Doctoral Degrees (African Languages)

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    An analysis of the depiction of males in selected postcolonial novels written in IsiZulu.
    (2023) Shabalala, Sicelo Cyril.; Zulu, Nogwaja Shadrack.
    This study analyses the depiction of males in selected postcolonial novels written in isiZulu. The texts were selected from the literary period 1996- 2017. The study employs a masculinist literary criticism as a theoretical framework, in analysing the selected isiZulu novels. The novels in question were selected using purposive sampling. The study points out stereotypes that are used to portray men in literary texts. Moreover, the study reveals that the traditional role of men in society and in families has not changed in line with the democratic dispensation. Section 9(4) on gender equality is not feasible in a patriarchal society. Men have no domestic obligation. Women cook, clean, wash, and take care of children. Men expect absolute obedience from women: their word is final. A wife must not refute the word of her husband. The man is the head of the family. Men provide for women, children, and the extended families. Those who cannot provide for their families feel emasculated; then resort to crime. Women expect protection from men; therefore, men assume the role of a protector. Men do not succumb to emotions. They have been socialised not to cry even in taxing situations. Boys and men are territorial: they chase away rivals in their marked terrain. Men are risk-takers − they drive recklessly while under the influence of alcohol. They have multiple sexual partners even though HIV and AIDS is at its peak. The number of sexual relations one has is a validation of masculinity. Society praises brave men while mocking acts of cowardice. Boys aspire to be warriors. The findings suggest that there is little progress towards gender equity − men in their homes still favour gender inequality. Household chores are arranged according to gender.
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    Ukuqanjwa kwamagama amathempeli ebandleni lamaNazaretha.Naming of Temples in the Nazareth Baptist Church.
    (2021) Msomi, Melusi Ernest.; Dlamini, Phindile Dorothy.; Ngcobo, Tholakele Ruth.
    Ukuqanjwa kwamagama kuyinto ebalulekile kakhulu ngoba ayikho into engenalo igama. Ebandleni lamaNazaretha amathempeli aqanjwe amagama wonke. Ukuqanjwa kwamagama amathempeli kuwumsebenzi omkhulu futhi kunesidingo esikhulu ebandleni lamaNazaretha. Leli bandla likhula ngesivinini esikhulu, ukukhula kwalo kwenza ukuthi kwakhiwe amathempeli amaningi bese eqanjwa amagama. La magama ethiwe ngendlela ehlukile. Akha izithombe ezicacile emqondweni, umuntu owezwa okokuqala eshiwo, afise ukwazi izizathu zokwethiwa kwala mathempeli ngawo. La magama ethiwa ngezinhloso ezehlukene, okungaba ukuzichaza bona njengebandla, ukuveza imizwa nokudlulisa imiyalezo, ukuhlonipha abantu abathile, ukuchaza izinto ezithile nokunye. Aqukethe incazelo ephelele ngebandla lamaNazaretha. Amagama amathempeli ayakhombisa ukuthi aqukethe izincazelo ezithile, ezinye zihambisana nemizwa kanti ezinye izincazelo ziqukethe umlando othile webandla lamaNazaretha. Inhloso yokuqala yalolu cwaningo ukuhlola ukuthi amagama amathempeli anayiphi incazelo. Lolu cwaningo luhlose ukucubungula izincazelo ezitholakala emagameni amathempeli ngoba kuyavela ukuthi aqukethe izincazelo ezahlukene ezihlobene nemvelaphi kanye nomlando webandla lamaNazaretha. Enye inhloso yalolu cwaningo ukuhlola ukuthi amagama amathempeli aqanjwe kanjani nokuthi ngabe ikhona yini imigudu elandelwayo uma kuqanjwa amagama amathempeli. La magama aqanjwe ngezinhloso eziningi ezahlukene, okungaba ukuzichaza, ukuveza imizwa nokudlulisa imiyalezo, ukuhlonipha abathile, ukuchaza izinto ezithile nokunye. Amagama amathempeli awubunjalo bebandla lamaNazaretha ngoba amagama aqanjwe ngezinto ezithinta ibandla uqobo lwalo. Amagama amathempeli akha isithombe esiphelele ngebandla ngoba aqukethe umlando webandla lamaNazaretha. Ucwaningo luqhutshwe ngendlela kubuka i-inthaphrethivu, kusetshenziswa indlela yekhwalithethivu. Ulwazi luqoqwe ngokusebenzisa izingxoxo ezisakuhleleka, nemibhalo yocwaningo lwamagama enhlobonhlobo. Lolu cwaningo lusekelwe yinjulalwazi yesemanthiksi. Le njulalwazi ibuka izincazelo zitholakala emagameni. Ithi amagama angaba nezinhlobo ezimbili zemiqondo, okungumqondongqo (denotative) kanye nomqondosithasiselo (onnotative) umqondongqo usho incazelo yegama nje lingahlotshaniswa nalutho kanti umqondosithasiselo wegama incazelo yakhona incike ezintweni eziningi ezihlotshaniswa nalelo gama.English Abstract Naming is very important because there is nothing without a name. In the Church of the Nazarenes all temples are named. The naming of temples is a great task and a great need in the Nazarene church. This church is growing at a high speed, its growth made many temples to be built and named. These words are pronounced differently. They create clear images in the mind, a person who hears it for the first time, wants to know the reasons why these temples are named after them. These words are said for different purposes, which can be to describe themselves as a church, to express feelings and convey messages, to honor certain people, to explain certain things and so on. They contain a complete description of the Nazareth Baptist Church. The names of the temples show that they contain certain meanings, some are associated with emotions and other meanings contain a certain history of the Nazareth church. The first objective of this study is to examine the meaning of the names of the temples. This study aims to analyze the meanings found in the names of the temples because it appears that they contain different meanings related to the origin and history of the Nazarene church. Another purpose of this study is to analyze how the names of the temples are named and whether there are any procedures followed when naming the temples. These names are named for many different purposes, such as self-explanation, expressing feelings and conveying messages, honoring certain people, explaining certain things and so on. The names of the temples are the nature of the Nazarene church because the names are named after things that affect the church itself. The names of the temples form a complete picture of the church because they contain the history of the Nazarene church. The research was conducted in an intuitive way, using a qualitative method. Information was collected through structured interviews, and a variety of word research documents. This study was supported by the journal Semantics. This database looks at the meanings found in words. It says that words can have two types of concepts, which are denotative and connotative. The concept means the meaning of a word that can be associated with nothing, and the meaning of a word depends on many things associated with that word.
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    Feminist discourse analysis in four selected Zulu literary texts beyond 'woman as a victim'.
    (2018) Gumede, Hendry Sifiso.; Mathonsi, Nhlanhla Naphtal.
    The study’s hypothesis was that the condition of women in Zulu patriarchal society as reflected in the selected Zulu literary texts is still intolerable. Some female and male authors tend to echo social tendencies and trends, wanting to maintain the status quo of the system of patriarchy. The study surfaces the traditional patriarchal views on marriage, ukungena (taking over of the responsibilities of the late brother) and other gender inequities. The research qualitatively examines these traditional issues and approaches in the four selected literary texts from a literary feminist discourse perspective. The study has managed to portray various situations in which women discover their potential by focusing on the various major problems they have to face in the patriarchal society. The four literary texts analyzed depict women characters as victims. For instance, the novels Ifa Lenkululeko and Umshado portray the widows’ world as a hybrid space characterized by forces of tradition and modernity. Both novels show how widows are usually trodden upon and least protected by the society from patriarchal interpretations, and expectations of the tradition. The plays, Ngiyazisa Ngomtanami and Ngiwafunge AmaBomvu, on the other hand, depict flaws and failures of the patriarchal system. Both plays expose these flaws and failures in a subtle manner that an inattentive reader may not be able to observe. They both reflect women’s maturity in challenging the stereotypes of the patriarchal system. These literary texts display some transformed approaches in the portrayal of female characters. The study calls for a change of mindsets from members of society who still endorse patriarchal stereotypes of women. It makes it clear that, only by affording full consideration to women’s needs and contributions, can the civilization grow and mature.
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    Naming of the informal settlements in Pietermaritzburg and Durban.
    (2018) Ngcobo, Tholakele Ruth.; Ndimande-Hlongwa, Nobuhle Purity.; Mazibuko, Gugulethu Brightness.
    Abstract available in both English and isiZulu in pdf.
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    Ingcindezelo engokobuhlanga njengoba ivezwa ubucikomazwi besiZulu.
    (2018) Myeza, Mthokozisi Christopher.; Sibiya, Nakanjani Goodenough.
    Lolu cwaningo lubheka ingcindezelo ngokobuhlanga emibhalweni yobucikomzawi besiZulu ebhalwe ngesikhathi sobandlululo nangesikhathi senkululeko eNingizimu Afrika. Lucwaninga indikimba yengcindezelo emibhalweni yeminxa eyahlukene luveze ukuthi ababhali bathi kwakuyiziphi izinto abansundu ababecindezelwa kuzo, imaphi amasu ayesetshenziswa ukubhala leyo mibhalo kanye nezinhloso zokubhalwa kwayo. Ngale kokuveza izinto le mibhalo ezidingidayo, lolu cwaningo lubuye luveze namasu asetshenzisiwe ukubhala lolu hlobo lwemibhalo ngesikhathi lapho umbuso wengcindezelo nobandlululo wawukwenze kwaba nzima khona kubabhali ukuba babhale ngokukhululeka. Luphinde luveze isibindi nobuchule bababhali ekubhaleni imibhalo enendikimba zengcindezelo ngokobuhlanga. Lolu cwaningo lusebenzisa ithiyori yeMaksizimu (Marxism). Le thiyori izolekelela ekwenzeni lolu cwaningo ngokubheka ubudlelwane phakathi kwale mibhalo kanye nesikhathi ebhalwe ngaso, ikakhulukazi ekuhlaziyeni isimo senhlalo esasibhekene nabansundu ngaphansi kwengcindezelo engokobuhlanga. Inhloso yalolu cwaningo ngukuchitha imibono yabanye abacwaningi ababopha ngabhande linye imibhalo yesintu, bethi ayikwazanga ukuveza impilo yabantu abansundu ngezikhathi zobandlululo; ayishongo lutho ngobuhlungu, usizi, ukuhlushwa nokubandlululwa kwabantu ababecindezelwe. Luveza okwakwenzeka ngaleso sikhathi nokuthi abantu abansundu bathwala kanzima kangakanani.
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    Indikimba yokudingiswa ezinkondlweni zikaMazisi Kunene zesiZulu.
    (2018) Xaba, Melusi.; Sibiya, Nakanjani Goodenough.
    Lona ngumsebenzi wocwaningo ohlelwe ngokwalezi zahluko eziyisikhombisa.Ucwaningo olwenziwe kulo msebenzi lumayelana nendikimba yokudingiswa etholakala ezinkondlweni zesiZulu zikaMazisi Kunene. Isahluko sokuqala Kulesi sahluko ilapho kuthulwa khona ucwaningo ngokuthi kuchazwe isihloko socwaningo esingumgogodla wocwaningo lonke. Esahlukweni lesi kuvezwa kafushane okuzogxilwa kukhona ocwaningweni, kuchazwe amagama azobe eqavile ocwaningweni lonke. Kuvezwa izinhloso kanye nezidingo zocwaningo ngenhloso yokhanyisa umsuka wocwaningo olwenziwayo. Kubuye kubhekwe izindlela zokwenza ucwaningo ezizosetshenziswa ocwaningweni. Kuvezwa ngamafuphi ukuthi ucwaningo luzokwenziwa kanjani. Kuphindwe kuthulwe izinjulalwazi eziyisisekelo socwaningo. Kugcinwa ngokuveza umklamo wocwaningo kanye nomklamo wezahluko lapho kuvezwa khona ngamafuphi ukuthi ucwaningo luzogxila kuphi nokuthi umcwaningi izahluko zocwaningo uzozimisa kanjani. Isahluko sesibili Lesi yisahluko esiyisendlalelo socwaningo lonke. Kulesi sahluko kuxoxwa kabanzi ngezinkondlo nokuthi buyini ubunkondlo. Kuzophinde kubuyekezwe nemibhalo ehlobene nesihloko socwaningo olwenziwayo. Isahluko sesithathu Lapha kubhekwa izindlela zokuqhuba ucwaningo kanye nezinjulalwazi eziyisekelo socwaningo lonke.
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    Tanzanian university students' motivation for studying Kiswahili as an academic subject.
    (2016) Chipila, Rajabu Adamu.; Zulu, Ncebo Sibonelo.
    The teaching and learning of indigenous African languages in most African countries has been plagued by various challenges. Dwindling student enrolment rates have been cited as one of these challenges. This has been attributed to a lack of initial learning motivation among the students. Motivation can be understood as a human compulsion and intensity to engage in certain behaviour. However, in Tanzania the number of students opting to study Kiswahili language as an academic subject at university level surpasses by far that of other taught languages, mainly English, French, and Arabic and in recent years, Chinese and Korean. This is apart from the fact that, when compared to these other foreign languages, Kiswahili is regarded very negatively among Tanzanians. There is nevertheless an overall lack of evidence of empirical research that has been conducted to ascertain this trend. It is against this backdrop that this study was conducted. The study was informed by the Self-determination Theory (SDT) as proposed by Edward L. Deci & Richard M. Ryan (1985, 2000). The theory proposes that human beings engage in various behaviours as they seek autonomy, competence, and relatedness. These constructs can cause behaviours to be intrinsically or extrinsically motivated, as well as amotivation. Further, the SDT proposes that due to various social-environmental factors, it is very unusual for adult individuals to experience intrinsic motivation. As a result, the SDT proposes four types of extrinsic motivation, which are external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, and integrated regulation. Depending on the internalization of behaviour, these types of motivation lie in a continuum, the external regulation being the least form of motivation and integrated regulation being the strongest form of motivation close to the intrinsic motivation. This study, which was conducted at the Institute of Kiswahili Studies of the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, used the qualitative research design. It employed ethnographic and action research designs to solicit data from the participants. Convenience and purposive were the main methods of sampling. The sample included third year and postgraduate students studying Kiswahili as an academic subject. It also included Kiswahili instructors. Semi-structured interviews and questionnaires were the primary methods of data collection. In addition, observation and document review were the supplementary methods of data collection. The study was conducted to fulfil three research objectives. The first objective was to investigate the reasons for university students to choose to study Kiswahili as an academic subject. The second objective was to explore the extent to which initial students‘ motivation to study vi Kiswahili as an academic subject is maintained during the three years of degree study at university level. The third objective was to examine the role of the universities in motivating students to choose to study Kiswahili as an academic subject. To achieve these research objectives, three research questions were answered. The first question wanted to establish why Tanzanian university students chose to study Kiswahili as an academic subject. The second question was to understand to what extent Tazanian university students‘ initial motivation to study Kiswahili as an academic subject was retained throughout the three years of degree study. The third question wanted to know what role universities played in motivating students to choose to study the Kiswahili language as an academic subject. Overall, the study found that university students chose to study Kiswahili as an academic subject for numerous reasons, the most significant being patriotism, Kiswahili language affection, Kiswahili as a national identity, employment prospects, access to higher education students‘ loans, pressure from the significant others, a belief Kiswahili language courses are easy, language of instruction, and as academic continuation. These reasons suggested various forms of extrinsic motivation ranging from external to identified motivation. Patriotism, Kiswahili language affection, and Kiswahili as a national identity characterized both introjected and identified regulation forms of motivation. Employment prospects, access to higher education students‘ loans, and pressure from the significant others characterized external regulation forms of motivation. Amotivation was represented by the factors such as a belief that Kiswahili language courses are easy, language of instruction, and an academic continuation. There were several implications of the research findings for the teaching and learning of indigenous African languages in African countries. These included a need to strengthen teaching and learning of indigenous African languages in lower levels of education, and integrating African language courses with degree programmes that offer assured employment opportunities. Another implication was integrating occupational language skills into core curriculum. Another implication was the need to redesign and institute initiatives to reverse students‘ negative attitudes towards indigenous African languages. The last implication was the need for the governments and institutions of higher learning in Africa to provide financial support to students studying indigenous African languages.
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    A historical perspective and linguistic analysis of onomastic elements with special reference to the Shangase clan.
    (2006) Shangase, Sibusiso Elphus.; Ngubane, Sihawukele Emmanuel.
    The overall questions that were provided in the higher degrees proposal have been fairly answered throughout this doctoral dissertation. The following questions have been asked and answered throughout the thesis: What has been identified a's changes from traditional naming practices to Western naming practices? What morphophological comparisons can be made in naming practices? What influenced the cultural and historical background and language of the Shangase clan? Every social group of people has certain norms of behaviour. How does this culturally and structurally affect the system of naming within the Shangase Clan? Since there are different language names, how are these names related, or can any: system of their relationship be found within the Shangase Clan? From which parts of speech are different names (which are nouns) normally derived and what prefixal and suffixal elements are applied? What poetic techniques can be used to analyse the personal praises or praise names of Kings, Royal Family Members and the ordinary people? It has therefore, been realized that the personal names and place names are well known to have played a more substantial role in the identification of different people and places of different clans. Surnames and address names have promoted the identification and classification of different clans. The researcher has used both the qualitative and quantitative research methodologies as tools for data collection. Research methods have entailed verbal descriptive practices, which include oral inquiries, questionnaires, interviews and observational information. The purpose of this research has been to locate the study within the context of the topic and the historical background of the Shangase people which eventually deals with personal names, place-names and personal praises. The literature has been reviewed according to the recommendations of the researcher's supervisor Prof S.E. Ngubane. Five scholars were chosen and the focus was on history, genealogy, linguistic, onomastics of personal names, place-names and how these names are derived and changed from time to time with naming practices changing from generation to generation. This has enabled every member of the Shangase clan to identify himself easily with the founder, Shangase (Mkheshane), son of Vumizitha, of Mthebe of Mnguni 1. The researcher's main objective has been to focus on the history and genealogy of the Shangase clan from the time of Vumizitha (d.c.l688) to the present time (AD 2006), how personal names and place names are given when one looks at the circumstances of naming and history surrounding the names and the linguistic analysis of the onomactic elements. The personal names, place names and praise names are analysed and synthesized within the parameters of word formation, and as words they are isolated or syntactically used to assign a particular meaning in Zulu. Lastly, the researcher is mostly interested in this study because, as a member of the Shangase Community, he has a thorough knowledge of where the Shangase clan is located. The researcher's method of interviews using interview questionnaires assisted him to accomplish the main objectives. Through these interviews and observations, the researcher highly recommends that those who might be able to read this thesis, and feel interested and create new challenges in the field of onomastics, which the researcher hopes this thesis has done, should further undertake a study of personal praises within the Shangase clan.
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    Conscientisation : a motive behind the selected poems of Sepamla, Serote, Gwala and Mtshali.
    (2013) Sibisi, Zwelithini Leo.; Nxumalo, Otty Ezrom Howard Mandlakayise.
    The thesis looks at how the poets Sepamla, Serote, Gwala and Mtshali (SSGM) make concerted efforts to demonstrate how different forms of social activities have sought to whitewash black people in believing myths about themselves. These myths were perpetuated by the government of apartheid policies and its related bureaucratic organs like the education system. The fallacies were also communicated through biased literature and denigrating terminologies. The study analyses how the selected poems of SSGM set out to conscientize black people to realise how they had unconsciously accepted certain behaviours. This had led them to compare themselves to the “privileged cultures” and to strive to be identified with those who were in power and those who were despised and were therefore powerless. The main aim of this study is to demonstrate how the poetry of Sepamla, Serote, Gwala and Mtshali exposed the extent to which black people had been psychologically subjected to internalising negative views of who they were. From the title of the thesis we note a claim that conscientization was the motive behind the poetry of Sepamla, Serote, Gwala, and Mtshali. This claim was discerned from the poetry that was analysed. It was also deemed fit to verify this through structured interviews and questionnaires that were arranged and conducted with the poets. However the interviews did not include the late Sepamla who had been called to higher service by the time the research was conducted. The researcher’s interactions with the poets confirmed the claim that conscientization was indeed the motive behind their poetry. Aspects of peoples’ lives which had been targeted as tools for disempowering black people were experienced in the form of racism, apartheid policies, Bantustan institutions, and laws, demeaning terminologies, cultural superiority, and prejudiced beliefs, arts, music, literature, theatre and sport. An analysis of the poetry under review led to the conclusion that the poetry of SSGM was not protest poetry as some scholars had claimed. The aim of the poetry was not to instigate any militancy against oppressors but to make black people aware of their identity and to affirm them in their resistance against cultural hegemony. The study makes use of Marxist theories and specifically cites those aspects which relate to the tools used to analyse the poetry of SSGM. Georg Lukacs’s viewpoint that literature reflects the social reality of its time is applied to some of the selected poetry. Eagleton and Althusser talk about the formalization of literature which makes ideology to become visible to the reader. Gramsci says the task of producing and disseminating ideology is performed by organic intellectuals. Writers are regarded as organic intellectuals. In spite of the limiting circumstances the four black writers whose poetry is being considered, managed to conscientize people around issues that needed to be opposed or rejected. This study is significant in so far as it exposed how poetry of black selected writers conscientized people and indirectly contributed to the liberation of the oppressed in South Africa. It is suggested that further studies are undertaken to re-assess the role of literature written by the black writers during the apartheid regime. A special attention must be given to those literary works that were banned and reasons for such action by those who were hell bent on subjugating black people. One of the challenges encountered during the research was that some of the books were out of print. However, a thorough and persistent search did result in the final access to those books which were not easily available.
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    The use of personal names in respect of the living-dead within traditional polygynous families in Kwamambulu, Kranskop.
    (2012) Ngidi, Evangeline Bonisiwe.; Koopman, Adrian.
    The thesis underpinning this dissertation is based on the Zulu people’s belief in the living-dead and the fact that the latter control the lives of their living descendants. The living descendants use names to express their dissatisfaction with one another. The families perform rituals to appease the living-dead. The living-dead are perceived as guardian angels who are closer to God. They are believed to be able to reward good behavior and reprimand those who are not behaving in an acceptable manner. Names, as Bhengu (1975:52) states, connect people to their living-dead. It is therefore important that this relationship with the living-dead is maintained. Friction is always going to be a problem in polygynous families. Avoiding confrontation is important to people who want to appease their living-dead, who control their lives. Personal names act as a deterrent to angering the living-dead. In a situation where getting even is not an option, opting for a name to voice your disapproval is the easy way out. Names become communication channels between members of the family and the community at large. This study is done from an ethnographic perspective with an attempt to fully describe a variety of aspects of a cultural group to enhance understanding of the people being studied. Spradley (1980:3) states that “The essential core of ethnography is the concern with the meaning of actions and events to the people we seek to understand”. This understanding may be seen as the basis of the method; through ethnographic study, the researcher comes to comprehend, through detailed observation, the existences of peoples and their cultures.
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    Ucwaningo lokuqhathanisa amanoveli omlando ka R.R.R. Dhlomo kanye nezibongo zamakhosi akwazulu ezaqoqwa uNyembezi (1958).
    (2008) Mazibuko, Gugulethu Brightness.; Ngwenya, Thengani Harold.; Nhlongwa, Nobuhle P.
    This study aims to do a comparative analysis of the historical depiction of the Zulu kings namely: King Shaka, King Dingane, King Mpande and King Cetshwayo. In this study comparison is drawn between Dhlomo's historical novels and Nyembezi 's anthology of praise poetry. This research is based on Interpretive paradigm because it emphasizes a need for in-depth reading and analysis of the oral presentation. That is why qualitative research methodology has been employed because it has allowed the researcher to analytical skills on the content and interviews with community members. In the analysis of these books; the researcher read; interpreted, compared and contrasted the contents thereof. In the researchers comparative study; the researcher discovered that there are some similarities and differences of content in the historical novels and praise poetry writings. This research examined the publication (relevant to this study) written by other authors about Zulu kings (these as deemed relevant for this research). The study went on to verify authenticity around the contents of praise poetry regarding these kings. Structured interviews were arranged and conducted; wherein it emerged that most of king Shaka's, king Dingane's and king Mpande's history has somewhat faded from the interviewee's memories. A lot of information was gathered around king Cetshwayo. This study also revealed that most of Zulu king's history is somehow distorted.Theories of Post-Colonialism and Orality were greatly employed during this research. Post-Colonialism theory was deemed relevant because most of these writings were done after the Zulus had been robbed of their land. Since praise poetry is oral art; an oral historian had to be consulted to emphasize the rich heritage contained in orality or oral art. It clearly emerged from this research that there is a lot of deliberate distortions of Zulu kings' history. This distortion is not only by Whites but also some Black African writers who still continue distorting the kings' history. It is suggested that there be a revisitation and rewriting of the Zulu kings' history and this be done taking into consideration past writings and interviews with knowledgeable historians. A lot of knowledge is contained in this thesis that can be helpful to all and sundry interested in historical writings and other literary genres.
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    Cultural and religious contrasts and symbiosis in D.B.Z. Ntuli's short stories.
    (1994) Mayekiso, Almitta Cordelia Theresa-Marie.; Nxumalo, Otty Ezrom Howard Mandlakayise.; Olivier, Theo.
    No abstract available.
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    Uchibidolo : the abundant herds : a descriptive study of the Sanga-Nguni cattle of the Zulu people, with special reference to colour-pattern terminology and naming-practice.
    (1996) Oosthuizen, Marguerite Poland.; Koopman, Adrian.; Sienaert, Edgard Richard.
    Sanga-Nguni cattle have been present in Southern Africa for more than seven hundred years. They are the cattle traditionally owned by the Zulu people and have always been of great cultural and economic significance. They are distinguished by their hardiness and adaptability and are characterised by the great variety of their colours and patterns. This dissertation is a study of Sanga-Nguni cattle with special reference to colour pattern terminology and naming-practice in Zulu. More than three hundred terms in Zulu denote colour-pattern, horn-shape and type of beast. There are also a great number of terms for animals used for ritual purposes, especially those connected with the practice of ukulobola, in which cattle are exchanged during marriage negotiations. Many of these names, particularly those which refer to colour-pattern, are richly metaphorical, using imagery and analogy which connect the cattle with the birds, animals and plants that share their environment. Both archival and field sources have been employed to document as many of these names as possible and to classify them according to cultural significance, type, colour-pattern configuration and metaphorical content. Cattle names cannot be appreciated in isolation and in order to understand the complexity of the Zulu terminology, the significance of cattle in the cultural and economic life of the Zulu people as well as their biology and history has also been described. 'Cattle lore' concerning beliefs about cattle and perceptions of them in the cosmology of the Zulu people are recorded. The role of cattle in the oral tradition and cattle imagery in proverbs, poetry and tales as well as the praises of cattle themselves, have been explored in overview and provide insight into how the Zulu people perceive their herds. The dissertation is divided into four sections: i) Research setting ii) Pastoralism in Zulu society iii) Colour-pattern terminology and related naming-practice iv) perceptions of cattle and the role of cattle in the oral tradition. Although this is a primarily a language study, the subject of which is the documenting and analysis of the vast range of cattle terms found in Zulu, it is also a study of the role of cattle in Zulu society and their significance in the thought patterns of the people who own them and with whom they have lived in such close contact for so many centuries.
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    Ukuqhathaniswa kwezibongo zabantu basentshonalanga-Afrika, Empumalanga- Afrika Nezabasemzansi-Afrika Njengenkomba yesiko lobuzwe obubodwa base- Afrika.
    (2001) Ndimande-Hlongwa, Nobuhle Purity.; Zungu, Phyllis Jane Nonhlanhla.
    This research is entitled «A comparative study of Western, Eastern and Southern African surnames as a reflection of African identity" In this study the researcher looked at the historical Origins of surnames in the world, making references of countries including Britain, Scotland, China and India. The researcher then came to the African continent, where she targeted Western, Eastern and Southern Africa as areas of research. The reason for choosing these three parts of Africa is because they fall under the largest language family in the continent i.e. Niger-Kordofanian. The analysis of the findings reveals some similarities between naming practices among Western, Eastern and Southern African Kintu language groups. In the analysis of African surnames, it came out very clear that in these three parts of Africa most surnames are derived from people's names, especially male names; time of the day; animal names; weather condition and from natural phenomenon. Looking at African traditional religion, it came out from the research that in these three parts of Africa there are three categories of religion i.e. Christianity, African religion and Islamic religion. In this particular research religion came through because the findings reveal that religion had an important impact on naming in Western, Eastern and Western Africa and also in other countries in Europe as well. This research gives a proof that Bantu/Kintu languages spoken in Western, Eastern and Southern Africa are related due to common origin from the ancestor language called Proto Bantu. The language relations and the common origin from one ancestor language resulted in similar cultures and similar naming practices among the three parts of Africa. IQOQA Isihloko salolu cwaningo sithi! "Ukuqhathaniswa kwezibongo zaseNtshonalanga-Afrika, eMpumalanga-Afrika, naseMzansi-Afrika njengenkomba yobuzwe obubodwa base-Afrika". Kulolu phando umcwaningi ubheke umlando wokudabuka kwezibongo emhlabeni, ube esegcizelela ukudabuka kwezibongo eBrithani, eScotland, eChina naseNdiya. Umcwaningi ube esebuya eza ezwenikazi i-Afrika lapho eqoke khona ukusebenzisa amazwe aseNtshonalanga-Afrika, eMpumalanga-Afrika naseMzansi-Afrika. Isizathu sokuqoka lezi zizinda ezintathu e-Afrika ngesokuthi amazwe alapha angena ngaphansi komndeni omkhulu e-Afrika obizwa ngokuthi i-Niger-Kordofanian. Uma kuhlaziywa okutholakele ngokocwaningo kuyatholakala ukuthi kukhona ukwefanana ezindleleni ezisetshenziswayo uma kwethiwa amagama nezibongo eNtshonalanga-Afrika, eMpumalanga-Afrika naseMzansi-Afrika. Kutholakale. futhi ukuthi izibongo eziningi zethiwe zisuselwa emagameni abantu, ikakhulukazi emagameni abantu besilisa; esikhathini sosuku, emagameni ezilwane, esimweni seZulu kanye nasezintweni eziyimvelo. Kuthe uma sekubhekwa ngeso lenkolo yase-Afrika kwatholakala ukuthi zintathu izinhlobo zenkolo ezikhona : inkolo yobuKristu, yeSintu neyamaSulumane. Kulolu cwaningo, inkolo ingene ngoba kutholakale ukuthi ineqhaza elikhulu elibambile ekwethiweni kwamagama eNtshonalanga"Afrika, eMpumalanga-Afrika naseMzansi-Afrika kanye nakwamanye amazwe eYurophu. Lolu cwaningo lunikeza isiqiniseko sokuthi izilimi zabantu ezikhulunywa eNtshonalanga-Afrika, eMpumalanga-Afrika naseMzansi-Afrika zihlobene ngenxa yokudabuka kukhokho oyedwa wolimi. Ubuhlobo obudalwe ulimi ngokudabuka ndawonye yilona olungumphumela wamasiko kanye nezindlela zokwetha amagama nezibongo ezifanayo eNtshonalanga-Afriaka eMpumalanga-Afrika, naseMzansi-Afrika.
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    Language variation in Zulu: a case study of contemporary codes and registers in the greater Durban area.
    (1995) Zungu, Phyllis Jane Nonhlanhla.; Msimang, C. T.; Maartens, Pieter Johann.
    This study has been an attempt to clarify a number of basic problems regarding the phenomena of Language Variation and their implications for linguistic usage. The data were collected in the GDA. Very little has been done on Language Variation in Zulu owing to lack of interest in Sociolinguistics in the middle of this century. A study of this nature is imperative because language planners have to design policies for the Government of National Unity in South Africa.There are two very important aspects to National Language Policies. These comprise the ideological aspect, which is concerned with mobilising the nation's sentiments and attitudes towards the acceptance and use of selected speech forms. The second aspect involves the technical side, which looks at the practical elements which are concerned with the problems of implementing the ideology (Whiteley 1963: 150). In order to fulfill the foregoing ideals, we had to look for applicable aims and objectives of Language Variation. The main objectives were: (a) to identify at least seven domains where different language varieties were employed in the Black Durban speech community; (b) to investigate the social attitude of the Black Durban speech community towards CCR's; (c) to trace the origin of and development of the non-standard varieties which are employed by the Black Durban speech community; (d) To investigate the impact of CCR's on the economy, and social conditions prevailing in the GDA. In order to achieve the foregoing objectives, the term 'Language Variation' and its dynamics had to be clarified. Empirical studies on research methodologies had to be resorted to in order to give a sound base to the theoretical framework. A number of theories were explored and they were found to be applicable to Contemporary Codes and Registers employed by the Black Durban speech community. These comprised speech accommodation, cognitive uncertainty, affective reinforcement, gain-loss, social identity, functionalist and interactionist theories. In order to test these theories, I resorted to ethnomethodological and ethnographic approaches to empirical research. The choice of these approaches was to capture data on CCR's in the most objective and valid manner. The next step was to take a deep plunge into field work. I became a participant observer in a number of domains around the Durban Metropolitan area. Interviews with prominent Zulu speakers were also conducted in order to obtain their input towards CCR's. The research was conducted in seven Black townships, situated in the GDA. In addition to this, research was conducted in Westville prison, transportation modes, hospitals, streets, taverns, educational units, and in soccer clubs. I entered the aforementioned domains as a 'friend of a friend' a lecturer, or an ex-class teacher in order to become a participant observer in various activities of the Black Durban speech communities. In addition to this, written questionnaires were administered and answered by respondents. The aim of the questionnaire survey was to measure the magnitude of linguistic transformations in the GDA. Another aim was to capture the attitude of the Black Durban speech community towards non-standard varieties of Zulu. Interviews were also conducted for the same purpose. Checklists were also resorted to in order to secure valid and objective information. The collection and analysis of data alone was not adequate in accounting for Language Variation. Bokamba, (1988:21) mentions that we need data on the communicative behaviour of speakers - the whys and how's of ..... [Language Valiation]. A description of the social context of CCR's as observed in the Black speech community of the GDA was exposed. This involved a presentation of the origins and development of linguistic CR's used in the GDA. CR's included slang, Tsotsitaal/isiLovasi, jargon, borrowing, interlarding, neologisms, which were covered under the term CCR's. The linguistic make up, characteristics and classification of CCR's were also carried out. I had to identify the speakers of CCR's in the various targeted domains, where they are employed, as well as the topics which are normally discussed by the interlocutors. Socio-psychological functions of CCR's as spoken in the targeted areas were uncovered. It was revealed that CCR's entail elaborate and rich linguistic forms. They incorporate everyday situations thus recording the activities of people at a particular era in the history of mankind. At least 75% of the 800 collected lexical items which were regarded as non-standard and filtered talk were found to be known and used by most Black Durban speakers. School children were found to have carried these CCR's to the classroom situation where they were penalised for employing them.
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    The indigenous knowledge systems based on religion and healing as encapsulated in O.E.H.M. Nxumalo and L.B.Z. Buthelezi's poetry.
    (2010) Mdanda, Mandlakayise Gilford.; Maphumulo, Abednego Mandlenkosi.
    This study concerns itself with indigenous knowledge systems related to religion and healing as encapsulated in Nxumalo and Buthelezi's poetry. Most of the poems referenced in this study are laced with religion and healing, with the aspects of healing being related to religion and success? In short, the healer has to be upright as far as religion is concerned. Any deviation from religious norms and values tarnishes and nullifies the healer's expertise and their ability to heal. In short the ancestral spirits dislikes deviant behaviours such as witchcraft, when the healer lives in two worlds, that of healing and that of bewitching others. The ancestors strip the healer of the healing powers, as a punishment. To gain their expertise, the practitioners of religion and healing undergo training in the art of detecting illness and witchcraft using bones and other devices, and this training, to a greater extent, must come with the approval of ancestors. It is also upon the diviners and traditional healers to perform rituals when death has struck, by preparing rituals that should enable the living dead to meet their ancestors spotless. Since, the indigenous people believes in the life-hereafter, it is believed that a person pursues with living, similarly to an earthly one even in death. It is believed that failing to perform these rituals, invites death to encroach and repeatedly strike the community or family. Witchcraft is deplored in indigenous religions and communities often gather together with healers to fight against witches. In indigenous religions untimely death is believed to be the work of the witch. All in all indigenous religion and healing complement each other in the worship of the Supreme-Being through deities. In short, Chapter One concerns itself with a general introduction for the entire study. Some key concepts such as: indigenous knowledge systems; deconstruction; inter-textuality; new-historicism; influence and so on, will be discussed in this said chapter. Whereas Chapter Two discusses how theories like deconstruction, inter-textuality and new-historicism will be utilised in the study. Take for instance deconstruction is to be utilised since it deals with multiplicity of meaning in interpretation of poetry. Chapter Three deals with the link between Nxumalo and Buthelezi's poetry as they relate to indigenous religion and healing and the relevance of these two concepts. Chosen poems by Nxumalo and Buthelezi will be analysed in this regard. Chapter Four touches on instances of the indigenous knowledge system and how it is constructed within the poetry of Nxumalo and Buthelezi. Specifically, the position of the Supreme-Being and that of the deities will receive attention here. In Chapters Five, discussions of the instances of indigenous rituals within the selected poetry and the training of prospective traditional healers will be analysed. Finally, Chapter Six presents the conclusion, findings, recommendations and possible future directions for research in this field.
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    Oral strategies for conflict expression and articulation of criticism in Zulu social discourse.
    (2003) Turner, Noleen Sheila.; Conolly, Joan Lucy.; Coullie, Judith Lutge.; Zungu, Phyllis Jane Nonhlanhla.
    This study examines the oral strategies employed by Zulu speaking people in the expression of conflict and criticism in their social discourse. These oral discourses, viz. izibongo and naming practices, are analysed to ascertain the socially acceptable ways in which Zulus articulate their frustrations and discontent in various social settings. These are commonly used in rural communities, but they also echo in urban social settings. Hostility and ill-feelings are thus channelled through the sanctioned form of these various oral expressions either as a means of merely airing one's dissatisfaction or as a means of seeking personal redress. The study also reveals that these particular forms of oral expression with critical content, do not exist for their own intrinsic value simply to artfully describe a particular individual. They are composed primarily to serve a particular social function of conflict articulation and expression in non-conflictual ways. The function of these oral forms is that of a "socio-cultural archive" (Conolly 2001), which is vested in the memory of those who can express in performance, their renditions of personal and group identity. The aesthetic beauty of these forms must be regarded as a secondary function and a direct by-product of the primary function, which is personal identity expressed in a way which ensures that issues which could cause conflict are highlighted so as to diminish their conflictual potential. The reason for this is that in order to fulfill the first function, which is conflict reduction, Jousse (1990) states there has to be a form (rhythm, balance and formula) which makes the expressions memorisable - which literate people equate to 'poetry'.
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    Uphenyo ngezinga lolimi lwezimpawu lwaseningizimu Afrika nemiphumela yalo ekuthuthukiseni impilo yezithulu ezizalwa ngabancela isizulu ebeleni.
    (2004) Cele, Nokuzola Christina Kamadikizela.; Zungu, Phyllis Jane Nonhlanhla.
    After the release of Act No 108 of 1996, the status of the nine African languages of South Africa was elevated to that of English and Afrikaans and as a result, for the first time in the history of languages, South Africa became the first country in Africa to have eleven official languages. However, Sign Language for the Deaf was left out even though Section 6(4) of the South African School's Act No 84 of 1996 puts it clearly that "A recognized sign Language has the status of an official language for purposes of learning at a public school". In terms of Section 6 (5) (a) of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, Pan South African Language Board was also given a task to promote, and create conditions for the development and use of the Sign Language. DEAFSA (1996), states that Sign Language is the first or natural language for the Deaf. In Act No. 108 of 1996: Section 29(2) stipulates that: "Everyone has the right to receive education in the official language or languages of their choice in public educational institution where that is reasonably practicable". The first objective of this study was to investigate if the South African Sign Language (SASL) was a fully-fledged language and to find out more about the present status of this language. The second objective was to examine if South African Sign Language was taught to Parents of Deaf children from the Zulu hearing community's point of view. Marcel Jousse; a French Jesuit Anthropologist and linguist, firmly believes in the anthropology of geste, which is synonymous with the anthropology of mimicry. This theory forms the basis of language acquisition of all peoples of the world. "The oral style with its mnemotechnic devices only comes into play once the individual has been informed by a reality which he receives and replays through his mimic being as a whole, (Fanning (1995:vii). This theory best describes the manner in which signers acquire their sign language, which solely depends on gestures made in the space by hands, body movements and facial expressions. In this theory, the anthropos plays out the receptions of the universe, replays them, stores them and revivifies them in expressions that are the mimisms of the whole human compound: corporeal, ocular and auricular manual. Unfortunately, the laryngo - buccal mimism is excluded in deaf people since they cannot speak. A multi-disciplinary approach from the educational, linguistic, historical, political and cultural perspectives was employed in collecting data for this study. The samples for the study comprised deaf learners, deaf educators, and hearing educators in schools for the deaf, interpreters of sign language, senior management from the schools of Deaf learners and parents of the deaf children. The researcher discovered that very little has been done by researchers and the government of the day to assist the deaf to gain recognition in his or her community. Parents of deaf children are unable to communicate fully with their children. The study also revealed that deaf children prefer to be taught by deaf teachers because they can identify much better with them. The researcher discovered that literature for the deaf is non-existent in all spheres of their lives. Sign language per se, is not taught as a subject. Deaf learners are not allowed to take their subjects at a Higher Grade; as a result, they feel extremely marginalized by the educators. Promoting this language would improve our trade and industry, travel & tourism etc. Student exchange programmes would also enhance the development of the sign language locally, nationally and internationally. The Deaf would become multilingual in the Sign Languages of the world when they come into contact with Deaf people from other parts of the world. This would involve sport, education, politics and other activities. The deaf would be equipped to meet various challenges in life. The Deaf people need to communicate freely amongst themselves and the hearing community of our country should make an effort to learn the Sign Language so that they are able to communicate with the deaf. This would improve the socio-economic status of our country.
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    Tricksters and trickery in Zulu folktales.
    (1995) Canonici, Noemio Noverino.; Argyle, W. John.; De Kadt, Elizabeth.
    Tricksters and Trickery in Zulu Folktales is a research on one of the central themes in African, and particularly Nguni/Zulu folklore, in which the trickster figure plays a pivotal role. The Zulu form part of the Nguni group of the Kintu speaking populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Their oral traditions are based on those of the whole sub-continent, but also constitute significant innovations due to the Nguni's contacts with the Khoisan peoples and to the history that has shaped their reasoning processes. Folktales are an artistic reflection of the people's culture, history, way of life, attitudes to persons and events, springing from the observation of nature and of animal and human, behaviour, in order to create a "culture of the feelings" on which adult decisions are based. The present research is based on the concept of a semiotic communication system whereby folktale "texts" are considered as metaphors, to be de-coded from the literary, cultural and behavioural points of view. The system is employed to produce comic entertainement, as well as for education. A careful examination of the sources reveals the central role that observation of the open book of natural phenomena, and especially the observation of animal life, plays in the formulation of thought patterns and of the imagery bank on which all artistic expression is based, be it in the form of proverbs, or tales, or poetry. Animal observation shows that the small species need to act with some form of cunning in the struggle for survival. The employment of tricks in the tales can be either successful or unsuccessful, and this constitutes the fundamental division of the characters who are constantly associated with trickery. They apply deceiving patterns based on false contracts that create an illusion enabling the trickster to use substitution techniques. The same trick pattern is however widely employed, either successfully or unsuccessfully, by a score of other characters who are only "occasional tricksters", such as human beings, in order to overcome the challenge posed by external, often superior, forces, or simply in order to shape events to their own advantage. The original mould for the successful trickster figure in Kintu speaking Africa is the small Hare. The choice of this animal character points to the bewildered realization that small beings can only survive through guile in a hostile environment dominated by powerful killers. The Nguni/Zulu innovation consists of a composite character with a dual manifestation: Chakide, the slender mongoose, a small carnivorous animal, whose main folktale name is the diminutive Chakijana; and its counterpart Hlakanyana, a semi-human dwarf. The innovation contains a double value: the root ideophone hlaka points to an intelligent being, able to outwit his adversaries by "dissecting" all the elements of a situation in order to identify weaknesses that offer the possibility of defeating the enemy; and to "re-arrange" reality in a new way. This shows the ambivalent function of trickery as a force for both demolition and reconstruction. Chakijana, the small slender mongoose, is like the pan-African Hare in most respects, but with the added feature of being carnivorous, therefore a merciless killer. He makes use of all its powers to either escape larger animals, or to conquer other animals for food in order to survive. Hlakanyana, being semi-human, can interact with both humans and animals; Chakijana is mostly active in an animal setting. The unsuccessful trickster figure in Kintu speaking Africa is Hyena, an evil and powerful killer and scavenger, associated in popular belief with witches by reason of his nocturnal habits and grave digging activities. The Nguni/Zulu innovation is Izimu, a fictional semi-human being, traditionally interpreted as a cannibal, a merciless and dark man eater. Izimu is another composite figure, prevalently corresponding to Hyena, from which he draws most of his fictional characteristics. The figure further assimilates features of half-human, half-animal man-eating monsters known in the folklore of many African cultures, as well as the ogre figure prevalent in European tales. The anthropophagous aspect, taken as its prevalent characteristic by earlier researchers, is a rather secondary feature. The innovation from a purely animal figure (Hyena) to a semi-human one allows this character to interact mostly with human beings, thus expressing deeply felt human concerns and fears. Trickery is the hallmark of comedy, the art of looking at life from an upside-down point of view, to portray not the norm but the unexpected. Thus the metaphors contained in trickster folktales, as expressions of comedy, are rather difficult to decode. The ambivalence, so common in many manifestations of African culture, becomes prevalent in these tales. Human tricksters, who try to imitate the trick sequence, are successful if their aims can be justified in terms of culture and tradition; but are unsuccessful if their aims are disruptive of social harmony. Ambivalence is also predominant in "modern" trickster folktales, and in some manifestations of the trickster themes in recent literature. The trickster tradition is an important aspect of the traditions of the Zulu people, permeating social, educational and literary aspects of life and culture. The Nguni/Zulu innovations of Hlakanyana/Chakijana and of Izimu point to the dynamic and inner stability of the culture, a precious heritage and a force on which to build a great future.