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Doctoral Degrees (Human Resource Management)

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    Challenges facing the Cuban-South African medical collaboration for medical capacity building in KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2023) Chinniah, Valerie.; Maharaj, Ashika.
    The South African public healthcare system faces significant disparity between the demand for healthcare services and the availability of skilled medical professionals. To address this, the government collaborated with Cuba to train South African students from disadvantaged backgrounds, with the intention that they would return to serve in underserved areas upon qualification. The aim of the study was to identify challenges at macro, meso, and micro levels of the Cuban-South African medical collaboration. The overarching question was whether the exploration and resolution of the challenges within this collaboration could contribute to optimising the effectiveness of the programme aligned with the WHO’s SDGs for UHC and health care reforms, emphasizing primary health care in South Africa. Drawing on theoretical perspectives including Migration Theory, Resource-Based Theory, and Human Capital Theory, a conceptual model was developed to highlight the importance of investing in human resources for competitive advantage. An exploratory, qualitative study was conducted by reviewing relevant human resources for health policy documents, and through interviews with University of KwaZulu-Natal programme administrators, programme managers and South African students in Cuban cohorts, providing a holistic investigation into the challenges facing the collaboration. Document analysis and purposive snowball sampling methods were utilised to choose pertinent policies, records, and participants for this study. This combined approach aimed to gather comprehensive insights by examining documented policies and capturing the first-hand experiences and perspectives of individuals actively engaged in the Cuban-South African medical collaboration. Thematic analysis of relevant policies revealed misalignment with South Africa's healthcare objectives. Interviews highlighted challenges such as adapting to the institutional and cultural differences, technical, social and psychological hurdles. Despite training in Cuba, students' primary healthcare skills are often under utilised upon their return, emphasizing the need to recognize and preserve these skills for use in underserved areas. Therefore, a model was developed from these findings to guide stakeholders in enhancing the programme experience. The study recommends acknowledging and utilising primary healthcare skills acquired in Cuba to improve healthcare delivery in rural and underserved areas. This could lead to sustained quality healthcare for marginalized communities and contribute to a transformation in healthcare culture.
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    Exploration of the impact of talent management practices on service delivery outcomes at eThekwini Municipality.
    (2023) Mbele, Sindy Olive.; Nzimakwe, Thokozani Ian.
    eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality is a metropolitan municipality established in 2000, that includes the city of Durban, South Africa, and surrounding towns. The vision of the eThekwini Municipality is that by 2030, eThekwini will enjoy the reputation of being Africa’s most caring and liveable City, where all citizens live in harmony. eThekwini Municipality is operating under unprecedented conditions of competition and turbulence in which it is increasingly difficult to attract and retain talented employees and scarce skills positions with a resulting impact on service delivery. Capacity constraints within the Municipality could hamper economic growth. Therefore, effective talent management is a business imperative as a lack of necessary skills could have serious consequences for the City’s economy. The objective of the study was to understand the impact of talent management on organisational performance from each participant’s point of view. This study was not intended to make any truth claims about the research topic, but rather to understand the impact of the phenomenon under investigation. The qualitative research methodology was selected as a preferred approach because it reinforces an understanding and interpretation of meaning as well as intentions underlying human interactions. This approach was suitable for this study as it allows for data collection through interviews for an in-depth investigation of a problem in one or more real life settings. The study reviewed and utilised the integrated talent management framework which assists organisations to understand the impact of talent management on organisational performance better. In today's world of global trade, talent can guarantee the success and excellence of organisations against competitors, especially at the managerial level. The major findings of the study indicate that eThekwini Municipality has significantly high levels of an aging workforce in leadership and critical positions leading to capacity constraints. There is a clear misalignment between people and organisational performance which needs to be corrected. The study recommends that eThekwini Municipality reviews the implementation of talent management initiatives with clearly stated success measures that drive organisational performance and talent retention strategies.
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    Organisational learning during the restructuring of a finance-based organisation.
    (2022) Mbatha, Nokukhanya Nolwazi Charlotte.; Ruggunan, Shaun Denvor.
    Restructuring has become a popular practice for improving organisational performance. Despite the fact that rebuilding is becoming progressively more essential as a standard managerial strategy in organisations, its effectiveness in increasing organisational efficiency remains unknown. Typically, restructuring aims to improve organisational performance by lowering costs, increasing competitive advantage and increasing productivity. In some cases, restructuring has proven to be effective in achieving these goals. However, an increasing number of studies appear to suggest that restructuring results in irrelevant enhancements and, in some cases, a decrease in organisational performance. The study’s main goal was to comprehend the employee experience of organisational restructuring at a finance-based organisation in Sandton, South Africa. Data were gathered using a qualitative research method. The study’s 12 participants were chosen using non- probability sampling. In-depth interviews were used as the data collection instrument. Senge’s Fifth Discipline theory has been used in the study to explain the way in which individuals respond to change. The sample comprised 12 individuals employed by the organisation under study. The in-depth interviews covered various aspects, including biographical information of the respondents, team learning, personal mastery and systems thinking, as well as shared vision. A pilot study was undertaken to ensure the reliability and validity of the research instrument. The study was guided by the following research questions: 1. How did team learning occur during the restructuring process? 2. How did personal mastery occur during the restructuring process? 3. How did systems thinking evolve during the restructuring process? 4. In what ways did systems thinking occur during the restructuring process? 5. To what extent was a shared vision achieved as a result of the restructuring process? The findings of this study revealed that restructuring did affect staff working in the organisation under study. Most of them did not have an issue with transformation per se; however, they were concerned about the way in which it was being implemented at the organisation. The majority of them believed that to achieve transformational goals, the organisation’s leadership should have considered the fundamental requirements of properly evolving systems thinking and taking personal mastery into account. Furthermore, participants confirmed that “unplanned change” was happening too quickly. This, they believed, contributed to a state of confusion, doubt and disorganisation. To summarise, broad consultation, active communication, a strong human resource team and a shared vision are required for effective organisational restructuring.
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    Understanding the influence of organisational culture on service quality in private hospitals in Ghana.
    (2023) Ashley, Nicholas.; Parumasur, Sanjana Brijball.
    The idea that organisational culture influences service quality, which in turn has effect on both clients and employees, has gained extensive recognition in both academia and organisational practices. This study investigates the influence of organisational culture on service quality in private hospitals in Ghana. The present study also utilised employee engagement as mediating variable. Organisational culture, service quality and employee engagement all remain a major issue in Ghana, both in private and government institutions. Hence, creating a culture that is favourable to providing quality services and encouraging employee engagement is significant for ideal organisational results. The study adopted a mixed method approach using both qualitative and quantitative data. This study was carried out on a sample of 367 participants using a simple random sampling approach and 15 participants selected using a purposive sampling method from selected private hospitals located in Accra-Ghana. The researcher collected data electronically using both questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The psychometric properties (validity and reliability) were statistically evaluated using Factor Analysis and Cronbach’s Coefficient Alpha respectively. The quantitative data was evaluated using both descriptive and inferential statistics and the qualitative data was examined using thematic analyses. There were high perceptions of organisational culture (involvement, consistency, adaptability, mission), service quality (reliability, assurance, tangibles, empathy, responsiveness) as well as employment engagement (vigour, absorption, dedication). This study specifies that there is no significant relationship between organisational culture and service quality. Additionally, this study indicates that there is no significant between relationship between employee engagement and service quality. This study examined the inter-connections of the variables and their effect on the biographic profiles. Additionally, the study states that there is a significant relationship between organisational culture and employee engagement. Furthermore, organisational culture and employee engagement significantly account for 26.1% of the variance service quality.
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    Migration of medical doctors from the public to the private sector: a case study of mahatma Gandhi memorial hospital and life healthcare hospital group, Durban.
    (2017) Ayeni, Joyce Adefunke Ayandokun.; Parumasur, Sanjana Brijball.
    There is a rising inclination for medical doctors to migrate to the private sector from the public sector, thereby leaving a high percentage of the population without quality care. The influx of medical practitioners into the private sector is of utmost concern to both the government and the general public. The South African public healthcare sector is faced with the challenge of retaining health workers in the appropriate area of need. This study aims to identify the factors that are responsible for the migration of medical doctors from the public to the private sector and make recommendations that can foster retention. A total of 115 medical doctors participated in this study. The study used both qualitative and quantitative approaches to ensure a detailed analysis and reach an encircling supposition. They were supported by three research tools: semistructured in-depth interviews, document review, and a survey. Data collected through semistructured in-depth interviews were analysed using the thematic analysis method while content analysis was used to evaluate data collected through documentary method. Data collected via the use of questionnaires was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings from this study revealed that employee relations policy is the key reason why medical doctors seek employment in the private sector. The inability of some doctors to gain employment with the public sector due to the moratorium on employment was also identified as a reason they seek solace in the private sector. The study also established a close link between monetary rewards and non-monetary rewards in influencing retention. The study also reflected that the dissatisfaction of doctors in the public health sectors goes beyond the confinement of wages. In order to foster the retention of doctors in the public sector, various strategies are recommended such as heightened awareness of the significance of effective communication, more employee involvement in decision-making procedures, quick resolution of labour disputes, embracing total reward approach, talent management planning, succession planning, clear alignment of personal values with organisational values and lifting of the moratorium on employment.
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    The importance of talent management in the changing retail business banking work environment.
    (2022) Xulu, Londeka Ignatia.; Parumasur, Sanjana Brijball.
    The talent management (TM) concept is deemed as the cornerstone in human resource management studies as it covers different features of human recourses by polishing employees’ skills and expertise with different methods. The digital age is reshaping the way in which organisations recruit, select and develop skills. The world of working has changed, the working environment has been described as consisting of volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity (VUCA) which has impacted how large organisations deal with their talent programmes. The banking group predicted in February 2020 a full recession for South Africa due to Eskom’s load shedding and the corona virus outbreak (The Price Waterhouse Report, 2020). Markets are volatile and the rand is taking a pounding. Evidently, limited research has focused on TM in the changing world of work within the retail business banking (RBB) division in South Africa. Previous studies investigated ways of retaining SA talent without a clear focus on the conceptualization of talent and TM and its importance in the banking sector. This gave birth to the need for an empirical study which explores the relevant TM practices and its importance in the changing world of work within the RBB in SA. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the importance of talent management in the changing world of work within the RBB division. The relationship between TM practices and retention of new generation employees in value analytics teams within the RBB division was examined. The study analysed the effect of technology, new generation (millennials) and critical skills on talent management practices in RBB. The study also explored the challenges faced by HR with regards to 21st century talent management and change readiness within RBB. The study aimed to add value to existing literature by examining the relationship between talent management and the retention of new generation employees in value analytics teams within RBB while it also explored the importance and significance of talent management in the scarce/critical skills environment. This study will contribute to the banking industry, looking at current talent crisis that markets are experiencing as they are trying to protect and preserve the core business during the COVID-19 pandemic or any other crisis that organisations might face which will affect the economy. This study further provided great insight for understanding the talent management concept and its importance in the banking sector. Banks can utilise these results to shape their talent management practices. The researcher used a mixed methods design, particularly a concurrent embedded strategy. The case study research strategy was utilised, and it was underpinned by the exploratory and descriptive approaches. The researcher selected a case study based on its suitability for exploring, explaining, understanding and describing a research phenomenon. The study focused on the case of the RBB (Analytics division). The target population was value analytics employees within a major banking institution (RBB). The data collection methods that were used for this study were both self-administered questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Due to the corona virus outbreak, the researcher made use of Microsoft teams to conduct online interviews using Zoom, while ensuring the adherence to all covid-19 regulations by using online self-administered questionnaires. The key findings of the study revealed that employees strongly believe in the importance of TM and its contribution to the retention of scarce skilled employees in the volatile business environment. The participants accorded that Robotics and automation has changed banking and that information technology enables better banking solutions. Employees believe that the younger generation are more innovative and contribute excellently to the success of the organisation. On the flip side of the coin, employees dissent that upskilling and developing employees is currently the main priority for the bank. They contend that not all people managers have been upskilled for future readiness and that banks are currently lacking robust succession planning and development programmes for all staff. Furthermore, the study identified the COVID-19 pandemic impact on talent management and how HR managers view human resource management’s future and priorities.
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    Perception on human resource practices and workplace deviance: a case of public Universities in South-West Nigeria.
    (2022) Obalade, Grace, Oluwafunmilayo.; Mtembu, Vuyokazi Ntombikayise.
    This study examined perception on human resource practices (HRPs) and workplace deviance (WDB) in Nigerian public universities. Studies have revealed that the Nigerian university system is characterised by acts that are ethically and socially wrong. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of HRPs and other antecedents of workplace deviance. Primary data were generated from 572 employees of three public universities in the South- Western part of Nigeria, purposely selected for the research, using a structured and open-ended questionnaire. The study employed multiple regression analysis to determine the individual impact of the antecedents (HRPs, organisational justice and personality traits) on WDB. The SMART-PLS SEM was used to determine the aggregate impact of the antecedents of WDB, as well as the mediating and moderating effects. First, the study found that the impact of dimensions of HRPs differ with organisational and interpersonal WDB; however, HRPs jointly reduce WDB. Secondly, the study found that the effect of organisational justice (OJ) on WDB depends on their types; however, the four dimensions of OJ jointly reduce WDB. Thirdly, it was found that honesty-humility, agreeableness and emotionality dimensions (H-HAE) of HEXACO personality domain reduce WDB at individual and aggregate levels. Fourthly, the impact of dimensions of HRPs changes with the forms of OJ, however, HRPs dimensions jointly reduce WDB. Fifthly, the finding shows that OJ is a partial mediator of the HRPs-WDB relationship. Lastly, H-HAE traits do not moderate the relationship between OJ and WDB. Based on the study findings, government and relevant stakeholders must adopt an all-ornothing approach to tackling perception of HRPs and OJ rather than focusing on one of their dimensions if the rising incidences of WDB must be curtailed. The study also recommends that HR departments and government must ensure that individuals who score highest in H-HAE are favoured in the recruitment process.
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    The impact of cultural values on consumer behaviour: a case study of specialty products at a university of technology in KZN.
    (2021) Martin, Lynelle Cerene.; Phiri, Maxwell Agabu.
    Culture plays an important role in individuals’ lives, affecting their behaviour and the decisions they make. These decisions include the type of specialty products that they purchase (Designer clothing, sports cars and high-quality camera equipment). The study sought to investigate the impact of cultural values on consumer behaviour, with specific reference to specialty products at the University of Technology in KwaZulu-Natal. The nature of specialty products is seen as highly specialised with a unique niche market of consumers who come from different cultural backgrounds. A quantitative design using an online questionnaire as a survey instrument was applied to collect and analyse data from 300 academic and support staff. The collected data and emerging constructs were validated statistically using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) while the reliability was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha value. The data were analysed with regression analysis and structural equation modelling (SEM). The analysis integrated theories on consumer buying behaviour; Hofstede’s cultural dimensions to define patterns between individual behaviour and social norms towards the consumption of specialty products; as well as the application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour to determine the influence of cultural values on the intentions and purchasing behaviour of individuals. The findings of the study show a relationship between cultural values, demographic characteristics and buying behaviour amongst higher education staff. Higher education staff members who have participated in this study show creativity and uniqueness in their buying behaviour towards specialty products. The staff members at the University of Technology showed a preference for specialty products in order to satisfy their appetites for material comfort, quest for durable goods and to express their distinct positions and upper ranks in the social hierarchy. The study conclusively suggests that consumers bring cultural beliefs, perceptions and practices that define themselves apart from others. From a marketing perspective, the finding of this study implies that marketers can tailor their marketing strategy to target higher education luxury consumers based on their cultural values. This thesis, therefore, contributes to the scant literature on how cultural norms shape the marketing and purchasing of specialty products amongst academic and non-academic staff consumers from higher education institutions.
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    Taking the ‘human’ out of human resources in the fourth industrial revolution?=Ukukhishwa ‘kwezisebenzi’ Kwandaba Zabantu (Human Resources -HR) Ngenkathi Yenguqukonqala Yesine Yezobuchwepheshe?
    (2022) Kumar, Nikhal Aswanth.; Parumasur, Sanjana Brijball.
    Abstract Human resource functions have been revolutionised in recent times because of the emergence of new advanced technologies, including artificial intelligence. However, evidence suggests that artificial intelligence and advanced self-learning machines threaten the global workforce entirely and eliminate human interference. From these perspectives, the current study aimed to examine the impact that AI and technological advancement have on human resource functions. An exploratory research design was adopted to understand the subject matter better. Moreover, mixedmethods research was employed to collect and analyse quantitative and qualitative data. The total population of the study was 46, which included the chief executive officer, senior management, and human resources. Given the small size of the population, the entire population (the consensus) was used as the sample. Multiple data collection instruments (questionnaire, interviews, and focus group interviews) were used to collect the data to enable the triangulation of results. Concerning the quantitative research, 40 questionnaires were sent to the respondents. However, only 29 completed and returned the questionnaires. Moreover, there were 6 participants in the interviews and focus group discussion. The quantitative data was analysed using Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (version 27.0). The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were determined by computing factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient respectively. On the other hand, the qualitative data was analysed manually using thematic analysis. The quantitative results indicated that the various constructs measured in the study were significant. The results of the Pearson’s moment correlation suggested no significant relationship between some of the variables, except human function will be transformed by artificial intelligence and the impact of artificial intelligence on skills set/competencies, and impact of artificial intelligence on skills set/competencies and the impact of artificial intelligence on business. In addition, the results of the analysis of variance suggested no significant difference in employees’ perceptions, varying by age, tenure, and race, respectively, regarding the current status of the use of artificial intelligence, advantages and disadvantages of the use of artificial intelligence, attitudes of human resource practitioners towards artificial intelligence, human resource function will be transformed by artificial intelligence, the impact of artificial intelligence on skills set/competencies. However, a significant difference existed in the employees’ perceptions, varying by race regarding the impact of artificial intelligence on business. Additionally, the sample t-test indicated a significant difference in the perceptions of male and female employees regarding all the variables measured in the study. On the other hand, the qualitative findings suggested that the adoption of AI in the HR department had impacted most of the human resource functions, including human case management, recruitment, learning, and chatbots. Furthermore, the qualitative findings revealed that the most significant advantage of using artificial intelligence was removing the mundane work and adding value. The study is unique as it sheds more light on how artificial intelligence has transformed most human resource functions. Therefore, the study recommends that organisations continue to invest in artificial intelligence. Iqoqa: Imisebenzi yakwandabazabantu isiguquliwe ezikhathini ezinganeno ngenxa yokuvela kobuchwepheshe obusha obuthuthukile, kuhlanganiswa nokuhlakanipha okungemvelo (artificial intelligence-AI). Nokho-ke, ubufakazi buveza ukuthi ukuhlakanipha okungemvelo nemishini yokuzifundela ethuthukile kubeka engcupheni umkhakha wezisebenzi womhlaba jikelele kuphinde kususe ukungenelela kwabantu. Ngokwale mibono, lolu cwaningo luhlose ukuhlola umthelela we-AI nowentuthuko kwezobuchwepheshe emisebenzini yakwandaba zabantu. Kwasetshenziswa idizayini yocwaningo ehlwayayo ukwenzela ukuqonda kangcono lesi sihloko. Naphezu-ke, kwaphinda kwasetshenziswa ucwaningo oluxubile ukuqoqa nokuhlaziya imininingo yocwaningoluhlonze nocwaningozibalo. Umphakathi walolu cwaningo wawungama-46, okwakufaka umphathi olawulayo omkhulu, izimenenja ezinkulu, nabakwandaba zabantu. Uma sibheka ubukhulu bomphakathi, wonke umphakathi (ukuvumelana) wasetshenziswa njengesampula. Kwasetshenziswa amathuluzi okuqoqa imininingo ahlukene (izinhlamibuzo, izimposambuzo, nezimposambuzo zeqoqo elicwaningwayo) ukwenzela ukuqoqa imininingo yokuveza imiphumela kanxantathu wesithombesenzeko. Mayelana nocwaningozibalo, kwathunyelwa izinhlamibuzo ezingama-40 kubabambiqhaza. Nokho-ke, okwagcwaliswa kwabuyiswa ezingama-29 kuphela. Naphezu-ke, kwakunababambiqhaza abayisi-6 ezimposambuzweni nasezingxoxweni zeqoqo elicwaningwayo. Iminininingo yocwaningoluhlonze yahlaziywa kusetshenziswa iStatistical Packages yamaSocial Sciences (uhlobo i-27.0). Kwatholwa ubuqiniso nokwethembeka kohlambuzo ngokuhlaziya imithelelela ngezobuchwepheshe nohlaziyo iCronbach’s alpha coefficient, ngokulandelana. Imiphumela yocwaningoluhlonze yaveza ukuthi imicabango eyayikalwe ocwaningweni yayimqoka. Imiphumela yePearson’s moment correlation yayikhombisa ukungabi khona kobudlelwano phakathi kwamanye amavariyebuli, ngaphandle kokuthi ukusebenza kwabantu yayizokuguqula ngokuhlakanipha okungemvelo nawumthelela wokuhlakanipha okungemvelo emaqoqweni amakhono/ukukwazi ukwenza, nokuthi-ke umthelela wokuhlakanipha okungemvelo emaqoqweni amakhono/ekukwazini ukwenza nomthelela wokuhlakanipha okungemvelo ebhizinisini. Ukwengeza-ke, imiphumela wocwaningo lokwahluka yakhombisa ukungabi bikho komahluko ogqamile emibonweni yezisebenzi, ngokwahlukana ngeminyaka yobudala, umsebenzi, ubuhlanga, ngokulandelana mayelana nomumo wamanje wokusetshenziswa kokuhlakanipha okungemvelo, ubuhle nobubi bokuhlakanipha okungemvelo, izindlelakubuka ukuhlakanipha okungemvelo kwabasebenzisi bezakwandaba zabantu, ukusebenza kwakwandaba zabantu kungaguqulwa ngukuhlanganipha okungemvelo, umthelela wokuhlakanipha okungemvelo emaqoqweni amakhono/ ekukwazini ukwenza. Nokho-ke, kwaba khona umehluko omkhulu emibonweni yezisebenzi, ngokwehlukana kobuhlanga, mayelana nomthelela wokuhlakanipha okungemvelo ebhizinisini. Naphezu-ke, isivivinyo sesampula i-T sakhombisa umehluko omkhulu emibonweni yezisebenzi zesilisa nezesifazane mayelana namavariyebuli akalwa ocwaningweni. Kolunye uhlangothi, okwatholwa ngucwaningoluhlonze kwakhombisa ukuthi ukwamukelwa kwe-AI emnyangweni we-HR kwaba nomthelela ekusebenzeni okuningi kwakwandabazabantu, kuhlanganisa ukuphathwa kwezokuphathelene nabantu, ezokuqashwa, ukufunda nezokuxhumana. Naphezu-ke, okwazuzwa ngucwaningoluhlonze kwaveza ubuhle obumqoka ngokusetshenziswa kokuhlakanipha okungemvelo kwakungukususwa komsebenzi oyindavundavu nokwengezwa kwezinganani. Lolu cwaningo lwehlukile ngokuthi lucacisa ukuthi ukuhlakanipha okungemvelo sekuguqulwe kangakanani ekusebenzeni kondabazabantu. Ngakho-ke ucwaningo luncoma ukuthi izinhlangano ziqhubeke nokutshala izimali ekuhlakanipheni okungemvelo.
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    Fostering employee innovation through engagement and skills development in the manufacturing sector in Zimbabwe=Ukukhuthaza ukusungulwa kwabasebenzi ngokuxoxisana kanye nokuthuthukiswa kwamakhono emkhakheni wezokukhiqiza eZimbabwe.
    (2021) Chiboiwa, Malvern Waini.; Qwabe, Bongani Reginald.
    The study focused on how employee engagement and skills development can influence employee innovation in the manufacturing sector in Zimbabwe. The study was guided by three theoretical perspectives namely the Social Exchange Theory, the Human Capital Theory and the Componential theory. The Social Exchange theory was adopted to explain employee engagement. The Human Capital theory, which emphasises investment in employees, was adopted to explain the concept of skills development whilst the Componential theory guided the concept of employee innovation. The study followed the positivist philosophical world view which provides the framework for the use of the quantitative research approach. The sample size of the study consisted of 335 participants comprising managerial and non managerial employees who were randomly selected. 200 participants responded to the questionnaires distributed by the researcher. The study adopted quantitative techniques of analysing data. Specifically, Structural equation modelling with confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to determine the relationships between the variable items and the variables themselves. The results of the structural equation modelling showed that there were significant relationships between the variable items and the variable factor. Multiple regression analysis was also performed to determine the impact of the independent (employee engagement and skills development) on the dependent variable (employee innovation). The multiple linear regression analysis indicated that employee engagement and skills development have a significant capacity to predict employee innovation with the resultant model explaining more than fifty per cent of the dependent variable. This, confirmed the viability of the proposed model of the study. Also, the Pearson Product Moment correlation method was used to explain the relationships between the research variables. The results of the Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed that both employee engagement and skills development have moderate positive influence on employee innovation. These results of the study are significant in that they have theoretical and managerial implications. The findings represent a meaningful and incremental contribution towards existing literature on employee engagement, skills development and employee innovation by uprooting insights and showcasing the nature of the relationships amongst these variables. The results should assist management in the manufacturing sector in Zimbabwe on how they can improve employee innovation in their organisations. Iqoqa Lolu cwaningo belugxile ekutholeni ukuthi ukusebenza kwabasebenzi kanye nokucijwa kwabo amakhono kungaletha yiphi indlela entsha yokwenza izinto embonini yokukhiqiza eZimbabwe. Lolu cwaningo belulandela izinjulalwazi ezintathu, okuyilezi: injulalwazi ye-Social Exchange, injulalwazi ye-Human Capital nenjulalwazi ye-Component. Injulalwazi ye-Social Exchange isetshenziswe ukuchaza ukusebenza kwabasebenzi. Injulalwazi i-Human Capital, egxile ekubalulekeni kwabasebenzi, yona isetshenziswe ukuchaza ukuthi yini eyenziwayo ukucija amakhono abasebenzi, kanti injulalwazi ye-Component yona isetshenziswe ukubheka indlela entsha yokusebenza kwabasebenzi. Lolu cwaningo belulandela ipharadayimu ye-positivist futhi luwucwaningo oluyikhwalithethivu. Ubungako besampula buveza abahlanganyeli abangama-335 abahlanganisa abasebenzi abasezikhundleni nalabo abangekho ezikhundleni, abakhethwa ngendlela engahlelekile. Abahlanganyeli abangama-200 baphendula uhlu lwemibuzo. Lolu cwaningo lusebenzise indlela yekhwantithethivu yokuhlaziya imininingo. Le ndlela ebizwa nge-Structural equation modelling yayihlose ukuhlonza ubuqiniso mayelana nobudlelwane ezintweni ezazicutshungulwa nokucutshungulwa kwazo. Imiphumela ye-Structural equation modelling ikhombise ukuthi kukhona ubudlelwane obukhulu phakathi kwalezi zinto. Kuphinde kwasetshenziswa indlela eyinhlanganisela eyaziwa nge-Multiple regression analysis ukubheka umphumela ozimele (ukusebenza kwabasebenzi nokucijwa kwamakhono abo) nomphumela ongazimele (izindlela ezintsha zokusebenza kwabasebenzi). Indlela yokuhlaziya i-Multiple linear regression iveze ukuthi ukusebenza kwabafundi nokucijwa kwamakhono abo kudlala indima enkulu ekugaguleni ukuthi indlela entsha yokusebenza kwabafundi izoba njani, okuletha incazelo ngemiphumela ezimele ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angamashumi ayisihlanu. Lokhu, kufakazela okuyiyona njulalwazi ephakanyiswe kulolu cwaningo. Kwaphinde kwasetshenziswa indlela ye-Pearson Product Moment ukuchaza ubudlelwane bezinto. Imiphumela yokuhlaziya kwe-Pearson iveza ukuthi kokubili ukusebenza kwabasebenzi kanye nokuthuthukiswa kwamakhono abo kuba nomthelela ekuqhamukeni nezindlela ezintsha zokusebenza kwabasebenzi. Imiphumela yalolu cwaningo ibalulekile ngoba iveza ukubaluleka kwendlela yokucabanga kanye nendlela yokuphatha. Imiphumela iletha ulwazi olubalulekile nolwengezayo kulolu olukhona mayelana nokusebenza kwabasebenzi, ukucijwa kwamakhono abasebenzi kanye nezindlela ezintsha zokusebenza kwabasebenzi ngokuqhakambisa imibono ephusile kanye nokuthuthukisa ubudlelwane obuhle kulezi zinto. Imiphumela yalolu cwaningo kumele ikwazi ukwelekelela abaphathi embonini yokukhiqizwayo ukuthi bazithuthukisa kanjani izindlela ezintsha zokusebenza kwabasebenzi ezinkampanini zabo.
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    Assessing teachers’ perceptions on organisational justice in filling of positions within schools in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Kranskloof circuit.
    (2019) Plaatjies, Augustus Benson.; Zondi, Wellington Bonginkosi.
    This study was conducted in the Kranskloof circuit of the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Education. The study sought to interrogate organisational justice within the Department of Education and the Kranskloof circuit in particular. In this regard, the study interrogated three forms of organisational justice namely procedural justice, distributive justice, and interactional justice. The study employed a mixed research approach in which 193 out of a total of 254 teachers participated in the quantitative part of the study and 10 out of 20 school principals participated in the qualitative part of the study. The questionnaire was used in the quantitative part of the study as the research instrument while the interviews were used to collect the qualitative data of the study. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis and quantitative data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The findings indicated that most participants felt that indeed the Department of Education and in particular Kranskloof circuit, successfully practice all three forms of organisation justice although there was room for improvements. The findings indicated that the main concerns related to procedural justice and the other two forms do not form part of the main concerns. With regards to procedural justice, there were concerns that affiliation to the dominant teacher union played a major part in the decision to employ or not to employ the candidate. In some cases, the findings, albeit few cases, revealed that qualifications and experience were overlooked in preference to political affiliation to the dominant teacher trade union. The main recommendation is that the Department must look at the subtle and undue influence of the teacher unions because in the face of it appears as if the process is procedurally fair and just. It is further recommended that the policy that allows the officials of the Department of Education to be members of the teacher unions must be re-visited because as it stands it is difficult for members of other teacher unions to feel that justice is indeed done. If this policy is not reviewed the speculation that confidential information is given to preferred candidates who are members of the dominant union, SADTU, will not stop.
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    Intangible outcomes of talent management practices in selected South African higher education institutions.
    (2021) Abiwu, Lawrence.; Martins, Maria Isabel De Azevedo.
    In today’s competitive environment, talent management has been considered an important strategy that influences talent attraction, development, and retention required to create value for the organisation. Although talent management has received scholarly interest from both organisational researchers and human resources management practitioners, there is still a paucity of research on the intangible outcomes of talent management. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the intangible outcomes of talent management practices in some South African universities. The study adopted descriptive and exploratory research to describe and provide in-depth knowledge about the subject matter. The mixed-methods was employed to collect and analyse the quantitative and qualitative data. Stratified and purposive sampling techniques were used to select 347 respondents and participants from three South African universities: University of Cape Town, University of KwaZulu-Natal, and University of Pretoria. A structured questionnaire and semi-structured interview grid were used to collect the data. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 27.0) and Analysis of Moment Structures (version 27.0) were used to analyse the quantitative data, while the qualitative data was analysed using NVivo (version 12.0). The quantitative results revealed a significant relationship between talent management practices and intangible outcomes such as employee humility, teaching and learning, and university-industry collaboration. On the other hand, the qualitative findings affirmed that talent management practices positively impacted organisational trust, employee engagement, employee humility, teaching and learning, and university-industry collaboration. Additionally, the quantitative and qualitative findings revealed a positive relationship between talent management practices and a sustainable competitive advantage. Moreover, the quantitative and qualitative results showed a significant relationship between intangible outcomes and competitive advantage. The scope of the study was limited to the intangible outcomes of talent management in South African universities. This study is unique because it creates a sustainable competitive advantage for South African Higher Education Institutions through talent attraction, development, and retention. The study recommends that universities continue to integrate talent management practices into their strategic plans.
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    Work-life balance: a case of female information and communication technology professionals at a telecommunications company.
    (2021) Munyeka, Wiza.; Maharaj, Ashika.
    An organisation’s ability to operate effectively depends on how well it pays attention to its most important resource, its human resource. In South Africa, great strides have been made to redress past injustices which resulted in a skewed workforce. Statistics SA (2019) quarterly population reports estimate that females outnumber males in the South African population, but the workplace indicates the opposite. This study’s primary objective was to explore the work-life balance experiences of female Information and Communications Technology (ICT) professionals in a telecommunication work setting. The study’s theoretical framework was the Life Course perspective by Giele and Elder (1998), and Border Theory by Clark (2000). To extract data required for analytical purposes a mixed methodology which utilises quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Using a purposive sampling technique, a sample of 50 female ICT professionals was chosen for the quantitative study. This was done using an online survey of GoogleTM Drive Forms, and analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 26. For the qualitative study, 16 semi-structured interviews were conducted using thematic analysis with the Atlas.ti version 8 analysis software’s aid. The quantitative data collection phase indicated that employees were aware of policies and programmes in place, addressing work-life balance at Telkom. Results from the qualitative phase exploring the respondents’ experiences in terms of occupational interpretations of work, domestic interpretations of home, and interpretations of work-life synergy, revealed that professional females, regardless of their cultural background, experienced similar pressures and challenges. The study contributes to the body of knowledge as there has been a paucity of studies conducted on South African Information and Communications Technology female professionals. This study resulted in a work-life balance framework that links the Life Course perspective by Giele and Elder (1998) and Border Theory by Clark (2000), making a novel contribution to the empirical body of work-life balance.
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    Exploring the relationship between perceived organisational support, employee engagement and their impact on commitment.
    (2018) Dlamini, Mbalenhle Bridget.; Brijball Parumasur, Sanjana.
    Academics are regarded as the operational core of universities and the manner in which they perform determines the quality of the student’s higher education experience and impacts at the societal level. Hence, higher education institutions base their sustainability on the scholarly knowledge and innovative capabilities of employees. No academic institution can sustain itself without highly skilled, experienced, competent and committed employees. The aim of this study is to establish the relationship between perceived organisational support and employee engagement and their impact on organisational commitment. This research study adopted the quantitative research approach utilising a closedended questionnaire comprising of academics’ biographical information, the Utrecht work engagement scale, the perceived organisational support scale and the original commitmentscale. The sample size for the study consisted of 292 permanent academic staff members from the University of KwaZulu-Natal’s four Colleges, namely, Health Sciences, Humanities, Law and Management Studies and lastly, the College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science. The reliability and validity of the measuring instruments used in the study were tested using Factor Analysis and Cronbach’s Coefficient Alpha respectively. Data was processed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of this study indicate that UKZN academics display differing levels of work engagement, organisational commitment and perceived organisational support with work engagement being the highest, followed by organisational commitment and lastly, perceived organisational support. Furthermore, significant relationships were found between work engagement, perceived organisational support and organisational commitment respectively. In addition, work engagement and perceived organisational support significantly account for 54.8% (Adjusted R2 ) of the variance in determining the Organisational Commitment of academics with perceived organisational support having a greater impact on organisational commitment than work engagement. Biographical influences are also assessed. The results of the study and ensuing recommendations are graphically represented. The implementation of the recommendations have the potential to enhance work engagement, perceived organisational support and hence, organisational commitment.
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    A comparative perspective of academic brain drain at selected universities in Ethiopia and South Africa.
    (2019) Gurmessa, Zelalem Bayisa.; Ferreira, Ignatius Wilhelm.; Wissink, Henry Frank.
    The aim of this study was to examine the possible factors contributing to the intention of scholarly staff to withdraw at three sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) universities, specifically at Addis Ababa University (AAU), Haramaya University (HU) and the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN). The information was gathered from 596 scholastic staff individuals and 29 purposively chosen key sources who are senior scholarly individuals who have been working in different managerial positions as dignitaries, scholarly pioneers or heads of offices, deputy-vice chancellors and vice presidents at the three universities. The investigation comprised a mixed methods research approach whereby the quantitative information was gathered by means of surveys and the qualitative information was by means of face-to-face personal meetings. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were utilised to break down quantitative information using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) programming version 24, while thematic analysis was utilised to dissect subjective information. Examination of the data demonstrated that selected demographic factors predicted the intention of scholarly staff to depart from the two Ethiopian universities whereas none of the factors predicted this at UKZN. Notwithstanding the above findings, the impact of selected factors on the scholarly staff’s intention to withdraw uncovered that the job-related attributes of the quality of work life (QWL_JC), procedural justice (OJ_PJ) and rewards and benefits (R&B) dimensions were noteworthy for AAU. The examination of subjective information demonstrated that compensation, poor working conditions and poor maintenance approaches and systems are of the key reasons why academic scholars intend to leave their institutions. On the contrary, the job characteristics dimension of QWL, leader-subordinate relationship (LMX) and R&B were found to be significantly influencing academic staff’s propensity to leave Haramaya University. In this regard, subjective outcomes demonstrate that aspects such as compensation, poor working conditions, poor retention policies and strategies, politics and legislative issues, lack of appropriate technology and infrastructure, a sentiment of dissatisfaction, absence of adaptable guidelines and structures, and geographic setting of the university were the reasons causing academic staff to depart at HU. In contrast to this, only R&B were found to be significant at UKZN. In addition, analysis of qualitative information revealed that remuneration, poor working conditions, dissatisfaction, and retirement are the main reasons for the propensity of academic staff to depart. Based on the analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data, conclusions have been drawn and key recommendations have been forwarded to help the institutions retain their academics.
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    Sources of stress among human resource practitioners : a study of the inter-relationship between career orientation, role stress and burnout : an investigation into sources of work-related stress in a sample of human resource practitioners in KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2002) Legg, Ronald Leslie.; Coldwell, David A. L.
    Human Resource Management (HRM) has undergone significant changes during the past twenty-five to thirty years in response to the demands made upon the Human Resource function. With the change in emphasis in HRM has come the need for human resource practitioners (HRPs) to adapt to the new demands made upon them to contribute directly to the bottom line success of their organisations It is argued that HRM is inherently ambiguous, attempting to meet both the needs of the business and the individual employee. This places pressure on HRPs to become "specialists in ambiguity" as they attempt to meet the demands of key stakeholders in the enterprise. The emphasis in the role of the HRP, has moved historically, from that of a welfare officer to that of a fully fledged member of the management team, held equally responsible for the success of the operation. As with most professions today, a price is exacted for participation in modem organisations in the form of increased work-related stress. Considerable research has been undertaken over the past thirty years into work-related stress among many professions~ but no identifiable, in depth studies into sources of work-related stress among HRPs were located. The significant shift that has taken place in the role of HRPs, from their original welfare orientated function, to the current role emphasis on contributing to direct bottom line success, provides the context for the increase in work related stress levels experienced by some HRPs. The study investigates the links between the career orientation of HRPs, role stress factors and burnout in an attempt to identify sources of stress among a sample of human resource practitioners drawn from the greater Durban area and the KwaZulu Natal coastal region. The report is diagnostic and not prescriptive in attempting to ascertain coping skills for stressed HRPs. The study model posits a juxtaposition between those HRPs who are "service" orientated with those who are "managemeng' orientated. The purpose is to establish in the current corporate environment, whether those who are more service orientated, would suffer greater work-related stress, in contrast to those who are more "management" orientated, who were conceived of as experiencing less work-related stress. No strong links are revealed between "service" and "general management' and Role Stress or Burnout. The combined effects of role stress and burnout are conceived in the study to illustrate work related stress. In contrast to the original study model, two other findings of significance emerged. Those HRPs who were entrepreneurially orientated showed the highest levels of workrelated stress. And, those who were technical/functional orientated were least likely to be affected by role stress and burnout. These findings are important in light of the current call for HRPs to be entrepreneurial and innovatively creative. Yet these HRPs reveal the greatest possibility of experiencing role stress and burnout. In contrast, those HRPs whose orientation is technical and functional are found to reveal the least possibility of suffering from work-related stress. These findings lead to a new paradigm revealing the presence of a different dilemma and tension for HRPs. Within the demand for a total business focus on the part of HRPs and HRM, emerges a tension between the more stressful entrepreneurial and innovative role and the more stable technical and functional role also demanded by the organisation. The study suggests that the ambiguity in HRM in practice presents itself in terms of dilemmas and contrasts with which the HRPs has to live. Role ambiguity and role overload appear to contribute most to the possibility of burnout. Role ambiguity has its origin in the very nature of HRM, which is shown to be inherently ambiguous. Role overload among management, is observed more as part of the nature of the modern work environment, whereas role ambiguity emerges as a feature of the nature of HRM. Role conflict is explained mostly as a normal element in the HRPs job of balancing competing demands in the work place. The ambiguous nature of HRM and the uncertainties which it generates adds to the work-related source of stress and leads to HRPs having to become "specialists in ambiguity". Role stress factors, rather than career orientation elements are shown to be the leading contributors to the possibility of increased levels of burnout The findings have implications for the selection and training of HRPs. The contemporary emphases require HRPs to balance a tough minded business focus with acceptable innovate approaches to the organisation's human resources and excellent ongoing functional services. This balancing of ambiguities needs to be accompanied by a sensitivity to people, without becoming the subject of role stress and raised levels of burnout.