ItemInvestigating the impact of accreditation on quantity surveying programmes and the professional and the professional preparedness of graduates.(2017) Armoed, Zakheeya.; Haupt, Theodore.Accreditation in South Africa is a relatively new phenomenon compared to other countries. The United States of America have used accreditation for over a hundred years as a basis for quality assurance. This private, voluntary system of self-examination and peer review has been central to the creation of a U.S. higher education enterprise that is outstanding in many respects (Council for Higher Education Accreditation, 2013). Since the implementation of accreditation into the South African Quantity Surveying education system at Higher Education Institutes, it has promised numerous benefits with positive outcomes for universities and graduates. However, it has failed to convert these promises into a process that adequately prepares graduates that pass through the quantity surveying education programmes for the working world of the built environment industry. This investigation sought to discover the reasons why accreditation was not producing skilled graduates from accredited programmes in South Africa despite its claimed theoretical benefits. The research methodology adopted in this study was a quantitative approach. Two close ended well-structured questionnaires were developed and directed to a sample of quantity surveying graduates and built environment organisations who were actively practicing quantity surveying in Kwazulu-Natal. The purpose of the graduate questionnaire was to determine the opinions from graduates of quantity surveying programmes, their level of work readiness and the skills and competencies that they require for the world of work. The employer questionnaire identified the level of graduate quantity surveyors work readiness and the skills and competencies that they require for professional practice. Further investigations highlighted the responses of graduates from traditional universities and universities of technology, as well as male verse female comparisons. The findings of the study show that quantity surveying graduates were neutral about programme accreditation criterion and in it adequately preparing them for the world of work and professional practice. Employers agreed that students did not demonstrate a good balance of theoretical, practical and experiential knowledge. They were neutral about quantity surveying graduates and their level of work readiness from accredited quantity surveying programmes. They also regarded a combination of traditional, evolved and emerging skills and competencies as important for graduates to possess. iv | P a g e The results indicate that the prescribed programme criterion for quantity surveying programmes do not align themselves with the expectations and needs of professional practice. Further findings indicate the SACQSP routes to registration requires students to graduate from accredited quantity surveying programmes. Only then can graduates professionally register and practice as professionals in society. However, it should be noted that most organizations (72.7%) did not require quantity surveying graduate employees to be registered with the SACQSP. A further analysis of quantity surveying graduates from traditional universities compared to universities of technology and male responses compared to female responses were conducted. The findings showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the them. To conclude, the current quantity surveying programmes offered by higher education institutes do not meet the requirements of the built environment industry by adequately preparing skilled quantity surveying graduates. The following recommendations were highlighted to assist in improving the current higher education quantity surveying programmes. These recommendations include an increased role and involvement of the built environment industry, collaboration between the SACQSP, higher education institutions and the built environment industry and future programme development. ItemQuality in South African construction: a construction manager’s perspective.(2020) Zondo, Siyabonga Simon.; Harinarain, Nishani.Construction projects are an extremely complex process, involving diversified construction activities and a heterogeneous mix of materials and components. There are many factors affecting the quality of construction, such as design, materials, machinery, topography, geology, hydrology, meteorology, construction technology, methods of operation, technical measures and management systems. Because of the fixed project location, large volume and different location of different projects, the poor control of these factors may produce quality problems. Clients will not be satisfied if the project fails to meet their price, quality, time frame, functionality and delivery performance standard. In view of this, the construction manager must be employed, having the skills and knowledge or make the effort to design and manage processes of project construction. Therefore, the contractors and suppliers may deliver good products and resources to accomplish a quality construction project. The construction manager applies flexible skills to attain the quality requirements of a project by working hand-in-hand with all different stakeholders to ensure they produce spectacular results. A mixed concurrent triangulation design which consists of both quantitative and qualitative approach was adopted for this study. For quantitative data, survey questionnaires were designed via Google forms and 119 responses were from construction managers around South Africa. A stratified sampling was used and the data collected was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS-v27). For qualitative data, a purposive sampling was used, and the semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 construction managers and the data obtained was analysed using NVivo analysis (v12). Ethical issues were taken into consideration. The findings of the study showed that the participants understood quality in general and when used in construction. The participants agreed that for construction projects, the goal and desire of all project stakeholders, construction managers in particular, is to ensure that projects are delivered according to acceptable and agreed standards. The construction managers focus on the skills and knowledge employed to the construction of the project. Namely, they look at the material, labour, equipment, tools and methods to producing the end-product of quality. Construction managers use their skills which are inclusive of effective communication, leadership and negotiation to construction projects which will be fit for its purpose, meet or exceed client’s expectations and conform to both project specifications and regulations. It is essential to mention that if all the other stakeholders play their roles on the project, it makes it easier for the construction managers to perform their responsibilities which indeed lead a project to success. Construction managers use quality management systems to ensure the projects are of quality and eliminating any factors affecting quality. They begin with quality planning, quality assurance and quality control. Construction managers ensure quality by working with the project team to define a practical approach to managing quality, including applicable standards and quality processes. These are driven by standards and quality processes contained in the project blueprint. They also perform quality assurance by executing quality management plans using the standards and processes defined in the project blueprint. Perform a quality audit to evaluate how well the team is following the plan and meeting customer’s expectations. Lastly, construction managers control the quality by ensuring the deliverables are correct and free of defects and focus on quality from the beginning to the end of the project. In conclusion, it is essential for construction managers to be open to learning on a daily basis to improve knowledge and have a variety of solutions to any quality-related issues. To avoid issues, it is essential to deal with any of the factors affecting quality as soon as it arises. It is very important also take into consideration ISO 9000, ISO 14000, SANS, NHBRC, CIDB and NEMA which are quality regulations. Regular site inspections are advised where a construction manager visits a site to check if materials and construction methods used conform with the quality standards. This information is useful for having a general understanding of quality and explore factors affecting quality of construction projects. It also assists construction managers on what skills to focus/improve in order to be competent and deliver quality projects. Lastly, it reminds construction managers to quickly attend to any factor that might jeopardise the project quality. ItemChallenges faced by main contractors when working with inexperienced subcontractors on South African construction projects.(2020) Mathenjwa, Mcebo Mpucuko.; Harinarain, Nishanhi.Sub-contractors are an extremely important in the business of main contractors and as such collaboration between them is largely significant to the success of the construction industry and the continued existence of both of these entities. This research hereby assesses the challenges that main contractors face when working with inexperienced sub-contractors. The study also looks at the measures that a typical main contractor would apply in cases where they have to work together with an inexperienced sub-contractor. Finally, this study assess what other measures could be adopted by inexperienced/emerging sub-contractors so as to accelerate the growth in this high paced industry. Main-contractors are organisations that ensure the success of construction projects. Successful construction projects depend largely on the physical influence of this entity over the construction period. The main contractor and the consultant ‘s ability to achieve a project within the stipulated time and within cost, is largely dependent on the subcontractor ‘s performance. A construction sub-contractor is an organisation that goes into a contract with a main contractor with the duty to execute a portions of work for the main contractor. While sub-contractors have the opportunity to produce quality results, it also has the potential to disrupt a project if performed incorrectly. This is found to be case with new inexperienced/emerging sub-contractors that are still trying to make their way into the competitive market. In the competitive market, where best bid price often gets awarded contracts to perform certain trades related to construction, inexperienced sub-contractors are often found making these mistakes and end up taking work that has been under-priced for even work that they have no extensive knowledge off. The research study looked at the challenges that main contractors face when working with inexperienced/emerging sub-contractors. Contractors registered on the Master Builder Association of South Africa under general builders for the provinces of Western Cape indicated a number of 44 registered contractors, and KwaZulu-Natal indicating a total 177 registered contractors under residential and commercial buildings, and this made up the sample for the study. The purposive sampling method was employed for the qualitative data and stratified sampling for quantitative data. The study further discusses the efforts and interventions that main contractors make in an effort to reducing the impact of working with such contractors on construction projects. Finally, the study discusses what main contractors can do to further assist inexperienced/emerging sub-contractors in attaining the necessary competency to operate efficiently in a high paced environment. The qualitative data showed that quality, technical performance, and functionality lack of communication poor collaboration, time delays and conflict deceitful practices and safety compliance as being the challenges that main contractors agree to be the case when working with inexperienced sub-contractors. Quantitative found that quality, shortage of skills, poor planning skills/management, low communication levels, risk to health and safety risk and the lack of understanding of construction contracts as being among the most significant challenges of working with inexperienced sub-contractors. In conducting the study, the pragmatism paradigm was used in this study. Qualitative research was done in the form of semi structured interviews and quantitative data was collected by way survey questionnaires. The data was analysed simultaneously using the concurrent triangulation strategy. A total of 8 participants took park in the semi-structured interviews, and a total of 70 participants took part in the survey questionnaire. ItemThe construction health and safety regulation 2014 impact on construction workers well-being.(2019) Raliile, Mohlomi Terah.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.Globally, the construction industry is considered as one of the most dangerous industries. The industry is known to be a challenging regime in which to practice adequate health and safety as work activities take place in hazardous environments with exposures to heights; changing weather conditions and different locations. More so, construction workers are always expected to cope with the changing environments and different scopes of work. The construction industry is perceived to be fragmented, unfair and unpredictable regarding the adequate protection of construction site workers, often violating their fundamental human right. Recent construction H&S legislation in South Africa has been amended in an effort to achieve optimum health and safety throughout all construction project phases. However, it would appear that the primary purpose for compliance with health and safety legislation requirements among contractors is to avoid penalties and for profit maximisation. The purpose of this study was to analyse the recent construction H&S legislation changes (Construction Regulations 2014) and their impact of on construction workers’ quality of life, wellbeing and their sustainability within the South African construction industry. An extensive review of literature on the topic was conducted from online databases, books, articles, reports and other studies. Furthermore, a quantitative study was employed and data were analysed using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25. Descriptive statistics was adopted for the data analysis and further interpreted using inferential statistics. The total sample size for the study was 120 participants (80 managers and 40 construction workers) where a total of 80 construction companies in the Kwa-Zulu Natal province were conveniently sampled based on proximity and familiarity. The response rate for the study was 78.3%. A total of 64 managers (as representatives of the companies) and 30 construction workers completed close-ended questionnaires. Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test was used to determine the internal consistency of the constructs that had been used to analyse compliance and impact of legislative changes on construction workers wellbeing and the internal consistency of the various scales was deemed acceptable for interpretation. Independent t-test was done to determine the statistical significance of the means between management and construction workers’ responses. There was an overall statistical significance suggesting that both management and construction workers shared the same views on the impact of H&S legislation on construction workers wellbeing; onsite facilities; the level of compliance with the construction regulations 2014 onsite, and workers wellbeing. However, the respondents did not share the same views on whether there was management commitment; availability of H&S policies onsite; workers’ involvement in H&S inspections, and also if there was sufficient knowledge of the construction H&S legislation. Furthermore, the means from both respondents suggested the need to improve in all constructs. A Spearman’s correlation was also conducted to determine any correlations and statistical significance between the constructs of the study. The findings indicated that the impact of the construction regulations 2014 on workers’ wellbeing has not yet been determined to date. However, a statistical significance between the level of compliance with the regulations suggested there was a positive impact on improving construction workers wellbeing. The findings further indicated that there is a need for more knowledge on H&S legislation among management and workers as this significantly improves workers’ wellbeing. However, a negative correlation between knowledge of H&S legislation and workers’ involvement suggested that it might not be in the best interest for the contractors to see workers gaining more knowledge. Also, management did not allow enough budget to improve workers wellbeing and did not see the need to improve onsite facilities, and this might have been influenced by the good and healthy state of workers. Furthermore, it could be that workers were not demanding better site facilities. However, it was agreed that management commitment to legislation contributed extensively towards improving workers’ quality of life and wellbeing as the main issue lies with the level of compliance which has a direct impact on implementation. Based on the findings, the paper proposes measures for contractors to engender full compliance and apply all aspects of the construction regulations; improve working conditions, consider the health and wellbeing of workers and treat health and safety as a value and not just a priority. ItemCauses for failure of women owned construction companies in kwazulu-natal, south africa.(2019) Ndimande, Jabulile Hilda.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.The South African government has instituted numerous programs to advance the role of women in the construction sector. While there has been an increase in the overall number of women-owned contractors suggesting a gender-positive environment in post-apartheid, there is also a high failure rate of women-owned contractors. In the current study the main contributory factors were analysed in order to establish the root causes that lead to business failure regarding the performance of women owned businesses in construction. The objectives of the study were to identify the roots and causes for failure of women owned construction companies and also the capability to manage finances; to examine the strategies adopted by women-owned construction companies to overcome some of the challenges that they encountered including the possibilities for training and mentorship; to confirm whether women were given the same possibilities and opportunities to compete with men; and to verify if policies were effective enough to empower women or whether there was need for more effective policy implementation. A questionnaire was distributed to a sample of women-owned and men-owned contractors drawn from the KZN province. These contractors were extracted from the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) Register of Contractors. The questionnaire aimed to gain insight into the causes of failure of women owned construction businesses. Data was analysed using a statistics tool known as IBM (SPSS) Statistics version 25. The following were the key findings, namely: • • technical skills, support and networking opportunities, stock control, secure and appropriate storage facilities, proper tools and equipment were the most significant causes that influenced the failure of women owned construction business; • • Tendering, Project management, Target market and Sales and selling were also the most significant business strategy components that influenced the success of women owned construction business. Based on the findings, the present study has recommended that women have to be afforded more opportunities to update their skills in financial management, business skills management and business marketing. This will empower and equip them with necessary tools to be able to tackle challenges that are current in the construction industry. Also in terms of policies, there are many of them protecting women in business, including the construction industry. However, it is important to review the policies that are not relevant and to implement those that very important in order to make them effective for the success of women in the construction industry more specifically the gender equality aspect. ItemA study into the awareness and implementation of energy efficiency initiatives in the retrofitting of retail centres in kwa-zulu natal.(2019) Narain, Upasna.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.This study examines the awareness and implementation of energy efficiency retrofit initiatives in retail centres in Kwa-Zulu Natal. The participants of the study were management of 20 retail centres in and around the Durban area to determine the level of awareness and implementation of energy retrofit options. The primary objectives of the study were: - To identify the level of awareness and level of implementation of energy retrofit options in the commercial retail sector; - To understand the reasoning and benefits of implementing energy retrofit solutions; - To examine the factors that affect the adoption of energy retrofit solutions; and - To examine Green Building rating tools and legislation associated with the retrofitting of retail centres. A questionnaire was used to determine the levels of awareness and implementation of the participants of energy retrofit solutions, as well as to examine the benefits, costs and challenges associated with implementation. The findings of the study indicated there were high levels of awareness of retrofit strategies. Implementation of energy efficiency strategies were slow due to challenges faced by the management of retail centres. Some of these challenges faced by retailers were the high capital costs as well as lack of demand from tenants and customers. Larger retail centres who have overcome these challenges enjoy the many benefits associated with the implementation of retrofit energy efficiency solutions. Benefits received from implementation of energy efficiency strategies were more efficient use of energy, resulting in lower energy bills as well as improvement of public relations and branding. Further study into the level of benefits received through various implementations of retrofit solutions could provide a detailed mapping of implementation solutions with relation to benefits achieved. Challenges faced by retailers could be extended to challenges faces by building or property owners as well as store managers. Limited reasons were investigated in this study for lack of implementation of energy efficiency strategies. Further study can be done into more reasons for lack of implementation. Many retailers declined to provide information surrounding the cost of strategies implemented and benefits received, more study can be done surrounding the costs of energy implementation. ItemAssessing contractors’ understanding of standard forms of contract in south african construction industry.(2019) Dulu, Ronelle.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.Standard forms of contract account for more than 99% of all contracts entered. In the South African Construction Industry, standard forms of contracts have been developed by independent professional bodies in order to provide some uniformity through standardization of the contractual terms and conditions. These contracts have been designed to specifically cater for the special circumstances relating to construction. Studies have shown that the lack of clarity in contract documents can lead to misunderstanding and disputes between parties.The complex design, structure and language usage of standard forms of construction contracts most commonly used in South Africa, result in the misunderstanding by building contractors of their rights, duties and responsibilities with negative impacts on their overall project performance and long- term business sustainability. This study attempts to assess the underlying causes of contractors poor understanding of the standard forms of contracts commonly used in the South African Construction Industry. The primary objectives of this study were: • To examine the effects of the lack of understanding of standard forms of contracts by contractors • To determine if the complex design, structure and language usage of standard forms of contracts make them difficult for the contractor to understand. • To determine if contractors know and understand their rights, duties and responsibilities. • To determine whether training in the use of standard forms of contracts will improve the performance and management of projects. A quantitative research method was adopted where a questionnaire with closed-ended questions was distributed to conveniently sampled construction contractors in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. A total of 134 questionnaires were administered and 67 were returned, translating to a response rate of 50%. Findings from the study showed that respondents had experienced challenges with the understanding of standard forms of contract. Participants in the study reported high levels of agreement with the contributing factors to the lack of understanding of standard forms of contracts. Furthermore, the study confirmed that the complexity, structure and language use of the standard forms of contract make contractual agreements difficult to understand. Contractors perceived the contract forms as complex with too much legalese and ambiguity. The study revealed the difficulty of contractors to understand and interpret the contents of the contract which might likely have resulted in the misunderstanding of their contractual rights and duties. Training in the use of standard forms of contracts allowed the contractor to improve performance and management of projects. It was evident that the attributes associated with training in construction provided contractors with the opportunity to understand their obligations. This research focused on the construction industry and was limited to contractors in the KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa. An extension of the study to other industries and contractors in other provinces is recommended. The possibility of obtaining accurate and thorough findings on the use of standard forms of contracts in South Africa will be increased, and comparative studies can be conducted. ItemAn Analysis of the causes of construction accidents in South Africa: a case study approach.(2018) Lutchmiah, Trinisha.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.It is well-known that construction represents a challenging regime in which to manage health and safety exacerbated by the enormous diversity in terms of the size and range of its activities (HSE, 2001). Health and safety improvements in the workplace are developed and shaped because of the knowledge gained and assumptions made from accidents that have occurred (Gibb, Lingard, Behm and Cooke, 2014). Understanding what causes accidents is important as it helps distinguish between factors that require attention and remedial action and factors that are unimportant and can be ignored (Swuste, 2008). There are several theories that exist created by scholars in attempts to provide understanding of the causation of accidents on construction sites. Some of these theories are discussed in this study, namely: Accident Proneness Theory; Goals-Freedom-Alertness Theory; Adjustment-Stress Theory; Distractions Theory; Chain of events (Domino and Updated Domino theory); Multiple Causation Model; Reason’s Framework for Accident Causation; Constraint-Response Theory; Human Error Theories; and Systemic accident model Despite these theories, accidents have continued unabated. Typically, these theories have focused on the construction worker as being the primary cause of accidents – a basic tenet of the behavioural safety approach espoused by Krause and Hidley (1990) and others. According to Whittington et al. (1992), emphasis on individual failures resulted in a reliance on short-term solutions rather than uncovering more fundamental management or organisational problems. Generally, the proposed remedy targeted a specific event or operative, such that no effort was made to uncover the underlying cause of the accident. The HSE (2001) observed that changes at the direct level alone would not deliver the degree of change being sought, nor would the resultant improvement be sustained. This study utilised a qualitative research approach and a combination of descriptive and analytical research methods namely both questionnaires and case studies to analyse the problem statement. The sample design used in this study is based on quota sampling as a sample of any 30 lost time accidents investigation reports were required from the large participating construction company for selection and analysis for this study. A further sample of 10 Contractors and Health and Safety Officers were surveyed to test if the findings of the case study were in line with what these professionals actually experience on site. A sample of 30 accident investigation reports were analysed by categorising every cause identified in these reports according to the relevant accident causation theories to determine which theories most prevalently or most frequently would have identified the causes as shown in the construction company’s accident investigation reports. The frequency of each accident causation theory was analysed to determine if the identified causes of the accidents were focused on the actions and failures of workers or management and if the remedial actions taken were correct and were able to prevent the accident from reoccurring according to the theories they were classified under. The causes of the 30 construction accidents as stated in the respective accident investigation reports were classified into three categories namely: Direct Causes, Contributory Causes and Root Causes to determine if the root causes were in fact identified The findings of the case study indicated that the construction accident investigation reports are flawed as they typically fault the negligence of workers as being the root cause of construction accidents. The majority of the construction professionals surveyed were of the opinion that accident investigation, although effective, can be improved. However, the case study findings indicate that accident investigation processes and methods are ineffective as 83% of accident investigation reports incorrectly identified direct and contributory causes which the suggested remedial action was not based on root causes. ItemA Proposed Strategic Framework for the Survival of the Quantity Surveying Profession.(2018) Ramdav, Tashmika.; Harinarain, Nishani.In response to the ever-increasing changes in the global business environment, professions must evolve. Quantity surveyors are not invulnerable to these changes as an array of challenges threatens the existence of the profession. The quantity surveying profession require urgent and far-reaching strategic transformation that will overcome their threats and weaknesses and embrace the strengths and opportunities of the profession to ensure they survive and remain relevant in the ever-changing construction industry. The purpose of this study is to analyse the survival of the quantity surveying profession using a SWOT analysis in an attempt to to define the key strengths and weaknesses of the quantity surveying profession based on professional consultants’ experience in the profession, determine the key opportunities and threats which are perceived to impact the quantity surveying profession significantly and to develop and apply a strategic framework that could be used by the quantity surveying profession. The positivist paradigm was used for this study. The researcher chose quantitative research in the form of questionnaires. The questionnaires were given to quantity surveyors who are members of the Association of South African Quantity Surveyors (ASAQS). In addition, data was also collected from secondary sources such as literature reviews. A probability sampling method was chosen for this study. The desired method that will be used is the random sampling method. A total of 58 responses which were all usable (23.02%), were received specifically from members of the Association of South African Quantity Surveyors (ASAQS). Central Limit theorm supported the response rate. The data will be analysed with SPSS using factor analysis and descriptive analysis. Reliability was ensured by using the Cronbach’s alpha while validity was tested by ensuring all questions on the questionnaire were identified by the comprehensive literature review which was then validated during the pilot study. Four catergories of strengths of the quantity surveying profession exist. The four catergories are the ability to plan and solve problems, core quantity surveying measuring skills, project viability and interpersonal skills. Three catergories of weaknesses of the quantity surveying profession exist. The three catergories are technical inadequacies of quantity surveyors, resistance to change and lack of knowledge of and about the profession. Three catergories of opportunities of the quantity surveying profession exist. The three catergories are alternate positions for quantity surveyors, the need for quantity surveyors and new and existing roles in and out of the profession. Three catergories of threats of the quantity surveying profession exist. The three catergories are lack of the quantity surveying profession to market itself where new roles require an advancement of core quantity surveying services, external factors that hinder the performance of the profession and the lack of quantity surveying skills in the new generation. This study categorised the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats with rankings being made within each category. In addition, through a strategic framework, the strengths of the quantity surveying profession can be used to minimise the threats of the profession and the weaknesses of the profession can be improved by taking advantage of the opportunities of the profession. Once the profession eliminates the weaknesses, they can avoid potential threats. Therefore, the profession can achieve sustained growth and remain relevant. ItemTime Management in the KZN Department of Education Infrastructure Projects.(2018) Mabaso, Siphesihle Ntokozo.; Harinarain, Nishani.Social infrastructure has the capacity to escalate the growth of the economy and improves the lives of the residents in a social context and certifies that the fundamental infrastructure is well exploited. Growth in the economy and improvements in the social standing of the community may be pivotal in dealing with the factors in the South African economy that pose a great challenge, which may include among others, unemployment and human capital shortages in infrastructure delivery. Literature has shown that governments around the world as well as locally invest in infrastructure delivery and this helps to provide the people with access to all the tools to meet their needs and to promote social welfare. The challenges faced by South Africa with regards to infrastructure delivery are not mainly because there is no funding available, at times it is because the sector departments do not have adequately skilled personnel and other resources to deliver infrastructure. The main provincial infrastructure departments include health, education, public works, and roads and transport. In accordance with the medium-term strategic framework and the National Development Plan, the South African government has prioritised expenditure on social and economic infrastructure. There is also a continuing drive to fund programmes and policies aimed at improving the standard at which the money allocated for infrastructure is spent and the capability of government to design and deliver major infrastructure developments. It is therefore imperative to research ways in which existing social infrastructure can be developed without wasting financial resources, because substantial financial investment has gone into the development of social infrastructure, hence the focus on project time management. This study purposes to examine the effectiveness of time management tools and techniques used by the KZN Department of Education on school construction projects and to make recommendations of how these can be enhanced to support projects towards completing on time. Explanatory sequential mixed method was used, and it involved collecting quantitative data from the Infrastructure Reporting Model (IRM) as well as the project and programme management team so that an in-depth analysis of the data can be done. A desktop study of 20 projects completed in 2016 and 2017, which are new schools and upgrades and additions projects were utilised to determine the effectiveness of time management tools and techniques. A questionnaire was also compiled, circulated to the project and programme management team, and analysed using quantitative methods. A total of 100 questionnaires were distributed and 69 were received back and could be used for the study. Therefore the response rate is at 69% This was followed by 5 qualitative interviews directed at programme managers and project managers within the KZN Department of Education and the Implementing Agents. The time frames of completed projects were analysed and possible improvements to the existing tools and technique highlighted. It is important to investigate the effectiveness of time management tools because the construction of schools is social infrastructure and the South African Government has invested substantial financial resources in order to provide quality education facilities. Data was obtained from the KZN Department of Education, because it is one of the departments that reports project information on the IRM and it is one of the departments with the largest infrastructure budget allocations in the province. The study found that there are a number of time management tools and techniques that are available in the construction industry, which the department could make use of in the implementation of their construction projects. These tools and techniques are detailed in the literature review. The study further found that 95% of the projects in the desk top study sample suffer from time delays and do not complete on time. The findings of the questionnaire analysis further confirmed that a majority of projects suffered from time delays by way of a 100% agreement by the respondents to the fact. It was further found that there are time management tools and techniques implemented in the department however there is room for improvement in the implementation in order to ensure that the projects complete on time. This is substantiated by 72 % of respondents who agreed that time management tools and techniques were implemented in the department. Interviews with members of the professional team also found evidence that time management tools and techniques although they were in place, they were not adequately implemented. Other findings from the interviews were that there were no incentives in place for contractors or implementing agents when they completed projects early or on time. KEYWORDS: Time management, Social infrastructure,Infrastructure spending, Time overruns ItemAn examination of the construction procurement challenges faced by small, micro and medium enterprises in the public sector : a case study of the department of Public Works in KwaZulu-Natal.(2018) Mdadane, Thulani Alfred.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.The study investigated the procurement challenges faced by SMMEs in the public sector in the Department of Public Works within the eThekwini Metropolitan area in the Kwazulu-Natal province. The research objectives were: to identify challenges faced by SMMEs in accessing procurement opportunities; to establish how government seeks to enhance SMME participation in public procurement; to assess SMME perceptions of effectiveness of the current system of government targeted procurement in the public construction sector and to make recommendations pertaining to the most appropriate approach to assist SMMEs in accessing public procurement opportunities in the construction sector. The study adopted mixed methods approach to investigate the research phenomenon. Phenomenological approach was used as the research philosophy in the investigation of the research phenomenon. The target population was the government officials at Department of Public Works within the eThekwini Metropolitan area and emerging contractors, which were 215. A sample size of 138 respondents was selected using both systematic and purposive sampling techniques. Data collection instruments used were a close and open-ended questionnaires and a semi-structured interviews. A pilot study was conducted before the full-scale investigation took place. The reliability and validity of the research instrument were achieved through Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and factor analysis. The data gathered from the respondents were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 25.0. The study found that the challenges confronting the construction SMMEs include government regulations (94.6%), financial related challenges, human resources management related challenges (91.3%), supply chain management related challenges (96.8%) and quality management related challenges (89.9%). The study further found that the construction SMMEs contribute to economic growth through job creation (95.2%), equity redress (93.7%), socio-economic development (89.7%), innovation (91.5%), poverty reduction (93.7%) and income generation (91.7%). The study recommends the following: access to more funding for the construction SMMEs, creation of enabling business environment, flexible government regulations, access to procurement opportunities, access to information, mentorship programmes for emerging contractors and provision of workshops and training and development for emerging contractors. ItemCost management of public sector construction projects in KwaZulu-Natal.(2017) Mkhize, Fezile.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.It is common that public sector construction projects do not finish on time, within budget or to the desired quality. These failures are caused by, for example, change of scope, change of schedule, change of design, unavailability of material, lack of appropriate construction experience, poor project co-ordination, and inefficient management of the project schedule which frequently lead to variation orders and cost overruns. Government who is an Employer in the public sector construction project is interested in projects to be completed on time, within budget and a quality end product. The objective of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of cost management in the public sector construction projects determined by estimates done at various stages of the procurement process, with arguably increasing level of accuracy, the reasons for frequent cost overruns during the construction phase of projects need to be investigated. Therefore the aim of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of cost management techniques in the construction projects in public sector in KwaZulu Natal. The study also assessed the accuracy of the cost estimates that are developed by the quantity surveyors at different stages of the construction projects and the effectiveness of procurement methods used to implement projects. The qualitative method was adopted for the data collection using systematic random sampling which resulted in 20 case studies selected and analysed. The open ended questions were used during the interviews to get the in depth understanding. Generally it was found that there was no clear evidence of cost management technique used by the public sector, the focus was on the outputs to be delivered and budget spending. The scrutiny of the case studies revealed that quantity surveyors were found to be out of touch of the market trend as 75 % of the tender amount were below the cost estimates. Inter alia the client was found to be the most predominant origin agent of cost overruns caused by the time it takes between the planning and the actual implementation of the project. The study recommends that the public sector should take an active role in cost management from the planning stage, the selection of a cost effective procurement method, the construction phase until the project closeout. ItemThe effectiveness of contractor development programme in KwaZuluNatal.(2017) Hadebe, Weziwe Nokukhanya.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.The construction industry in South Africa is a major contributor towards the economic growth. According to the IDC (2016), the construction industry has contributed 9% towards the gross domestic products in 2008, with this figure increasing to 12% towards the gross in 2016. This latest contribution comes from 12 500 construction projects, with majority being government led projects. The government is implementing and awarding tenders in its construction led project through the Contractor Development Programme. The Contractor Development programme was designed specifically to develop previously disadvantaged and marginalised contractors. Despite the increase in the number of government led construction projects, a survey conducted in 2011 indicates that contractors remain dissatisfied with the programme operations. Moreover, during the parliamentary briefing in 2015, it was indicated that more has to be done to support contractors to grow within the programme. In KwaZulu Natal alone, the programme is having 6900 contractors between grades 1 to 3, with majority of these on grade one. It was therefore assumed that while contractor development programmes are important to assist participating contractors to achieve overall improved performance, growth and development, the open access to such programmes by all interested parties is counter-productive resulting in these goals not being achieved. This research therefore aimed at examining if the backlog due to openness of registration on the contractor development programme is in actual fact hindering the development of contractors. The aim was to establish if registration on the contractor development is too open and whether participants are satisfied with growth and developmental aspects of the programme. The study sampled 364 participants who participated in the study .The detailed narrative data was also gathered from six participants who participated in the focus group interviews. The overall research design employed in the investigation of the research problem was triangulated or mixed methods. Based on the inferential, descriptive and thematic analysis conducted, it could be revealed that registration on the contractor development programme is easy and too open to allow access to any contractor, including those without the necessary experience and interest. Contractors indicated overall high satisfaction with system registration. This is indicative of system openness and easiness. The openness increased competition and resulted into the behaviour of opportunistic contractors. The openness resulted in competing for resources such as tenders and training, and it ultimately led to low level of satisfaction with growth and development amongst the contractors. Participants in both data gathering methods indicated limited training, growth and development in the contractor development programme. It was found that being part of the programme does not necessarily translate into increased development. Moreover, poor communication in the programme was indicated to be a major concern for contractors. ItemThe impact of government-driven initiatives for the success of small medium enterprises (SMES) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.(2017) Nhlumayo, Silindile Precious.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.Acknowledging the pivotal role that SME’s play in the economy of any country, the South African government has introduced several initiatives specifically targeted at promoting the attractiveness, growth and sustainability of the SME sector, the effectiveness of which have not been fully evaluated regarding SME’s in the construction sector to determine whether they have achieved the intended outcomes of those initiatives. The aim of this research is to investigate the role played by construction SMEs towards improving the economy of the country. Moreover, the study seeks to establish whether the government initiatives have an impact on the effective performance of construction SMEs and whether they have achieved their intended outcomes in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A quantitative research approach was used using a cross sectional questionnaire survey to collect the data and non-probability sampling technique. A total of 201 questionnaires were distributed to active civil engineering (CE) and general building (GB) SME contractors with grades between 2 to 5 in KwaZulu-Natal selected from CIDB construction register database. The total number of 96 questionnaires were returned, representing 48% of the total that were distributed. Moreover 10 questionnaires were distributed to four government entities and five were returned, representing 50% of the total that was distributed. The data was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 25. The results showed that 58.7% of construction SME’s play a pivotal role in employment creation, poverty alleviation, economic growth and balanced society. It also found that 52.7% respondents are aware of Government initiatives, however they are not utilised efficiently. Moreover, the results showed that grades 2 -3 SME contractors are facing more challenges in finance and quality management when compared to grades 4 – 5. ItemThe relationship between classroom climate, student self-efficacy and student achievement.(2017) Chetty, Nishkananthan Ravi.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.This study documents students’ perceptions and factors within the classroom that are perceived to impact upon the learning of mathematics. The participants of the study were first, second, third and fourth year students from four universities in South Africa namely University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, Durban University of Technology, Mangosuthu University of Technology and University of Johannesburg. The objectives of this study are: To discover whether students have a decrease or increase in self-efficacy, goal mastery and strategic learning within the current classroom climate. To discover whether classroom climate increases or decreases self-efficacy in the current classroom environment. To understand the student-instructor relationship within the current classroom climate with respect to achievement in mathematics. Quantitative methods were employed to understand the students’ views about their experiences with mathematics learning and mathematics classroom environment. A questionnaire to determine the objectives based on six constructs i.e. Self-Efficacy, Mastery Goal Structure, Instructors Challenges, Instructors Care, Student’ Expectations and Students’ Achievement was employed to solicit students’ views with regards to teaching approaches in mathematical classes. The findings revealed, that there is a correlation between Mastery Goal Structure, Instructors Care, Grade Expected and Instructor Challenge with Self-Efficacy. There was no significant correlation between Gender, Name of University and Student Achievement with Self-Efficacy. ItemThe impact of theological innovation on the role of the quality surveyor industry.(2017) Naidoo, Sanjivi.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.Rapid advancements in information technology has created a variety of new construction-related software packages and applications that have a significant influence on the role of quantity surveying. The extent of these developments need to be determined, as well as the examination of mitigating influences, which might have an effect on technology usage. The main objectives of this study was to determine whether emergent new technologies duplicated the activities of traditional QSs, and what, if any, areas and services rendered by QSs might be affected if new software packages and applications were embraced. The study examined whether these new technologies were used by QSs in their firms and practices to advance the range of the services they rendered to the construction industry, and whether QSs were embracing their full potential. This study used quantitative methods and utilised questionnaires as the survey instrument for data collection. Relevant previous studies on technology and its potential to affect operations in construction were researched to guide the research design and methods. The collected data were statistically analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) v 25. A sample of 178 QSs were drawn from the Durban area who were self-employed QSs as well as QS professionals employed in industry. The Association of South African Quantity Surveyors (ASAQS) and the South African Council for Quantity Surveying Professionals (SACQSP) databases provided the contact information of registered QSs practicing in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. QSs without professional affiliations were also surveyed. The findings of the study sought to improve the services currently offered by QSs and the potential of technological advancements and developments. This research found that larger firms in terms of annual turnover, employed more QSs; barriers to new technology adoption created limitations on technology acceptance; and high performance expectancies increased the ease of the use of technology/effort expectancy and subsequent acceptance of new technological advances. Further, the study found that new construction-related software packages and applications did not duplicate and affect the roles, functions, activities and services of traditional QS in the construction sector and that QSs had in fact embraced new technology and the potential it offered. The study also found that the acceptance determinants of technology usage affect the adoption of new technology by QSs, and in particular, social influence and top management support were the primary determinants for user acceptance of new technology in the QS industry. The findings also suggest that qualification has emerged as the biggest agitator to determinants of technology use, and that social influence and top management support are the biggest proponents for user acceptance of new technology in the QS industry; and this requires further investigation. ItemThe impact of the construction health and safety regulatory framework on construction costs.(2016) Hefer, Elke Helene.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.Historically, the construction industry has a poor health and safety (H&S) performance track record, and governments and industry bodies globally acknowledged that construction has an undesirable accident record and that persistently poor H&S records continue to hinder performance improvement. In response, H&S regulations have been introduced and subjected to major revisions during the last four decades as H&S regulations have been seen to be crucial to reducing construction accidents and improving H&S performance overall. Arguably, there has been resistance from the industry to fully implement the provisions of the legislation because of the perception particularly of contractors that the associated costs may result in noncompetitive bidding resulting in lost work opportunities and that there was still non-facilitation of equitable pricing of H&S within the construction industry. Since the introduction of very specific H&S regulations in the South African construction industry, there are, as far as the researcher is aware, very few, if any, studies which have quantified the cost of the implementation of the provisions of this legislation. The research was done to investigate the magnitude of the additional construction costs as a result of the implementation of the provisions of the current H&S regulatory framework in South Africa resulting in all construction project participants not being aware of how much would be adequate for the H&S provisions required. The purpose of the research was to determine whether the H&S framework had requirements that involve cost, whether contractors implemented the requirements of the H&S framework, whether implementation of the H&S framework increased the cost of construction, and to what extent did the implementation of the H&S framework increase the cost of construction. A blended research approach was adopted which included both quantitative and qualitative methods such as questionnaire surveys and case studies which were then triangulated. A sample of 30 contractors were surveyed and 3 organisations were interviewed to determine the impact of the construction health and safety regulatory framework on construction costs. The research was limited because the findings were based on a sample of contractors in the KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, the study was conducted over a period of twelve months and the study focused on the impact of the H&S regulatory framework implementation by the contractor only. The study did not include H&S costs pertaining to sustainable building, impact on indirect costs related to construction H&S, impact of H&S regulations pertaining to design and build projects and impact of standard forms of contract on the costs related to construction H&S. The findings provide an indication of the trend in financial allowance by industry practitioners for construction health and safety on their projects. The study found that complying with the provisions of the legislative framework namely OHS Act, Construction Regulations and COID, had a moderate impact on the overall cost of construction. The impact had resulted in a reported 10% increase in construction costs. Further, in the absence of specifically accounting for all associated costs related to health and safety it is difficult to accurately determine what the financial provision is and whether the allowances are adequate. The findings indicated that a lack of knowledge of the industry of the necessary financial provision existed for effective management of construction H&S. The study found that many of the construction H&S cost requirements as extrapolated from the legislation were not tracked. The findings of this study have implications for the level of financial provision that is adequate for effective management of construction health and safety. The findings of the study will enable industry stakeholders to have a deeper understanding of the underpinning philosophy of the regulations derived from a combination of prescriptive and performance legislation which will have an impact on the calculation of the cost of compliance. Sustainability of the construction industry will be improved through the understanding and knowledge of the implementation costs of the H&S framework. From the findings of the study, it can be concluded that the H&S framework has requirements that involve cost. However, the knowledge and awareness deficiency results in possible inadequate financial provision for H&S in competitive bids or on projects. Further, clients are not in a position to comply with the framework that requires them to ensure that contractors have made adequate financial provision for H&S because of no uniform approach to allowing contractors to price for H&S. ItemAn Investigation into the employment of persons with disability (PWD) in the KwaZulu Natal (KZN) construction industry.(2016) Govender, Sheldon.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.South Africa has a history of oppression and the legacy of the apartheid regime still sounds on today in the form of discrimination. The movement away from this image has been embarked upon since reaching change in 1994 when apartheid was overturned.The implementation of equity policies in South Africa have been inhibited by negative issues surrounding employing Persons with Disabilities (PWD). Despite the current skills shortage in the KwaZulu Natal (KZN) construction industry, adequestly skilled PWD are still overlooked and underreprested. This dissertation aimed to examine the attitudes, perceptions and knowledge of potential employers, labourers and PWD as well as the implementation of equity policies in the KZN construction industry to determine why PWD were so underrepresented, through the quantitative survey of 50 construction firms, 30 Labourers and 25 job-seeking PWD who were purposively selected from a defined database. The close-ended questionnaire was used as the surveying instrument. There was a 70% response rate. The data were analysed with the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 24. Even though government legislature was in place regarding equity policies, it was revealed there was still difficult to apply these policies and despite PWD being suitably qualified to perform certain functions on site, they were not being considered. Reasons opined included the negative attitudes of potential employers regarding PWD, lack of knowledge of potential employers regarding employment of PWD, physical barriers to the participation by PWD and unwillingness to actively accommodate PWD. There was a general concensus that given the opportunity, adequetly skilled PWD could potentially play a positive role in alleviating the skills shortage in the KZN construction industry. For this to happen, there needs to be greater awareness by potential employing contractor‘s about the capabilities of PWD, the actual cost of reasonable accomodation in the execution of on-site fuctions and the implementation of more effective company-compliance management at a provincial level. ItemEffectiveness of client involvement in construction projects : a contractor perspective.(2016) Chigangacha, Progress Shingai.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.construction sector in South Africa is a significant contributor to employment opportunities and economic growth. In the year 2013 alone, R262 billion was spent within the industry. Despite the huge spending, a report by the Construction Industry Development Board indicated that some clients remained dissatisfied with the project outcomes. This was demonstrated after a survey conducted in 2011 found that clients were generally neutral or dissatisfied with the quality of construction on around 20% of all projects, and around 12% of the projects that were surveyed had levels of defects which are regarded as inappropriate. Clients have been argued to be the most important construction industry participants as they initiate and fund the construction process from inception to completion. Therefore, business in the construction industry is about fulfilling client satisfaction. Client satisfaction has been linked to the level of client involvement and control in construction projects. Inadequate level of client involvement, especially during many of the most critical project activities has led to problems experienced on construction projects, some of which hinder project success. These problems include but are not limited to construction disputes, uncertainties in plans and specifications, and delays in giving the contractor vital information or instructions. While effective client involvement in their construction projects is important to achieve a successful project, contractors perceive their involvement as being too low resulting in unsatisfactory project delivery. Therefore, this research aimed to examine the role and effectiveness of client involvement on construction projects from the perspective of contractors. The study investigated the nature of the client, and their involvement in construction projects, at the same time ascertaining how this involvement could impact on the project outcomes, and assessing to what extent a client should be involved in the construction process. The study also assessed whether early client involvement and trust and co-operation between the client and contractor facilitated project success. Based on analysis of data gathered via questionnaire surveys from 101 contractors, 18 consultants and 19 clients, it was found that the significant and dominant usage of the traditional procurement method by both public and private sector clients in South Africa can be confirmed. It was also found that although alternative procurement methods were not widely adopted in South Africa, the private sector was more open and flexible in utilising them, with the next most used methods being the design and build and negotiation. Contractors placed great importance on project stakeholder relations which could be attributed to the shortcomings of the traditional method, which include but are not limited to adversarial relations and high occurrence of misunderstandings and conflicts. Issues of trust, honesty and cooperation in the context of clients underpinned project stakeholder relations and were regarded as vital for project success. In terms of client involvement, this study found that contractors regarded private sector clients to be more frequently involved in their projects than public sector clients. Furthermore, although optimum client involvement across all the project phases is crucial for project success, contractors regarded the pre-construction phase to be a priority phase for client involvement, followed by the post construction phase. The study recommends that public sector clients should be more flexible to adopt the most suitable procurement method instead of relying on the traditional procurement method which might not necessarily be the most appropriate. Alternative procurement arrangements may allow for greater and earlier client involvement in their construction projects. ItemLean project management during the construction phase of South African public sector projects : the perspective of construction project managers.(2015) Sirbadhoo, Neil.; Haupt, Theodore Conrad.In construction, the progress of the project is driven primarily by the programme and the Construction Project Manager (CPM). The project programme sets out the basis upon which the project is monitored and controlled by the CPM. Many construction projects in the public sector are subject to late completion, cost overruns and poor quality as a result of inadequate management of the programme. Poor management of the programme stems from failure to adequately programme the work and properly execute the programme, failure to provide adequate qualified human resources to manage the programme, failure to develop an efficient programme and to effectively maintain the programme throughout the project execution, and failure to control cost changes that impact the programme throughout the execution of the project. Lean Project Management (LPM) is the inclusive adoption of other lean concepts such as lean construction, lean manufacturing and lean thinking into the project management context. During the construction phase of projects, there are many opportunities for the CPM to implement lean tools and techniques that will have a positive impact on the project from a programming perspective. This research aimed to investigate impacts of implementing LPM tools and techniques by CPM’s during the construction phase of public sector projects on the successful delivery of the programme. A comprehensive literature review was done on the concepts of LPM, the public sector, the CPM profession, the construction phase and the project programme and the relationship between these areas of concern. A survey questionnaire directed at a sample of all professionally registered CPM’s in Kwa-Zulu Natal involved in the public sector was used to: determine whether CPM’s were aware of LPM; how important LPM was to CPM’s and how often they use it during the construction phase and whether poor programme management during the construction phase impacted the successful delivery of the programme. Out of 234 registered CPM’s that were selected in the research sample, 72 registered CPM’s responded to the survey questionnaire, representing a 31 per cent response rate. The research established a link between the project programme during the construction phase of projects and the implementation of LPM by CPM’s during this phase towards overcoming the obstacles of poor delivery of the programme on public sector projects. It further presented the integration between the areas of concern in a practical way through the research findings from the literature and data collection and analysis that portrayed the relationship between the programme and LPM. It was concluded that CPM’s were aware of LPM and that poor programme management during the construction phase negatively impacted the successful delivery of the programme. In addition, LPM was important to CPM’s and its principles and techniques were being implemented during construction on public sector projects.