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Doctoral Degrees (Gender Studies)

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    Health care access and challenges: a case study of women migrant labourers in Newcastle, KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2023) Ntshangase, Mlungisi Lungisile.; Muthuki, Janet Muthoni.
    Extreme economic disparity, both within and between nations, as well as unequal national political settings, characterize Southern Africa. “In 2019, 272 million people worldwide were international migrants” (Jinnah, 2020). Different types of cross-border mobility take a pivotal role in the livelihoods of both individuals and households in these circumstances. Historically, formal male migrant labour had dominated intra-regional labour mobility, particularly in the mining industry in South Africa (SA). Even now, the major destination is still South Africa, but over the past 20 to 25 years, political and economic shifts have led to a greater diversity of intra-regional migrant flows by location, temporality, and demography, including gender. Additionally, migrants' jobs and means of support now cover a diverse range of formalities, industries, and security. Female migrants often work in feminized labour, such as domestic and care work, but they also engage in a variety of service sector jobs and informal cross-border trading. Their presence in the labour market puts them in confusing and contentious relationships with South African citizens, who also deal with high unemployment and insecure employment rates. As a result, immigrants face xenophobia, gender and employment vulnerability and are accused of "taking jobs" from South African citizens. There is a great heterogeneity and history to migration in Southern African Development Community (SADC), including but not limited to, forced migrants fleeing conflict; individuals moving in search of improved livelihood opportunities; asylum seekers and refugees; traders and seasonal workers displaced within their own countries or moving cross-border - some have legal documents while others are without (Crush et al., 2005). In cases of labour migrants each situation may create and respond to its own set of health concerns, dependent on part upon where migrants work and live, the duration and conditions of their stay, and whether and when they return home (Preston-Whyte, 2006:33). Various interrelated factors account for migrant health, including behaviour, health-seeking behaviour and care-seeking decisions. Some behaviours are born of vulnerability, such as risky sex to procure food security, and some vulnerabilities are born of discrimination. Furthermore, health is not solely a physical condition that should be attained or maintained, but one that also incorporates mental health, which can be damaged through trauma, torture or depression, and ultimately causes much detriment to the well-being and the ability to adapt to a new environment (IOM, 2013; UNAIDS, 2014). The behaviour of health professionals has similarly ix | P a g e been indicated as one of the two factors that most determine the use or non-use of health services by immigrant communities. Studies suggest that these professionals frequently present a limited knowledge of legislation and/or its applicability and act in accordance with social stereotypes (Wolffers & Fernandez, 2003 and Dias et al., 2010), not responding to the effective needs of the users. In addition, they tend to have no cultural competencies necessary to relate with users from other nationalities, and do not know their specific characteristics (Pusseti et al., 2009). The South African legislative framework advocates for the universal acquiring of health services and the basic determinants of health. The National department of health has committed to providing efficient, equitable and accessible health services to all people residing within the country regardless of their identity status. Inaccessibility of healthcare service not only violate women migrants’ rights, but also may results in increasing the prevalence rate of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV); Sexually-transmitted Infections; Prevention of Mother-toChild Transmission (PMTCT); Non-communicable diseases and Child mortality rate. This may also threaten the women labour migrants’ lives if they had not taken necessary precautions. Women labour migrants from Southern Africa, working in the Newcastle Municipality textile industry, are also not immune to the challenges of healthcare accessibility. This study examines the experience of women migrants labourers from Southern Africa to determine their accessibility to healthcare services given their working conditions, culture shock, language barrier and their socio-economic conditions. This is an empirical qualitative study that adopted in-depth interviews for the data collection of women labour migrants’ views and experiences regarding access to healthcare services within Newcastle Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal Province. The in-depth interviews were purposively conducted with 35 participants from Newcastle textile firms, and these comprised 7 key informants. The sample was only limited to women labour migrants from Southern Africa working in the textile industries within Newcastle Municipality. The analysis of the datum, which was intended to give meaning to the conundrum of women labour migrants’ access to healthcare services, adopted a thematic analysis that capitalized on structured themes throughout the analysis process. The study employed the theories of intersectionality feminism, the health capability approach thus including capabilities of gender inequality, access to health care, and the social exclusion theory. This study found out that within the transnational space, women experienced overt and x | P a g e covert issues regarding access to health-care services on transition and during their stay whilst working in the textile industry. However, there were some factors that influence their utilisation of healthcare facilities within the Newcastle Municipality area, these include culture, degree on basic education, the number of years stayed in the area and spoken language.
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    Gender oppression and Pentecostal Christian religion: an exploration of the position of Africa migrant married women in Durban.
    (2022) Ajimakin, Ifedayo Adesola.; Ojong, Vivian Besem.
    Discourses about oppression against women are linked to different factors. Against this background, this study explored the nexus between gender, religion, migration, and patriarchy in a context of black migrant women living in Durban, South Africa. Accordingly, this study argues that Pentecostal hermeneutics is an incubator for subtle oppression against married women. Although the church has been presented as a place for liberation, it is still a place where patriarchal values thrive. The study also explored the gender ideologies associated with migration, as the women found themselves in a new gender regime as it differs from their previous gendered lives; as such they were faced with gender-specific problems and gender roles that challenged their quality of life and selfidentity. It became more complicated as these women’s experience of gender oppression in their marriage affects their self-esteem and they continue to contend with these gender challenges, and they respond differently as well, either to adapt or to resist patriarchal values. To this end, the study adopted a qualitative research methodology to explore the lived experiences of black migrant women on gender oppression through the lens of Pentecostal Christian religion. It presents the key narrative of these women’s experience of oppression to gain an insight into the role of Pentecostal churches in the establishment of women’s identity. Drawing from the arguments of selected socio-religion scholars, this study advances the argument that African women across traditional African cultures and history adopt various strategies and ideas for circumventing and negotiating patriarchal structures and thus gain a position of significance within familial and intimate terrains. In this research, the theoretical arguments of social constructionism, gendered geographies of power and Nego-feminism were deployed to examine the nature of gender oppression in transnational spaces and how they negotiate their space for shared autonomy in marriage. This study discovered that too little attention has been paid to the role of Pentecostal Christian religious teachings and the interpretation of the Bible in shaping power relations, oppression, and its corresponding effect on women’s identity within marriages. Further findings are that negotiation, compromise, food and sexual activities are strategies adopted by these women to influence the power dynamics of their households.
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    Experiences of gender-based violence in a transnational context: a case study of Congolese male refugees living in Durban, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.
    (2022) Mugisho, Ndabuli Theophile.; Muthuki, Janet Muthoni.
    Gender-based violence (GBV) is a global issue that can occur in any setting, and the transnational environment is no exception. GBV among male refugees in their communities is a large field that needs more focus since most research explores opinions about female victims instead of perpetrators. The unending armed conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) caused dreadful atrocities by entangling people’s lives, a condition that caused many to flee their country. Women and men suffered the violence differently; women endured violence because of the cyclic wars and abusive social norms. While living in their home country, these Congolese male refugees were informed of GBV; either they committed, heard or saw it. They migrated to the transnational setting of South Africa, in Durban in particular but never left behind their home perceptions of gendered violence. This research details fieldwork carried out in 2021 regarding the transnational experiences of GBV of Congolese male refugees living in the South African city of Durban. Specifically, the researcher used a qualitative method, with a sample of 30 Congolese male refugees living in Durban, in the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). In an in-depth telephonic interview, the participants, whose ages varied between 25 and 50 years old, willingly shared their experiences with the researcher. The research findings confirm that Congolese male refugees' experiences of GBV, while living in DRC or Durban, built on their past cultural insights, values and practices, which they merged with their new context in their transnational setting. However, they also learned the local culture through their new connections, which they sometimes mixed with theirs. In this way, they created new techniques of abusing their women. This highlighted socialisation, the complexity of GBV, identities and masculinities as renegotiated in a transnational space. Indeed, the traditions and norms these refugees came with and those they learned during their socialising in the South African community of Durban played a great role in promoting the abuse of women. vii By using a thematic analysis paradigm that is a qualitative approach, the researcher wanted to underline the context in which the shared manner of beliefs and observations of the Congolese male refugees and his multidimensional positionality overlapped to create understanding. The researcher equally emphasised masculinities and socialisation as critical and dynamic issues in the data collection process. The collected information shows that DRC male refugees admit that masculinities, socialisation and transnationalism were the main factors that influenced their violence toward women. As these men fled their country for safety, they willingly chose South Africa and the City of Durban, in particular, as host communities because they offered life opportunities. They mingled with local GBV tactics because the surrounding environment condones the violence. This has considered the socio-ecological context and opportunity in place since they build on masculinities and societal norms that encourage men to take advantage of abusing women in a relatively different context to that they experienced in their home country. Moreover, the social conditions and the problems these male refugees face regarding social integration and gender-based norms in their transnational setting push them into perpetrating GBV. Lack of government assistance, discrimination over access to a job, and being separated from their home families and relatives cause them stress, making them fail to fulfil their role as respectable household managers and breadwinners. The situation has forced them to perpetrate violence against women to gain authority and respect. The onus of perpetrating gendered violence remains on the shoulders of society because masculinities and oppressive patriarchal norms keep these male refugees in their position as respectable men. This research also provides critical insights into the dynamics faced by these Congolese male refugees because of immersing themselves in Durban, a city located in the province of KZN. The province has a high level of violence, particularly GBV, and accommodates many refugees from Africa and other continents. Research outcomes confirm that interviewees’ constant socialisation and renegotiating identities opened a good opportunity to reinforce their perspectives of gendered violence. GBV overlaps with migration because local social norms, socialisation, masculinities and identities facilitate refugees in their transnational milieu, mostly those from societies with hegemonic masculinities, to learn much from the local community regarding women abuse. Indeed, living in the Zulu community in the transnational context required these refugees to socialise for cultural and social integration. Consequently, these Congolese men had to learn local attitudes and beliefs about gendered violence in addition to the perceptions they brought with them when they relocated to South Africa. Overall, social integration required them to learn new approaches regarding GBV, and to renegotiate their masculinities and identity in Durban. The themes raised in this research show that, in their transnational setting, Congolese male refugees perpetrate GBV to ensure that women remain submissive to them and that their power and social status remain valued. It was an interesting result as the interviewees were reinterpreting and redefining their masculinities and shared their experiences regarding GBV based on how they renegotiated their social identities and masculine influence to socialise and integrate into their new locale. Similarly, this research has explored how the interviewees’ social integration empowered them by creating several versions of masculinity and various strategies for perpetrating GBV within their transnational milieu. The exploration of these male refugees’ engagement in sharing their personal experiences about GBV in a transnational setting clearly confirms there is a dilemma based on the dialectic of their experiences. GBV in DRC and the transnational environment remains the result of gender attitudes, masculinities, socio-cultural upbringing, and social beliefs the interviewees came with and those they met in Durban. Such context demonstrates how masculinities and identity renegotiation are hybridised for condoning GBV in a transnational locale.
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    Examining the effectiveness of prevention programmes being implemented to address the needs of women experiencing intimate partner violence in Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    (2021) Ndlovu, Cynthia Sanelisiwe.; Muthuki, Janet Muthoni.
    As with other nations, South Africa still contends with women’s subordination in society which leaves them vulnerable to many forms of violation. Existing literature claims that while policy and legislative frameworks exist to eradicate intimate partner violence (IPV) in all spheres of life, women continue to endure abuse in their private lives. Intervention programmes adopted across the globe and at the national level to address the problem have been too limited in systemically addressing IPV. Based on this foundation, this study, located in the interpretivist paradigm, investigated the effectiveness of programmes being implemented to address the needs of women experiencing IPV in Msinga, a rural area within the uMzinyathi District Municipality in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study employed a qualitative research design. The data collection methods included indepth individual interviews and two focus group discussions. Purposive sampling was used to select 40 individual interview participants. The first set of interviews and the first focus group discussion were with the key informants (members of staff) from the organisations that were identified as dealing with cases of IPV in Msinga. The second set of interviews and second focus group discussion were held with 32 women survivors of IPV in Msinga. Both in-deth indivual interviews and focus groups discussions examined the effectiveness of the IPV programmes implemented in Msinga. The post-structural feminist theory and the socio-ecological model were used as the theoretical framework to inform the study. Informed by this framework, findings revealed that the intersectionality of gender, race, class and ethnicity leave women from poor socio-economic upbringing more vulnerable to IPV. Henceforth, IPV unfolds in an explicit context whereby layers of disadvantage preserve women in a deprivation trap, resulting in a vicious cycle of poverty. This observation echoes that women’s everyday realities are context-specific. Against this background, the findings conclude that women’s lived experiences influence how they construct the factors that perpetuate IPV in their relationships. Additionally, it was discovered that in most occurrences the emotional and physical abuse of women are interwoven and that a patriarchal system (yet again) perpatrate the oppression of women. Findings suggest that structural inequalities and the socialisation of women in Msinga contribute to individual and societal acceptance of IPV, consequently perpetuating the subordination of women. While existing measures such as shelters for abused women provide protection, they are unable to address the structural and systemic nature of IPV. Thus, women in rural areas who experience IPV lack long-term support that is presented in a transformative and sustainable manner. To promote effective IPV intervention, it is recommended that prevention programmes need to occur at three levels: 1) At a primary prevention level. This is critical in preventing IPV in that it intervenes with individuals, families and communities in ways that stop the perpetuation of violent behaviours. 2) At a secondary intervention level. This provides victims with information and services thereby mitigating the consequences of exposures to violence. 3) At a tertiary intervention level. This is concerned with reducing the long-term negative effects of violence. Merging primary, secondary and tertiary prevention strategies would be best particularly in communities or families that are already characterised by violence.
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    South African unemployed female graduates in transit to the market place: does social capital matter?
    (2021) Molefe, Moshe Mojalefa Joseph.; Mkhize, Gabisile Promise.
    The objective of this doctoral study was to investigate the role social capital play in assisting unemployed female graduates to transit to the job market, secure the type of employment for which they were qualified, and build entrepreneurship. Twenty-five years into democracy, young black African women post-graduates face plethora of challenges which are based on race, class, and gender. Whereas research has showed that pursuing masters and doctoral studies particularly within the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) increases their social mobility, the research finds that the process of promotion and securing better jobs for these women has not been consistent. They continue to be discriminated against by the labour market which is biased towards white and Indian candidates. In defining the current state of transformation within Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), the principal research question is Does Social Capital matter? Beyond this institutional transformation, the study investigates the impact of these policy instruments to the experiences of women post-graduates within the field of Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). The theoretical framework of the study is underpinned by the following: i) the role of grounded theory within the feministic paradigm in emancipating women from the endocentric tradition of structural functionalism by valuing the women’s lived experiences as legitimate source of knowledge. ii) The use of the matrix of domination theory to understand plethora of challenges facing Black African women post-graduates and iii) the equality of opportunity theory to demonstrate that despite being admitted within the STEM sector, they do not enjoy equal treatment and rewards for equal performance. A group of more than 50 postgraduate students across all racial groups was selected within STEM departments in the University of KwaZulu-Natal using random sampling and semi-structured interviews as part of the qualitative research method. The study found that black African women of South African descent face discrimination on three fronts, namely, race, class and gender which makes them to work trice harder to secure their position in university, fight for their respect and confidence, and build the necessary relationships that will enable them to gain successful entry to the ideal job they are qualified for. Not only is social capital an indispensable asset, but also, it empowers black African postgraduate women not to be defined by their historical antecedents but the appropriate social networks and decisions they make.
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    Investigating the role and effectiveness of intervention strategies employed by six organisations dealing with intimate partner violence in Lesotho.
    (2020) Matela, Lebohang Irene.; Muthuki, Janet Muthoni.
    Intimate partner violence ((IPV) has become an epidemic with ever-rising statistics of women battered and murdered by their intimate partners. Although IPV is on the rise globally, it is a heightened problem in the poorest countries, especially in the poor neighbourhoods of those countries. Persistently rising statistics on IPV against women in African societies is a clear indication of the status of women in those societies. The low social status of women makes them prone to violence in society and in intimate spaces. IPV paralyses all members of society and affects individual functioning and well-being. Even though IPV has been studied thoroughly in many countries, the literature review has indicated that not much has been done in Lesotho to study IPV, especially with a focus on its socio-cultural context and identifying strategies used by organisations dealing with battered women. Most importantly, there is a lack of investigation and documentation of the effectiveness of strategies implemented to address IPV. Using a qualitative approach, this study teased out the socio-cultural determinants of IPV from the perspectives of both the perpetrators and the survivors of IPV, although the focus was on women. Data demonstrates that the cultural understanding of women influences their relations with men. The study also highlights how the issue of discourse, such as Sesotho proverbs, has contributed to perpetuate violence against women and promote women’s complacency in the situation. The study reveals how survivors use strategies to overcome violence and how access to information plays a critical role in women taking charge of their lives in the midst of their ordeals. It also discusses psychosocial support as vital for the well-being of survivors of IPV and argues for psychosocial support that has an empowerment model with microfinancing for survivors. This research argues for the Confrontation approach to IPV using three prevention strategies simultaneously to address it, namely, primary, secondary and tertiary prevention strategies.
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    African women’s leadership experiences and outcomes of gender transformation policies: a case study of democratic national government departments in South Africa.
    (2017) Mgcotyelwa-Ntoni, Nwabisa Bernice.; Mkhize, Gabisile Promise.
    This study investigated African women’s leadership experiences and outcomes of gender transformation policies (Employment Equity and Gender Mainstreaming) in the democratic national government departments in South Africa. The research objectives were to investigate the impact of gender transformation policies on black African women’s leadership experiences, examine women leaders’ experiences of the outcomes resulting from the implementation of GM and EE. Furthermore, the study investigated how national government departments’ organisational cultures, structures and practices impede or promote black African women’s participation in leadership roles. Given that African women suffered the most oppression under the apartheid system, the democratic South Africa provides an interesting case for studying their leadership experiences of GM and EE outcomes. The study is significant as there is a paucity of empirical studies on the outcomes of gender transformation policies and the impacts on beneficiaries in the democratic South Africa, especially black African women. A purposive sampling technique was applied to obtain a total number of 35 participants in leadership positions from 25 national government departments. Using a feminist methodology, a qualitative research method was employed to gather data by means of in-depth, face-to-face interviews. The intersectionality, postcolonial and state feminist theories were used as the theoretical framework for critical analysis. Moreover, the subjective experiences of black African women as leaders were analysed in accordance with the grounded theory method and Nvivo Version 11 Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS). All standard ethical considerations to protect the participants and the researcher were adhered to. On the one hand, the key findings indicate that GM remains a framework, and not a policy, and is therefore marginalised in departments. Its outcomes are negatively impacted by a lack of human and financial resources and gender budgeting for implementation is not prioritised, consequently gender is not mainstreamed in the government departments. The findings also illustrate the negative impact of the gender-biased, patriarchal and racial organisational culture on women’s voices and leadership experiences. Nuanced identity politics were also found to be prevalent manifesting through ethnic, age, and (dis)ability discrimination in the sampled national government departments. The participants’ insights further highlighted resistance to gender transformation as the policies challenge the normative patriarchal culture and practices to promote equal substantive representation. The focus on descriptive rather than substantive representation, leading to the marginalisation of EE beneficiaries and their leadership authority being undermined. This perpetuates the race and gender inequalities that these policies aim to eradicate. Furthermore, a lack of monitoring and evaluation hinders successful implementation of GM and EE in national government departments. The study found that, while GM and EE are important transformation policies, they have yet to be properly implemented, preventing the achievement of the intended outcomes of addressing inequality in the workplace and empowering marginalised and oppressed groups, particularly black African women. The study thus concludes that, while positive strides have been made in addressing gender issues in South Africa such as increasing the number of women in leadership positions in the government, black African women leaders are still subjected to multiple intersecting subjugations emanating from colonial vestiges that undermine the gains made in the democratic era.
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    Probing indigenous approaches: gender and water management practices in selected rural settlements of Ondo State, Nigeria.
    (2018) Awoniyi, Paul Olugbenga.; Naidu, Uma Maheshvari.
    Water is a critical requisite for household livelihoods and for safeguarding the health and hygiene of family members among the rural dwellers in Africa. Women in villages across Ondo state, one of the southwestern states of Nigeria, adopt various indigenous methods in rural water management to make water potable and available for their households. However, knowledge around gendered indigenous/rural water management among rural dwellers is still under represented and provides the rationale for this study. A sequential mixed methodology approach was undertaken, using quantitative and qualitative methods. An explanatory design was used to document the different indigenous materials and approaches in local water management, explore the impact of gender awareness on Indigenous Water Management (IWM) practices, identify the effects of gender stereotypes on IWM practices and to evaluate the impact of women’s participation in local water management. The study draws from a Feminist framework and gender-based participatory paradigms. Significant findings from the study identified the various perceptions that reinforced gender stereotypes with respect to the participation of women in rural water management in Ondo state. Further findings reveal how masculine hegemony, under the guise of culture and religion, strengthened male dominance in rural water management and female subordination. Various indigenous approaches have contributed to meeting women’s practical needs based on their traditional roles. It is, however, recommended that loan facilities are made available to the women as well as adult literacy programmes. Finally, channelling water from surrounding rivers by pipe into every street could contribute significantly to improving the lives of women.
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    The ‘accompanying spouse dependent visa status’: challenges and constraints faced by Zimbabwean immigrant women in integration into South Africa’s formal labour market.
    (2019) Chimukuche, Rujeko Samanthia.; Muthuki, Janet Muthoni.
    Transboundary migration at both regional and continental levels has become the defining feature of the 21st century. Among other issues, poverty and economic strife, regional conflict and extreme environmental disasters have been cited as key factors motivating global migration patterns. A holistic address to the current migration challenges, coupled with other key development issues such as gender, health and education can contribute significantly towards attaining the Sustainable Development Goals. The recent global migration crisis due to economic strife and war brings back to the fore an old age problem, but with fresh challenges. Migration and forced displacement are issues that require long-term solutions. In South Africa for example, whilst much attention has been placed on xenophobic attacks and other issues at the nexus of immigrant and indigenous communities, limited focus has been placed on the integration, specifically formal labour integration of immigrant communities and the gender inequalities that are prevalent. Despite noble efforts by South Africa hosting several immigrants, several challenges arise in integrating the migrants into society as it is often difficult to harmonize the interests of indigenous communities and those of foreign nationals. This research study has aimed to fill in the gaps by analyzing how stringent immigration and visa regulations prevent skilled migrant women spouses from employment which often results in several societal vices including domestic abuse, minimum or no access to important services such as healthcare, education, social welfare among others. Using a qualitative approach, the study analyzed South Africa migration and labour policies in terms of mainstreaming the gender needs of skilled migrant women. Secondly, the study highlighted the migratory experiences and constraints of skilled Zimbabwean women migrant spouses in South Africa labour integration. The experiences of these women have shown the gender inequalities of the migratory policies. Thirdly, Zimbabwean women opportunities and/or challenges in integration into South African formal labour market were explored. Lastly, practical interventions to support the integration of skilled migrant women spouses into South Africa’s formal labour market were suggested. Key findings show that gender dynamics are pivotal in migration patterns and the mainstreaming of gender in migration policies is important. This study has therefore contributed to the fields of gender and migration by examining ways in which gender rights of skilled migrant women spouses can be incorporated in labour integration policy making.
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    Exploring the intervention efforts in helping women survivors of sexual violence in the aftermath of the 2007/2008 post- election violence in Kisumu county, Kenya.
    (2018) Makau, Esther Mwongeli.; Muthuki, Janet Muthoni.
    During Kenya’s 2007/08 post-election violence, sexual violence in form of single and gang rape was rampant with women bearing the brunt of it. The deteriorating levels of insecurity not only in Kisumu but in other parts of the country that witnessed intense violence and the inability to access support services worsened the experiences of the women who had suffered sexual violence. Many women endured immense pain as the physical, psycho-logical and socio-economic effects of the violence took a toll on them. As a result, the government and other stakeholders initiated several interventions with a view to alleviate the suffering that the female survivors of sexual violence had experienced. This study aims at exploring the intervention initiatives that were put in place to address the needs of the female survivors of sexual violence in Kisumu County. Even though research on intervention strategies for female survivors of sexual violence during and after conflict has been widely researched in countries that have experienced conflict, in Kenya, it remains under-researched. In this regard, the study utilized qualitative research methodology in order to explore the effectiveness of the intervention strategies by relying heavily on the perspectives of the female survivors of sexual violence as well as other key informants. Thirty- five women participants (survivors of sexual violence) were interviewed as well as nine key informants who were exclusive of the thirty primary participants. The study examined how the women traversed through the various agencies in order to access the support services made to address their needs and the challenges they encountered during this process. It also examined the challenges faced by the various actors in offering support to the women, how they countered them as well as the inter-linkages that existed among them. Three theories were employed in this study: the feminist theory of rape, the conflict transformation approach and the socio-ecological model of intervention. Key study findings established are; as the women interacted with the formal support structures in finding help, in some instances, they experienced positive reactions while in other circumstances, it was adverse. However, despite the undesirable responses that they received, they were able to adopt various coping mechanisms that helped them to remain robust. In the course of the study, what was further established was that, sexual violence as was experienced by women survivors in Kisumu County was rooted in inequality, discrimination and male domination that was rooted and engrained in indigenous Kenya, was solidified during the colonial period and transited through post-independent Kenya. Despite the intervention strategies initiated, the female survivors of sexual violence perceive themselves as a neglected category by the state whom they quantified should take the lead in addressing their plight.
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    The extent to which African indigenous language tools are an instrument to promote or/and hinder gender equality: critical analysis of chichewa proverbs of Malawi.
    (2019) Chiwaya-Kamwendo, Juliet Jacinta.; Muthuki, Janet Muthoni.; Kaya, Hassan Omari.
    This study is traced from the United Nation Sustainable Development goal number five of gender equality and women empowerment which supersede Millennium Development Goals number three. One way in which language is used is through the use of proverbs. The study aimed at finding out how Chichewa proverbs of Malawi can be an instrument to promote or hinder gender equality and women empowerment. The study followed hermeneutic phenomenological method and qualitative research approach to understand and interpret the connotations inscribed in Chichewa gendered proverbs. In order to unpack and analyze the proverbs, the study is underpinned within the Knowledge translation theory, along with critical discourse analysis and the reformist African feminism. Two methods of data collection were adopted in this study: desktop search and interviews which were conducted with the aid of semi-structured open ended questions. The interviews were conducted in two separate ways ie. Individual face to face as well as focus groups. In total, fourty four participants were from four different population groups namely; the block leaders, the ward councillors, the education managers and other respondents who were just residents of the area. Using content analysis, the data were analyzed qualitatively and findings presented and discussed thematically. On a positive note, the results of this study reveals that Chichewa proverbs may work positively towards enhancing gender equality and women empowerment. This is demonstrated when some proverbs portray women as symbols of warmth to the society while others encourage women empowerment and agency. Secondly, men’s bad and evil behaviors towards women are rebuked in some Chichewa proverbs. The results of this study further shows that within Malawi society, men are not completely free from proverbial negativity but are equally victims of proverbial messages. With special reference to matrilineal society, proverbs have shown elements of discrimination on the part of suitors (mkamwini). This is in conflict with some Eurocentric gender studies which completely ignore the dynamics and uniqueness of different context, cultures and traditions. With the aid of poly-epistemic research approach and methodologies, such tradition dynamics were unravelled to fill the gaps and contribute to already existing body of knowledge. However, to the larger extent Chichewa proverbs have elements that work against women in various aspects. The proverbs are tools used to create and sustain the construction of hegemonic masculinity and femininity hence the superiority of men and inferiority of women in Malawi is sustained. By creating a body of knowledge which portray women as gossipers, evil beings, weak and people lacking decision-making skills, women continue to suffer oppression, marginalization, subordination and discrination in various ways both in public and privatespheres. Even though the results of this study reveal that probably both men and women were involved in the construction of proverbs, but the knowledge contribution of women in this domain was just meant to serve the male chauvinistic. This study therefore concludes that although some Chichewa proverbs can be used by gender activists to promote gender equality in Malawi, the wisdom embedded in some proverbs seem to be a hindrance towards the advance.
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    Gender complexities in the context of xenophobia-afrophobia in the transnational space: the experiences of Somali women in Mayfair and Pretoria West in Gauteng Province, South Africa.
    (2017) Waiganjo, Anthony Gathambiri.; Muthuki, Janet Muthoni.
    The migration of Somali women into South Africa is a fast growing phenomenon due to migrants fleeing intersecting factors of socio-political and economic nature. As compared to Somalia and Kenya, where they encounter socio- political and economic destabilization, these women arrive in South Africa with many expectations for a better life. Somali women leave their countries of origin due to civil wars, Al-Shabaab menace, economic crisis, a lack of opportunities and the need for the transit route to Europe and America. Despite this, women encounter several complexities within the transnational space, such as Xenophobia-Afrophobia. This study focuses on the Xenophobia-Afrophobia related complexities of Somali women in the transnational space. While Xenophobia is the fear of foreigners, Afrophobia is the fear of Black foreigners of African origin. The term Xenophobia-Afrophobia is adopted into the study because, in South African context, both Black Africans who are non-South Africans and foreigners from outside Africa are soft targets of the antiforeigner’s bigotry. Bigotry among anti-foreigners poses a current problem facing contemporary South Africa, damaging the image of Africa and other counties who are resisting immigrant’s influx into their countries. Due to Somali businesses being established amongst the poorest communities in South Africa, natives brand them as ‘job stealers’ and competitors of scarce opportunities manufacturing them as the main victims of Xenophobia-Afrophobia. (Niyigena, 2013). The upsurge of violence against foreign nationals in 2008 and 2015, and the isolated incidences of 2010, 2013 and 2014, are some of the examples that vividly speak to the issues of Xenophobia-Afrophobia in South Africa. This study ushers in a gender perspective of the complex phenomenon of Xenophobia-Afrophobia, as it centres around Somali women. Existing studies in Xenophobia-Afrophobia tend to categorise migrants as a homogeneous entity. However there is a huge diversity among foreign nationals with reference to their different social locations. This study examines women’s multiple social locations by accentuating the diversity of their experiences of Xenophobia-Afrophobia. It also unearths underlying interconnected power factors that either impede or empower their capacity to navigate a transnational context. This is an empirical qualitative study that adopts in-depth interviews for the data collection of Xenophobia-Afrophobia experiences of Somali women in the Gauteng province. The in-depth interviews were purposively conducted with forty interview participants that comprised 2 Action Support Centre officials. There were 38 Somali participants within and outside SASOWNET that were interviewed. The sample included Somali academics from various South African universities. The analysis of the datum, which was intended to give meaning to the social phenomenon facing complexities amongst Somali women, adopted a thematic analysis that capitalized on the salient themes throughout the analysis process. The study employed the theories of feminist intersectionality, Gendered Geographies of Power, and Social Network. This study found out that within the transnational space, women experienced overt and covert Xenophobia-Afrophobia within the intersections of their nationality, gender, clan, education, religion differently, because their social locations affected how they negotiated their spaces within the context of Xenophobia. Despite the Xenophobia-Afrophoba complexity affecting Somali women, this study rules out that women are helpless victims. However it proposes the thinking that women have agency which facilitates the negotiation within the transnational space. Within the transnational space, women experience covert Xenophobia-Afrophobia in the Department of Health, Department of Home Affairs, law enforcement and educational institutions. Futher, overt Xenophobia is also manifested in the violent attacks that have been prevalent in the province.
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    The transpersonal in shadow and self : finding catharsis in the second half of life through the visual arts, referencing Deborah Bell, Colin Richards and Paula Hulley.
    (2016) Hulley, Paula.; Spencer, Faye Julia.
    This dissertation explores the relevance of the transpersonal approach in research. In an historical overview the value of the transpersonal in visual arts is discussed with particular reference to Deborah Bell, Colin Richards and my own journey in creative practice. The study examines the terms self, shadow, catharsis, and the second half of life in relation to painting and the use of mixed media in visual arts. This dissertation illustrates, through selected works of Deborah Bell, Colin Richards and Paula Hulley, the transformative role of transpersonal research, with a focus on the method of organic inquiry and the three steps of preparation, inspiration and integration. Deborah Bell’s creative practice acknowledges her quest for a spiritual truth, which has parallels to my own personal narrative in search of self and shadow. Memory, and recovery of memory, in Colin Richards’ art-making, is discussed as potential transformation and catharsis in the second half of life. Organic inquiry, a qualitative methodology to the transpersonal approach, is examined and applied to my experience of going inward to self through painting and mixed media.
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    Channeling justice? a feminist exploration of North American televangelism in a South African constitutional democracy.
    (2016) Boesak, Elna.; Nadar, Sarojini.
    In this dissertation I argued that despite the South African Bill of Rights many women and persons with non-conforming gender and sex/sexual identities and orientations remain marginalised and vulnerable in this country. The same hegemonies that denied them their rights in a pre-democratic South Africa are still the root causes of their disempowerment. I proposed that during Apartheid the preservation of white, Western, heterosexual male domination (political, social and economic) was a main priority and that strategic mass media communication (―the media‖) played a significant role in protecting and maintaining such dominance. This role continues in different guises in South Africa in an era of globalisation. Globalised strategic Christian mass media communication, such as transnational religious broadcasting, is one example. My study of how gender is mediated in samples of North American televangelism that exhibits a profile in a South African constitutional democracy, was theoretically framed through intersectional, decolonial feminist lenses. In this regard I took a pan-African stance. I did Comprehensive Critical Rhetorical Discourse Analysis (CCRDA) to examine three DVD teachings each of the African American New Evangelical/Fundamentalist televangelists Bishop T.D. Jakes and Prophetess Juanita Bynum. This situated my enquiry within an ethico-political paradigm. The intersection between media/strategic mass media communication (―the media‖), religion and gender was investigated in an interdisciplinary fashion as I drew from, and built on, media and communication, gender and feminist, theological, and political science theories. I identified and deconstructed the themes in their content and the rhetorical processes and methodologies that Jakes and Bynum apply in their messaging. I then investigated how their communication challenges or upholds hegemonies that fuel gender power imbalances. My analysis revealed that both televangelists construct gender in a fashion that justifies and maintains various manifestations of hegemonic dominance. Their use of specific communication biasing frames and other methods reinforce the ideological content of their rhetoric, obstructing the potentially transformative power of the South African Constitution. In order to address these problems I proposed that such globalised mainstream New Evangelical/Fundamentalist televangelism is an imperialist tool used for the re-colonisation of the religious convictions of African Christians. It should be recognised that in a New Media Age, transnational electronic churches have, in their reach, become omnipresent. They have the potential to manufacture consensus around harmful beliefs, values, norms and practices that hamper gender equality and justice and ―radical‖ reconciliation in South Africa. It is my argument that such ―media‖ constitutes sanctification communication. This term refers to strategic religious communication that is distributed in a purposeful fashion and carries mediated messaging that originates from authoritative figures. As the interpretations therein is ―sanctified‖ through an association with the divine, it has enhanced value and thus power. The sanctification communication in question is combatant and defensive and has a political agenda. It should be critically engaged as an enlistment and mobilisation tool for a global fundamentalist Christian movement that challenges human rights.
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    Faith and resilience in child or youth-headed households in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Moyo, Lois Rudo.; Phiri, Isabel Apawo.; Denis, Philippe Marie Berthe Raoul.
    This study scrutinizes the correlation between faith and resilience of children and youths living without the continuous presence of adults. The question of the study is: How do faith and resilience link in the experiences of children and youths living and growing in child or youth-headed households (C/YHHs)? Falling at the intersection of studies in psychology and gender and religion, the study is framed by theories from theology and psychology namely faith, resilience, attachment, positive humanistic psychology, feminist spirituality and the feminist ethics of care within African women's theologies. These theories signpost the African feminist theological ethics of care (AFTEC) as a theory emanating from the findings. The study presumes that much research done on youth-only family units has focused on physical, socio-economic and educational matters. Few have focused on faith, few on resilience but hardly any, on the correlation between the two. Research has given reserved attention to spiritual and cultural dimensions of these essentially religious youths. The current study uses the phenomenological approach. Phenomenology denotes a philosophical movement and a research method of qualitative enquiry which bifurcates into related and parallel descriptive and interpretive 'streams'. The former describes the general characteristics and determines the essence of a phenomenon and the latter aims to interpret participants' experiences, emphasizing care, a concern of this study. Phenomenology’s radical, anti-traditional style of philosophizing overcomes the straitjacket of encrusted customs, evades impositions placed on experience in advance from religion or culture and rejects inquiry by authoritative, externally enforced methods. So, it fits this study of a relatively recent and rather unusual socio-cultural construct. The phenomenological method advocates freedom from prejudice thereby aligning with the feminist ethos of this study which overlooks gender and generation. Furthermore it discards imposed knowledge as authoritative and opens up other avenues of learning, such as intuition and emotion prevalent in qualitative research. Coherent with the objectivity required for phenomenology and due to the potentially sensitive nature of C/YHHs, the mixed-methods approach proved viable. It is a constructivist, post-structuralist process which uses multiple data-collection, analysis and inference techniques and procedures in a single study for breadth and depth of understanding. Compatible with mixed methods, interdisciplinary and methodological triangulation, which means taking into account a particular position in relation to two other points or coordinates, was applied. Triangulation involves considering various theories, processes, techniques, investigators or observers, sources, data-collecting and analysis tools and procedures was used. Varying techniques enhances understanding of phenomena. Consistent with mixed methods and triangulation, I used various sampling methods including non-probability, purposive, chain and criterion sampling. Accordingly, various qualitative data-collection methods, namely narrative, interviews, questionnaires, observing participants in ecological research sites and occupational research method were used. Quantitative data was collected using 40 individual and 6 group session questionnaires administered by community care workers. The research participants were not located in the typical research site but were identified and enlisted through occupational research. The data thus collected was incorporated to accomplish principles of triangulation. Additionally theses, journal articles, internet documents and CDs on CHHs, the South African Child Act, and a documentary entitled “A Child is A Child” yielded related data. The analysis presented diverse ideas which indicated that having lost primary attachment figures, some of the children and youths in C/YHHs continue to exhibit care-seeking behaviours. These include staking faith in God or other religio-cultural or spiritual entities as compensatory attachment figures. Such faith helps them cope with the challenges of growing adultness homes. The resilience thus experienced builds faith in themselves and in those entities that engendered the buoyancy at first. A feminist perspective views the youths’ leading in religio-cultural matters, approaching sacrosanct spaces and venerating the divine in the context of gendered and ageist religious practices as signs of faith interacting with their spirituality to instil valour. With ubuntu care and guidance such faith can be directed to knowable plausible divinity. The study implements the feminist ethic of care by promoting the African women theologians’ venture to interrogate religio-cultures. The concern is to amplify muted voices and flag the issues concerning the marginalized, in this case C/YHHs.
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    Polygyny and gender : the gendered narratives of adults who were raised in polygynous families.
    (2015) Zamambo, Valentine Mkhize.; Muthuki, Janet Muthoni.
    The thesis interrogates the gender identity construction of adults raised in polygynous families in the Hammarsdale area in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study aims to contribute to the fields of gender and identity construction from an African perspective by examining gender relations in polygynous families of Zulu origin. As researcher I seek to highlight the complexities of the gender identities under investigation, as participants negotiate between modern, constitutional, individual freedoms and patriarchal, cultural, communal customs and traditions. Through the use of a qualitative interpretivist theoretical paradigm, I highlight how the communal processes; revealed in the views and perceptions of the research participants, intersect with my multidimensional positionality as researcher, to produce knowledge. I also position gender relations as an important dynamic in the data collection process. The body of data reveals that although women and men experience different influences on their gendered identity construction, both female and male study participants also cite certain similar factors prevalent in Zulu culture that have bearing on their gender identity construction, namely; gender role socialisation, naming practices, and the principle of seniority. African perspectives on concepts such as gender, feminism and the family are vastly different from their Western counterparts. Similarly, mechanisms of socialisation such as religion, capitalism and the law require context-specific application to the notion of polygyny. The study is underpinned by three key theoretical frameworks, namely; gender relations, social constructionism and African feminism. The gender relations approach entails three key concepts; power relations, sexual division of labour, and cathexis. The themes arising from the study point to the contestation between individuality and collectivism in the construction of gender identity within polygynous families in the Zulu culture. The South African Constitution guarantees gender equality and individual rights and freedoms for its citizens, yet customary law practices, such as polygyny, appear to contravene these principles. The study traces a sample of formally educated participants as they navigate this treacherous contradiction and construct culturally hybrid gender identities for themselves.
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    Gender contestations in the migration site : the case of Nigerian migrants in Durban, South Africa.
    (2014) Hingston, Claudine Anita Cassandra.; Ojong, Vivian Besem.
    At the end of the apartheid era in 1994, South Africa attracted a large number of migrants from other parts of Africa such as West Africa. The declining political and economic situation in the West African country Nigeria after the early eighties, led to increased migration of Nigerians to post-apartheid South Africa, where they either pursued higher education or sought employment in both formal and informal sectors. However, like any other migrants, they found themselves positioned in a new gender regime as gender regimes differ across countries. As such, they were faced with gender specific problems and challenges and their prior gender roles, relations and identities underwent some transformation. It became even more complicated as men and women are affected differently by these challenges and they respond differently as well. They therefore had to frequently contend with gender issues and they struggled to either adapt to or resist their new gender regime. Very little research however had been done in this regard and there was a need to provide knowledge on this subject. To this end, a qualitative methodology was employed in this research to explore the gendered lives of Nigerian migrants in Durban, South Africa. The research explored the ways the migrants adjust in their new gender regime and the gender issues they had to grapple with. It also examined the gender challenges they encountered and their responses to them. Significant findings from the research are that Nigerian male migrants in Durban use religion to keep their women subordinated and that even though the migration site generated new gender perspectives for some of the migrants, the realities involved were complex. Further findings showed that migration impacted greatly on the gender power relations in the households of the migrants and that Nigerian migrants were more prone to xenophobic attacks than other African migrants and there were gender dimensions to it. This research advance that gender cannot be separated from the migration process. It further advances that the migration site is one of struggle and contradictions in which the migrants gender identities are constantly being challenged, negotiated and reinforced.
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    "Sowungumuntfukenyalo' - "You are now a real person" : a feminist analysis of how women's identities and personhood are constructed by societal perceptions on fertility in the Swazi patriarchal family.
    (2014) Nyawo, Sonene.; Nadar, Sarojini.; Reddy, Sarasvathie.
    This study postulates that in Swaziland, socio-cultural religious constructions are embedded in patriarchal structures and systems that uphold and reinforce inequalities between women and men. Conventional values, attitudes and practices are held firmly in intrafamilial relations to ensure continuity of unequal gender constructs. Shaped by this patriarchal worldview, Swazi society places a high value on childbearing as a means to perpetuate the bloodline of the father, and for social cohesion. Hence, a woman is only “umuntfu”, a “real” person through her reproductive abilities. Framed within an exploratory and critical feminist research paradigm, the purpose of this qualitative study was therefore to ascertain the relationship between fertility and socio-cultural religious constructions of Swazi women‟s personhood. Data were produced from primary sources employing qualitative methodology of interviews and focus group discussions. Through in-depth interviews with a purposively selected sample of participants from three locations in Manzini, Swaziland, the study empirically linked women‟s personhood and identity to socio-cultural religious constructions on fertility. The research findings indicate the significance attached to women‟s fertility as being defined by socio-cultural religious beliefs and values that are reinforced through socialising agents. Thus, a woman‟s ability to bear children (preferably at least one son), grants her status to become a “real” woman, on which her identity and personhood is built. Her “achieved” identity or personhood therefore becomes an interpretation of being human amongst others. Findings further reveal that this conventional patriarchal discourse is embedded into the psyche of most Swazi women, such that they readily internalise it in defining themselves as worthless without fulfilling the “motherhood mandate”. However, there are women who feel robbed of their self-identity by being defined as exclusively suited for procreation, resulting in a tension between a self-identity ethic and the communitarian and familial ethic. Since identity and personhood always hold the possibility of refinement and reformulation, it is contended in this study that socialisation agents in the Swazi society which breed, reinforce and monitor socio-cultural religious constructions on women‟s fertility be re-examined using feminist lenses. This study argues that a recognition of the manifestations of the injustices of patriarchy in these social structures would consequently provoke advocacy and the implementation of a new feminist cultural orientation that would attach worth to Swazi women for who they are, and not only for their reproductive capabilities. As the Swazi adage notes, “Maswati, lenaakubeyindzabayetfusonkhe!” – (“Swazis, let this be of concern to all of us!”)
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    "Ingcwaba lentombi lisemzini" : a socio-cultural and gendered construction of ukuthwala among the Zulu people in selected rural areas of KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2011) Nkosi, Promise Makhosazane.; Buthelezi, Thabisile M.
    Ukuthwala evokes emotive responses, with those who either support or oppose the practice. This is an area of human interaction that has remained outside of the public arena as a result of social transformation, which made people think it had totally disappeared, but it has increasingly come under public scrutiny in post-1994 South Africa due to the forced ukuthwala (bride abduction) of young women aged 12-16 years. Ukuthwala has also resulted in public debate due to bride abductions which are viewed as against the young women's consent, but not much has been done to investigate the practice of ukuthwala among the Zulus living in rural areas of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) in post-1994 South Africa and the impact this has on the social lives of the thwalwa'd women. Therefore, this study investigates the reasons for the practice of ukuthwala by the Zulu males who reside in Bergville, Zwelibomvu and KwaNgcolosi, and explores the social meanings of ukuthwala. The study is interdisciplinary in nature and adopts qualitative methods of data collection. Themes emanating from the research findings are analysed in relation to the theoretical framework. An analysis is undertaken of some of the gendered constructions related to ukuthwala and sexual identity relating to ukuthwala as perceived by Zulu men and women residing in selected areas. The processes involved in ukuthwala practice for the thwalwa'd woman and the abductor are examined in order to establish the context for the study and to extrapolate the processes in order to reflect on the meaning of ukuthwala. Drawing from its historical context, and using feminists’ theories and Young’s theory of oppression, the study argues that ukuthwala is a customary practice that has no evidence of criminality, as women involved collude in the practice to solve a problem relating to love relationships. However, the study identifies the illegal practice of abduction or ubugebengu (criminality); in the words of participants, that is being practiced in the name of ukuthwala. This study highlights the ongoing debate as to whether ukuthwala may be practised as a means to open up the marriage negotiation process, and concludes that both men and women understand ukuthwala as a Zulu custom which opens up marriage negotiation process. Accordingly, ukuthwala in this traditional form is understood as not violating the rights of young women and children. However, the manner in which it is currently practiced by some men in some communities it exposes young women and children to harmful practices, similar to forced abduction and this was referred to as ubugebengu (criminality), which violates women’s rights and was condemned by all. Communities are not yet empowered to manage these situations. Like many other Zulu cultural practices, information about ukuthwala has been mostly conveyed through the word of mouth and the original intentions at times have thus been distorted. This study encountered the challenge that the South African laws fail to ensure that the abuse of ukuthwala is firstly eradicated and secondly that there are criminal sanctions for the violation. Ukuthwala is a Zulu custom that opens up a space for women’s agency where they can decide to marry a man they choose and end the relationship they do not want. In this way the women are able to command the men whom they love, and who have resources and therefore are also powerful to act in a way the woman wants with regard to initiating negotiations for the marriage. However, it can also be viewed as a Zulu custom carried out by powerful men who have resources and therefore can pay ilobolo (bride wealth), as a power display directed at other men who happen to be their competitors. On the other hand, forced abduction is carried out by emasculated men and is a power display directed at women. The study also conceives of ukuthwala as a cultural practice, and as a social construction that is gendered; it adopts zero tolerance to the abduction of young women. The study suggests that if all stakeholders work together through the process of collaboration, interventions are possible and criminals can be sanctioned. The study recommends further research of issues pertaining to culture, sex, sexuality, gender, masculinities and ukuthwala, in order to support an intervention into the socialisation of boys, to help them in making informed decisions before engaging in ukuthwala.
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    Sexual harassment in the workplace : a case study of women's experiences at Walter Sisulu University (WSU), Eastern Cape.
    (2011) Goba-Malinga, Nhlanhlenhle Una.; Meyiwa, Thenjiwe.
    This study looks at sexual harassment of women on the staff at Walter Sisulu University (WSU) in the Eastern Cape, a province in South Africa. The topic also has relevance for other institutions which fall under the Department of Higher Education and to the world of work generally where women are usually more vulnerable than men to this type of unsolicited attention. Despite the Labour Relations Act (LRA) of 1995 and the Employment Equity Act (EEA) Act 66 of 1995, sexual harassment is an insidious problem which often goes unreported. When permission was granted to conduct this study at WSU (see Appendix E), 25 female academics and 10 female members of the support staff agreed to participate. Qualitative research was the methodology used and included face-to-face interviews with the above individuals and also focus group interviews. Participants felt demeaned by the fact that gender was used as a form of social control. Patriarchal issues in society were seen to be linked to male domination and thus power and privilege for the perpetrators. In academia most disciplines now have feminist associations. The study draws from, and contributes to, bodies of knowledge that fall under gender studies: anthropology, history, sociology and psychology. In addition, there are references to the postmodern feminist theory, the radical feminist theory, and theories pertaining to sexual harassment. This is an effort to make a contribution to research on this type of chauvinism, and it is hoped that the findings, when published, will elicit appropriate action at WSU and in other affected environments where this scourge rears its head.