the work settings of these specialists (i.e. work related and non-work related factors). Considering these factors allows for this study to make a few recommendations towards the successful retention and recruitment of medical laboratory specialists in South Africa. This in turn would contribute to the overall quality, efficiency and sustainability of the country‟s healthcare services. ItemQuestioning intimacy : Muslim 'Madams' and their maids.(2011) Dawood, Quraisha.; Bonnin, Deborah Rosemary.Relationships between „madams‟ and „maids‟ have been the subject of various South African works, detailing the lives of domestic workers and their daily struggles. This study however aims to turn the focus on the madam and questions the complex intimacy at work between her and her maid. It is this intricate association between „madam‟ and „maid,‟ as well as the context of the home, which creates a site for a unique personal relationship that extends beyond the constraints of the working contract. In order to investigate this relationship, I explore the preconceived notions Muslim madams of North Beach have when recruiting the ideal domestic worker as well as the way everyday life between madams and maids shapes their relationship. In demonstrating the types of relationships and levels of intimacy between them, this thesis focuses on three aspects of everyday life between Muslim madams and maid. Firstly, I explore the „home‟ as a contradictory location – being both a private space for the employer and a workspace for the maid, paying particular attention to the creation of boundaries and negotiations of space within the home. The second key aspect I examine is the extent to which religion influences the relationship between madam and maid. Religion is a thread running through this thesis as a determining factor in the recruitment of a domestic worker and a way in which space is produced. Thirdly, I discuss the sharing of gender between madam and maid and the question of „sisterhood‟ between them. These are underlying elements of the types of relationships between madam and maid which, I argue are characterised by levels of cultivated intimacy. The project is based on the qualitative results gathered from 20 in-depth interviews with Muslim madams, two focus groups and five key informant interviews with domestic workers. My thesis contributes to the existing research exploring the relationships between madams and maids and opens further avenues for research. It demonstrates that there are key elements besides race and class that shape the relationships between madam and maid, which contribute to levels of cultivated intimacy between them. ItemA case study of private-public sector labour market mobilities of South African medical laboratory specialists.(2012) Singh, Suveera.; Ruggunan, Shaun Denvor.This thesis examines the labour market for medical laboratory specialists, specifically anatomical pathologists and haematologists in KwaZulu-Natal. It aimed to establish the extent of mobility of pathologists from the public to the private sector and vice versa. This study also aimed to investigate the reasons for such movement and importantly, the effects of this mobility. Lee’s (1966) push-pull theory of migration was assessed in terms of its applicability to mobility in the local context and is extended and adapted to this context. The five key research questions on which this thesis is based are: What is the nature of labour markets for medical laboratory specialists in KwaZulu-Natal? What is the extent of the mobility of medical laboratory specialists from the public sector to the private sector and vice versa in KwaZulu-Natal? What are the causes of such mobility between public and private sectors in KwaZulu-Natal? What are the effects or implications of the movement of medical laboratory specialists in KwaZulu-Natal? Lastly, to what extent can Lee’s (1966) push-pull theory of migration be adapted to account for the mobility of anatomical pathologists and haematologists between the public and private sectors in KwaZulu-Natal? This study adopted a case study design that used a purposive sampling strategy. There were 23 participants involved in the study. Of the 23 participants selected, 11 were anatomical pathologists and nine were haematologists. The remaining three participants were a microbiologist, a migration specialist and an international anatomical pathologist. Key findings indicated that mobility between the public and private sectors does occur. The labour market for medical laboratory specialists displayed 23 anatomical pathologists and 11 haematologists in KwaZulu-Natal. Financial reasons were not the only reasons that pathologists switched sectors; rather the decision rested on several other non-economic factors such as the working environment, flexibility and even management styles. The effects of mobility include delays in diagnosis and patient care as well as increased stress levels and workloads of specialists. Certain push-pull factors of Lee’s (1966) push-pull theory were found to apply to the local context of this study. ItemTrade union response to HIV/AIDS in South Africa : a case for social movement unionism?(2005) Essa, Mohamedazad.; Sitas, Aristides.No abstract available. ItemArticulating agency : a case study of the strategies used by the South African Transport and Allied Workers Union in servicing South African seafarer.(2001) Ruggunan, Shaun Denvor.; Bonnin, Deborah Rosemary.In theorising globalisation, capital is represented as all-powerful and proactive in its mobility and ability to transcend national boundaries in search of new labour markets. It is this mobility of capital. which is argued to be instrumental in shaping the processes of globalisation (Ohmae: 1989, Allen: 1995: Thompson et al: 1998. Dicken: 1998). Labour in contrast is portrayed as fixed within territorial boundaries unable to shape or influence its own destiny or the processes of globalisation. These opposing discourses of capital as the prime agent of globalisaton and labour as a passive participant in the process have predominantly informed the debates about globalisation, and have remained mostly unchallenged in the literature. This dissertation interrogates claims of capital being all-powerful via its mobility and labour being 'agentless' in influencing the processes of globalisation. In order to achieve this I use the global shipping industry' as an example to explores these arguments. This is achieved by investigating the complex ways that relationships between shipping capital and seafaring labour have changed and how these changed relationships are articulated. Specifically I examine the strategies used by South African Transport and Allied Workers to service a transnational and flexible membership. My findings suggest that the 'agentless' nature of labour in shaping the processes of globalisatlon is exaggerated by proponents of the transnational neo-liberal discourse of globalisation.