ItemAn analysis of the South African State’s capacity to respond to human trafficking within Its borders.(2023) Muthwa, Nkululeko.; Nadvi, Syeda Lubna Bano.The dissertation looks at the South African State’s capacity to respond to human trafficking (also referred to Trafficking in Persons) within its borders. Human trafficking is a criminal activity which uses a human being as a commodity. The definition of the crime found in Article 3 of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children 2000 outlines the criminal activities which constitute human trafficking. They include domestic servitude, sexual exploitation, forced marriage etc. The need to pursue the study comes from the concerns of the country being among those where the phenomenon is prevalent. The research has 5 objectives that it intends to achieve: This is i) to establish the legal and policy tools which South Africa uses to deal with human trafficking; ii) look at how it handles different types of human trafficking; iii) the country's ability to respond to different kinds of human trafficking; iv) the social factors that contribute towards the prevalence of human trafficking: and v) how reported cases are handled. The study is a desktop research project which entails collecting secondary data to generate new findings. The study adopted the interpretivist paradigm. The paradigm holds a view that reality is socially constructed and therefore seeks to "understand the subject of world of human experience" (Guba & Lincoln 1989 cited by Kivunja & Kuyini 2017: 8). Data takes different form of dynamics as it reflects human behaviour (Schwartz-Sea & Yanow 2012). ItemPolicy responses to disaster management: a comparative case study of the BRICS countries to the COVID-19 pandemic.(2023) Vello, Kharuna Pather.; Mohamed-Sayeed, Cheryl Natasha.Disaster management is a component that is responsible for ensuring the protection and safety of countries and their communities. The role of disaster management incudes, to organise the appropriate control mechanisms, allocate the necessary resources and follow the required practice policies. This is all done to prevent, prepare for, respond to as well as recover from a range of emergencies. Disaster management is utilised to respond to a range of disastrous events ranging from natural disasters, man-made disasters, biological disasters and technological disasters The COVID-19 pandemic presented a new set of challenges for countries to combat, which ultimately led to many revisiting their disaster management policy responses. Previous work has failed to address the disaster management policy responses that governments sought to implement particularly when dealing with pandemics. The main aim for governments was to implement effective disaster management policy responses which would result in reducing the spread and impact of the virus. For this, governments relied on restructuring existing disaster management policies to evoke greater powers to make decisions faster. This study sought to investigate the disaster management policy responses in BRICS countries through comparative case approach and SWOT analysis towards the COVID-19 pandemic. The study implemented a qualitative approach, secondary sources of information were used. Secondary sources of information such as articles, journals, books and government publications. These sources were fundamental towards this study because it provided the overall research that was examined in this study. Content thematic analysis was used to comprehend the information collected from texts to present arguments and grasp a coherent conclusion. Comparative case study approach was used for effective comparison among the chosen case studies. The formulation of themes was guided by the Disaster Management Model being mitigation, preparedness, prevention, recovery and response. The results of this study showed that the case studies possessed individual strengths and weaknesses. Due to the impact of the pandemic the policy responses varied based on population size, resources, leadership, accountability and preparedness. This concluded in varied disaster management policy responses that were effective during different stages of the pandemic. ItemExploring the social impacts of the expansion of the port of Durban.(2021) Jele, Pretty Xolisile.; Johnson, Belinda.Current research demonstrates that spatial developments are mostly the cause of social, environmental, and economic problems. While businesses expand, the quality of life in most communities deteriorates due to the social impacts that are associated with the expansion of industries. Governments are increasingly prioritizing and commissioning infrastructure of megaprojects such as ports, which are often supported by economic impact studies. The port of Durban is currently experiencing capacity constraints as a result of the congestion problems facing the harbour. The port developers (Transnet) proposed to expand the port as a solution to the congestion impediments. The old Durban airport relocated to La Mercy, presenting an opportunity to Transnet to purchase the old airport site at South Durban Basin (SDB) to commence the expansion of the port of Durban. The expansion plans include building a new port, construction of a link road from the Bluff through Clairwood, Austerville, and Merebank to connect with the national roads network. This research aims to explore the social impacts of the expansion of the port of Durban for the communities in the South Durban Basin. Underpinned by the Social impact theory and the Psychological impact theory, this study seeks to explore the extent to which the expansion of the Port of Durban will impact on SDB communities as well as determining whether the port expansion is justified for port development. The study used both primary and secondary data. The results of the research indicate that the magnitude of the social impacts and enormity of it all are such that the change in the lives of people living in SDB will be for the worst, given the current problems existing in the area. The expansion plans have been viewed to cause more “havoc” in the area. Moreover, the expansion of the port is not justified for port development because expanding the port may not necessarily mean that they will be to the degree required to remain competitive. ItemLand reform, restitution and local development: an assessment of the progress of Dukuduku forest land claims in South Africa’s Kwazulu-Natal province.(2021) Tibe, Monwabisi.; Khan, Sultan.The problem of slow progress in land claims in the country has become a major drawback to the realization of rural socio-economic development and has further widened the gap between the urban rich and the rural poor. The slow progress in land reform has become a great flaw and a failure to the Land Rights Principle of our Constitution which stipulates that, access to land or other living spaces is a birth right of all South Africans (Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 2009:12). Despite this constitutional mandate, after 26 years of democracy, there continues to be unresolved land contestations and land claim lodges that have not been processed. The Land Reform Policy of the Republic of South Africa has proved to be a failure because of persistent challenges regarding land claims. Given the precarious protracted nature of land claims, it impacts negatively on the lives of the rural poor as they are denied access to land which can be used positively to resolve the food security issues in the country. The privatization of land access to serve the capitalist needs of big corporations and Multi-National Corporations (MNCs) has been of much contestations amongst the landless people in the country. Big Corporations occupy tribal land for extracting raw materials with little benefits accruing to the indigenous communities. Traditional leaders who are entrusted with responsibility of managing tribal land in rural areas are also complicit as they lease or sell their land for their own economic prestige instead of the majority of subjects that are under their tutelage. A systematic analysis of land reform performance in a micro setting of the Dukuduku forest community is presented in this study. It begins with a historical overview of land restitution before delving into postapartheid South Africa's interventionist strategies to achieve justice and equity in the country's land sector through restitution. The study emphasizes the theoretical foundations upon which the idea was built, and data is gathered using both quantitative (surveys) and qualitative (interviews) research methods. The study draws on relevant literature to have a better understanding of the land debate. Indeed, the ANC-led government has been plagued by the unresolved land issue since 1994. Despite the government's efforts to democratize land access and use as a tool for local development and inclusion, there is enough evidence of policy failures. In this context, the study presents an intriguing discussion about land restitution performances in Dukuduku forest community in South Africa's KwaZulu-Natal province. ItemThe internship policy gap: a case study of uMgungundlovu District Municipality.(2019) Mkhize, Msizi Errick.; Mohamed Sayeed, Cheryl Natasha.The focus of this research investigation is to examine the Internship Policy Programme, its implementation and effectiveness in addressing graduate unemployment in the uMgungundlovu District Municipality in particular, and more broadly within South Africa. The literature study began by examining the political and economic transition post 1994, its influence on unemployment of youth within different races, and positioned the relevance of the Internship Policy Programme in a post-apartheid South Africa. The core objective has been to start by examining the current policy context concerning graduate unemployment in the uMgungundlovu District, and within South Africa. Secondly, the study explored the role and purpose of the Internship Policy Programme, which was established to be aimed at addressing the issue of graduate and youth unemployment through providing graduates with practical job experience relevant to the labour market in South Africa as stipulated under the Skill Development Act. This enabled the researcher to identify the success and challenges of the Internship Policy Programme, however, the focus was specifically on the implementation process. This allowed the researcher to focus on other factors influencing the growth of graduate unemployment including race, high education institution, and types ofqualifications. Thirdly, the effectiveness of internship was examined from an international perspective, which allowed the researcher to narrow the study to those issues relevant for understanding the implementation of Internship Policy Programme within the South African perspective. In the international arena, the literature showed that internships are limited in terms of addressing graduate unemployment. The literature study lent emphasises for the idea that skills development initiatives should be supported by Higher education institutions commitment to respond to the labour demand trends. The researcher advanced the study by focusing the investigation to the uMgungundlovu District Municipality. The study adopted a mixed methods approach which included the use of interviews as part of the qualitative component, and self-administered questionnaires as part of the quantitative approach. The findings from the field study from both the interviews and questionnaires were gathered into pre-defined variables. The variables were inserted into IMBS, where the researcher tested the relationship between the variables through a correlation test. Several significant correlations between variable resulted from the test. The correlation test reflected a very strong negative correlation between the age of respondents and gender of respondents. A significant positive correlation between education qualification obtained and the adequateness of the working equipment and relevant support given to the interns and a significant negative correlation between the ethnicity of participants and a direct link between the tertiary qualification of the interns and the task allocated to them in the job place. The main conclusion based from the findings lent emphasis of the “good government” character in implementation of the Internship Policy Programme, considering policy gap dues to a lack of good government characters in several labour policies including the Skills Development Act. ItemRe-defining white privilege: students’ perceptions of white privilege in post-apartheid South Africa.(2021) Shezi, Nombulelo Sharon.; Cele, Nokuthula Peace.During the apartheid era, race was a barometer that determined what privilege an individual was privy. In order to ensure the maintenance of this privilege, segregation laws were introduced. Washrooms, beaches, transport, and other public amenities were allocated according to races, with white people getting quality facilities. Thus, white people enjoyed a multitude of benefits at the expense of black people (Africans, Coloureds & Indians). The 2016 Fees Must Fall movement spearheaded by South African university students introduced the controversial topic of white privilege. Due to the gruesome history of apartheid and the tension that still exists in South Africa's social fabric, this topic further divided South Africans into factions. For months on end, controversial topics regarding race, racism, and white monopoly were deliberated on all media platforms. This study is framed within theories of social constructionism and the empowerment theory. In order to examine how race is socially constructed in South Africa (SA) and the perceptions of race in post-apartheid South Africa, this study drew on two case studies by Bhana & Pattman, and Oakes and Misgun. Secondly, the empowerment theory highlights that it is through the political, economic, and social empowerment of the individual and communities that a society flourishes (Zimmerman, Israel, Schulz & Checkoway, 1992). Twenty-four interviews were conducted with students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College to determine how students perceive white privilege in post-apartheid South Africa. An additional hundred and two questionnaires were distributed via Google Forms to determine how individuals from different socio-economic contexts perceive white privilege, race and racism. This study discovered that despite the end of apartheid, many of apartheid's racialized patterns of privilege have persisted and 'race' continues to influence one's access to essential resources. This is despite the introduction of transformative policies aimed at redressing the colonial legacies. ItemEvaluating the impact of Lima rural development foundation on the land reform policy in light of changing the livelihoods of previously disadvantaged people in Hammarsdale, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.(2021) Madonsela, Bulelani Simangaliso.; Rukema, Joseph Rudigi.; Tshishonga, Ndwakhulu Stephen.The focus of this study was on land reform programs executed by LİMA Rural Development Foundation that specifically targeted agricultural activities and smallholder farmers in Hammarsdale, KwaZulu-Natal. The overarching aim of the study was to evaluate the extent to which LİMA used the land reform programme as a strategy to alleviate poverty, reduce unemployment, and upskill smallholder farmers in Hammarsdale for sustainable farming endeavours. The study adopted a qualitative research approach using in-depth interviews as the main data collection instrument. Eleven participants were interviewed. Nine participants were drawn from smallholder farmers as land recipients and two staff members were drawn from LİMA as representatives of the organisation responsible for the land reform program in the Hammarsdale area. The findings of this study revealed that LİMA, as a non-governmental organisation, had the skills and expertise to support land recipients and thus render them successful farmers. However, LİMA lacked vital resources and support from government to sustain their land reform programs in Hammarsdale. For these reasons, land recipients could not be given the necessary support and equipment to ensure their success and sustain their livelihoods. The inability of LİMA to sustain land reform programs in Hammarsdale due to a lack of infrastructure and financial support meant that some cooperatives and smallholder farmers failed to sustain the agricultural production initiatives that they had embarked on. The study argues that due to the small sizes of land redistributed and owned by current landowners, smallholder farmers are unable to grow sustainably or compete in larger agricultural markets. The study recommends that government and NGOs devise a more detailed and specific framework that will operationalise skills development, training, and financial support for new farmers, improve farming infrastructure, and procure machinery to enhance the existing skills of smallholder farmers so that they are enabled to farm sustainably. The study also proposes that government should facilitate the accessibility of smallholder and emerging farmers to larger commercial markets through the development of a detailed framework that will compel larger market agents and role-players to support these farmers. This study further recommends that relevant government officials should demonstrate the political will to sustain NGOs who have the expertise and skills to support emerging farmers and to assist them so that they may continue their support for a skilled and thriving smallholder farmer community in Hammarsdale. ItemExploring policy implementation: the care dependency grant.(2020) Khumalo, Amanda Nonhlanhla Thathakahle.; Jagganath, Gerelene.The White Paper for Social Welfare of 1997 was created in order to address past inequalities. The main goal was to ensure that all citizens are provided with the equal chance of a better standard of living. The White Paper then gave rise to the Social Assistance Act 13 of 2004 in order to make provisions for social assistance for the most vulnerable groups in society, such as the elderly and persons with disabilities. The Social Assistance Act 13 of 2004 covers the disability grant, the care dependency grant, the child support grant, the foster care grant, war veterans grant, old person's grant, as well as relief of social distress. This legislation was then supported by other legislations such as the South African Social Security Agency Act, then gave rise to SASSA which is an agency that is responsible for implementing these grants. The purpose of the study was to explore policy implementation in relation to the care dependency grant. In order to achieve this, the study utilized the systematic approach and secondary data collection techniques from previous studies in order to establish the efficacy of the government's response to the needs of children with disabilities. Policy implementation plays a crucial role in the policy process. There are certain conditions that need to be met so that the policy objectives are implemented successfully. However, the findings suggest that the current disability policy is not sufficiently implemented since these conditions are not met. Some crucial challenges faced here range from failing to align policies between departments to the lack of human resources within government; this subsequently denies a high number of children with disabilities their right to social protection. ItemLocalising the Sustainable Development Goals in rural municipalities through multi-stakeholder partnerships: a case study of Nkandla Local Municipality.(2021) Mkhize, Mphathesithe Mzwandile.; Mohamed-Sayeed, Cheryl Natasha.The implementation of the Agenda 2030 requires that all stakeholders get involved towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). As a result, the global partnership process places responsibility on all relevant stakeholders, including spheres of government to take action if the SDGs are to be achieved. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of local government in localising the SDGs through multi-stakeholder partnerships towards achieving Agenda 2030. The study responded to the central key question asked, namely, to what extent the rural municipalities localise the SDGs through multi-stakeholder partnerships? The significance of this study was mainly for two reasons: 1) that it will contribute to research on SDGs, and 2) that it will contribute to the growing area of research on localising SDGs and the role of partnerships. Towards localising the SDGs, local and regional governments are seen as key to ensuring sustainable and inclusive development in their areas. There has been no study specifically focused on rural municipalities in localising the SDGs through multi-stakeholder partnerships. There has been an emphasis on the significance of an integrated multi-level and multi-stakeholder strategy to be used in promoting a transformative agenda if the ownership of the Agenda 2030 within municipalities is to take effect. In South Africa, many municipalities face development challenges, such as unemployment, economic growth, poverty, and weak infrastructure, with the worst affected being rural ones. In this regard, Nkandla Local Municipality was no exception, the municipality within its region remains one of the poorest and confronted by similar development challenges. This study was carried within Nkandla using the municipality as a case study, with a qualitative approach being adopted. In the study, the appropriate methodology was employed to explore the experiences and perceptions of local stakeholders in localising SDGs. The study applied an interpretivism paradigm and used semi-structured interview methods for data collection. The findings of this study revealed that in Nkandla there is basic knowledge of the SDGs, although this is very limited. Multi-stakeholder participation also was found to be very significant to achieving the SDGs despite the municipality being poor and inactive. Also, the study discovered several challenges that the municipality faces, which were found threatening towards the success of localising the goals. As a result, the study then recommends that small municipalities like Nkandla should strengthen their multi-stakeholder participation approach. Also, specific training on SDGs localisation is recommended, to equip all local stakeholders with key knowledge about localising the goals towards achieving Agenda 2030. Therefore, from the findings of the study, it is clear that multi-stakeholder partnerships have an important role to play in localising the SDGs in rural municipalities. However, small municipalities must take a strong position to improve these partnerships if they are dedicated to achieving the goals towards Agenda 2030. ItemTrends and challenges of food security policy implementation: a case study of uMgungundlovu District Municipality.(2021) Mbatha, Nokubonga Sindiswa Cynthia.; Mohamed-Sayeed, Cheryl Natasha.South Africa faces many food security policy challenges. The main aim of this study is to investigate the governance arrangements for food security policy. This study answers the question, “what are the trends and challenges faced by food security/poverty alleviation policy implementers within uMgungundlovu District Municipality”. The objective was to analyse the current food security policy implementation challenges. This is part of a larger investigation into food security governance in KwaZulu Natal. The theory of good governance was used as the basis of the examination, with the conceptual framework presented by the World Bank and its keys elements, being used as the lens for analysis. The empirical study was undertaken by conducting interviews with respondents responsible for overseeing food security policy implementation in the Kwa-Zulu Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs (KZN DAEA), and the District Manager in uMgungundlovu District Municipality. The data was analysed using content thematic analysis, with the themes deriving from the key elements of good governance. It was found that whilst food security policy implementers are well skilled, their knowledge of policy is limited, with some unable to understand or recognise the interaction between the legislative frameworks within which the operate. There were several key recommendations from the investigation: It is recommended that the Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs along with uMgungundlovu District Municipality cooperate in their efforts towards food security programmes. Secondly, the Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs should offer workshops to uMgungundlovu municipality experts so that they have a shared understanding on strategies to support farmers. Thirdly Government bodies should be offered programmes and courses that are more relevant for the implementation of public policies. Fourthly, it calls for the implementation of a comprehensive more universal and all-inclusive assessment of poverty and food insecurity as the achievement of food security can no longer be an agricultural issue only. This also seeks to broaden understanding of policy implementation and its challenges through a case study of food security policy. ItemThe assessment of policy regulating the welfare of women living with disability: the case study of Nkandla Municipality.(2021) Ngcobo, Lindokuhle.; Gumede, Mabuyi.People living with disabilities, particularly women, find themselves mainly ignored and neglected when it comes to policy inclusion and gender mainstreaming in public and private sectors and society in general. Through the efforts made by the national government of South Africa to advance the rights of women living with a disability, there has been a gap in the implementation of these policies at the local level. Hence, the challenges of women living with disabilities are more noticeable in rural areas than in urban areas. In rural areas, women living with disabilities deal with limited resources and services and attitudinal and environmental factors. These challenges limit their participation and inclusion in matters determining the welfare of their lives. In most rural areas of developing regions, women living with disabilities have a greater extent of limited agility, access to health, employment, formal education, awareness, and access to information about their rights. In developing regions, many communities discriminate, dehumanize, ridicule, and exclude women living with disabilities, due to pervasive societal practices and norms which perceive people living with disability negatively. Being a woman with a disability from a low-income family often fuels hate and various forms of discrimination towards that person. This qualitative study assesses policies guiding or regulating the welfare of rural women living with disabilities to enjoy their fundamental rights and freedom. This study is delimited to studying the women living with disabilities in Nkandla Local Municipality. Utilizing a qualitative research design, data were collected through semi-structured interviews with state actors, special needs teachers, NPOs, and ordinary citizens of the Nkandla Local Municipality in disability welfare and policy assessment. Augmented by extensive literature and policy reviews, the research findings reveal that the majority of women living with a disability are not aware of their rights. The research is guided by the Feminist Disability Theory, policy implementation, and Stakeholder Theory. The interpretations of disability by the Feminist Disability Theory are beyond the impaired body parts of a person. Instead, it views disability as a broader attitudinal and environmental barrier that hinders women's functioning with impaired body parts. It is followed by policy implementation, which is immensely contextual. It determines upon economic, social, political, attitudinal, and organizational factors that impact how poorly and how good a program or policy has been implemented. Lastly, the theory that serves as the foundation of this study is the stakeholder theory that encourages effective, efficient, ethical, and practical ways to handle an organization in a multifaceted and explosive environment. The Stakeholder Theory responds to a need that emerges from PWD and their families and non-disabled people who have to interact with disabled individuals with special needs daily. Additionally, the study recommends that there should be a demonstration of political will by the government and must increase budgets for institutions that implement disability issues. The resourcing of these institutions allows them to execute their mandate effectively and ensures the progressive realization of women with disabilities rights. These efforts should include creating a vibrant disability fund to ensure reliable disbursements of grants to people with disabilities, including women with disabilities in rural areas. ItemBarriers contributing to the exclusion of eligible child support grant beneficiaries in Umzinto rural community of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.(2020) Nzuza, Khanyisile Peacefull.; Mkhize, Gabisile Promise.With the realization that there are still excluded child support grant income-eligible children in South Africa, the study investigated why eligible children are not accessing the child support grant in Umzinto. Objectives of the study were to investigate why eligible children are not accessing the child support grant in Umzinto, to find how eligible children are excluded from the children social grant provision, to find out how the excluded child’s guardians view social grant provision and the exclusion of their children, to examine if the excluded child’s guardians are aware of the child social grant policy and requirements and to examine if there are any government initiatives aimed at improving child support grant accessibility and delivery in South Africa. Grounded on the theory of legitimate expectations and Fineman's theory of vulnerability, qualitative methodology and a total sample size of 10 participants where eight were Umzinto community members and guardians of eligible social grant excluded children; and two were SASSA workers in Umzinto who are responsible for communicating and administering social grant application process was utilized. Snowball sampling and judgmental sampling methods were employed. This study utilized one on one in-depth interviews and observations as research techniques. Data collected were analyzed using thematic analysis. The study found out that reasons for eligible children exclusion differ from applicant to applicant, and mainly based on the information each applicant presents to SASSA officials. This includes the presentation of wrong information, submission of fraudulent required documents, and failure to meet minimum requirements. Family politics, lack of proper education, communication and information about the child support grant are also some of the reasons this study concluded as the main reasons why some eligible children are excluded from receiving the social grant in Umzinto. The study recommends that to assist eligible excluded children to receive social grants, social workers must make constant follow-ups with the applicant families in communities; and SASSA to devise and implement more relevant community awareness to educate people about social grants. This would help reduce exclusions and travelling costs to recipients. ItemAn analysis of how socioeconomic issues affect the performance of learners in rural schools: a case study of Ga-Sekgopo high schools grade 8-10 learners.(2020) Baloyi, Mapula Emily.; Dlamini, Siyabonga Innocent.Rural Schools in South Africa are characterised by poor service delivery and low academic achievements. The learners in rural schools face several challenges that lower their chances of attaining academic excellence. Some of these issues include low socioeconomic status, inadequate service delivery which leads to a lack of basic infrastructure, such as classrooms, libraries, and other resources such as textbooks and computers, which would assist to advance learners. Despite the government’s efforts of implementing different policies in the Department of Education, rural schools continue to struggle because of their disadvantage of being in a remote rural area, were there is a lack of access of basic resources. This study reveals that most rural communities attempt to assist the learners in rural schools, some communities have engaged in protest action to remove educators which were not advancing the learners. In other instances, the communities donate funds to assist schools in meeting their needs. Although, the involvement of the local community is essential, the gap in schools remain, as the rural communities are also in a disadvantage situation and therefore their impact can be minimal. Also, the communication from the schools and the communities is not efficient, this depends on the School Governing Body structure, the leadership of the school and the overall involvement of parents. This study investigated how socio-economic issues affect the academic performance of rural learners, focusing on the schools in the Ga Sekgopo Village in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. This study adopted a qualitative research methodology to answer the research questions. In depth interviews were used to explore the views and the perspectives of the educators and the former learners of Ga Sekgopo.The sample consisted of one representative of the educators, the School Governing Body (SGB) from each of the five schools from Ga Sekgopo as well as 5 former learners who previously attended the High schools in Ga Sekgopo village were interviewed. The findings of this study revealed that external factors such as socioeconomic issues, a lack of infrastructure, poor participation of the parents in the learners schooling, HIV/AIDs infection and poor government service delivery and poor implementation of policies. All have a significant impact in affecting the teaching and learning process, in essence affecting the level of achievements produced by the learner. This study revealed that schools in rural areas are at a disadvantage as they experience different challenges such as, poor service delivery from the government, poor infrastructure, an issue with obtaining good educators and more. Learners in rural schools are affected by those challenges that are predominant in the schools, and also have to face the challenges that they have at home which may be associated with their socioeconomic status. Therefore, this study recommends a strategy or a model for rural schools, that will help in retaining Education graduates in rural school. Also for the government to prioritise service delivery in rural schools, and to formulate programs or workshops to train the educators on how to deal with learners from rural schools. Partnering with Non-Profit Organisations which are interested in developing learners academically, would be a viable solution to cover the gap that rural learners experience. ItemUnemployed youths’ awareness of the National Youth Policy and the National Youth Development Agency and strategies used to find employment in Mpophomeni Township, KwaZulu-Natal.(2020) Mthalane, Mandisa Brightness.; Rama, Sharmla.The increasing rate of youth unemployment has been of great concern in South Africa. The South African government’s efforts to enhance the employability of youth, is in the form of the National Youth Policy and the establishing of the National Youth Development Agency. However, very little research exists on the level of awareness and exposure the unemployed youth have on the national development agency and its workings. The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of awareness the unemployed youth at Mpophomeni Township has about the National Youth Policy and the National Youth Development Agency and the strategies used to find employment. The theoretical framework informing the study was the Public Policy Implementation Models using the top-down, bottom-up and the hybrid implementation model. The qualitative research methods applied in-depth semi-structured interviews from sixteen unemployed youth at Mpophomeni Township. Participant selection consisted of purposive and snowballing sampling. Thematic analysis was utilised to analyse collected data through coding and creating themes. The analysis of responses showed that the strategies used to find employment consists of; applying for jobs, volunteering and starting their own business. Furthermore, most participants knew about the agency. However, participants had different encounters and attitudes towards the organization such as, having no interest or discouraged from approaching the agency for assistance. This study sought to provide possible effective ways to communicate youth development initiatives and suggest strategies to reduce youth unemployment in their township. These initiatives consist of; community visits from the organisation, the use of social media, skills development programmes, promotion of youth entrepreneurship and mentorship. Recommendations offered by this study intends to improve the level of awareness of the unemployed youth about the NYDA in their community including ways to find or create self-employment to alleviate youth unemployment. ItemAwareness and understanding of dementia among women in rural areas: HA-Sephapo, Mohale's Hoek, Lesotho.(2020) Mokhosi, Mamatsie Margaret.; Nzuza, Nokwanda Yoliswa.Dementia is increasingly becoming a health issue that must be prioritised in national policies. With the increased life expectancy in both developed and developing countries, there is a high percentage of demented patients as it is highly associated with ageing. However, the prevalence is higher in ethnic communities in developing countries, especially amongst elderly women. As a mental health illness, dementia is not only a public health problem but is also linked with social challenges: dementia patients are victimised and stigmatised because of the symptoms presented by dementia. The purpose of the research was to assess awareness and understanding of dementia amongst women in the community of Ha-Sephapo. It investigated measures taken by the Lesotho Ministry of Social Development in raising awareness and understanding of dementia as a whole, and explored the understanding of dementia among women of Ha-Sephapo. The research study employed both an evaluative and qualitative research design and gathered data using semi-structured interviews, with open-ended questions for the participants. From the findings of the study, it was discovered that the Ministry of Social Development is not doing much to raise awareness and understanding of dementia in rural areas and to keep older women safe. It was also revealed from the participants' narratives that little is known about dementia as a mental health condition, and that they have not linked the illness to normal ageing. This lack of knowledge puts women in danger as some of the symptoms are related to witchcraft, in the minds of the community. Therefore, the researcher recommends that more programmes should be developed, not just by the Ministry of Social Development but also by involved stakeholders, to raise awareness and understanding of dementia among women in rural areas. This will help combat the victimisation and stigmatisation of older women showing some symptoms of dementia. ItemA critical analysis of public policies guiding legal determents and business operations of formal and informal private funeral parlours: the case study of Umbilo funeral parlours.(2020) Gumede, Ntokozo.; Zondi, Balungile Prudence.The funeral parlour industry in Durban came under the media spotlight in 2017 and 2018 due to a demarcation war that emerged among Black, White and Indian funeral parlour owners within the eThekwini metropolitan area. This rift exposed policy cracks within the industry as it emerged that there were a number of funeral parlour regulations and policies that were not being adhered to. This inspired the researcher to probe the policy implementation and policy regulation irregularities within the funeral parlour industry, as well as the operational dynamics characterising this industry. This study focuses on the implementation of policies and regulations that are stipulated by policy custodians of funeral parlours which operate within the Umbilo area. The study adopted a qualitative research approach. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with four funeral parlours characterised as ‘formal’ and ‘informal’. The study draws on the perceptions of the service users in this industry to gain an understanding of the impact of policy implementation irregularities. This empirical research was conducted to elicit factual data on the policies and regulations that govern the funeral parlour industry. The policy implementation theory was used to analyse and interpret policy factors that led to the saga in the period from 2017 to 2018. Using a qualitative research approach, this study presents data that has not been considered when scrutinising the funeral parlour industry and unpacks some of the background operations that may be noticed following the death of a person. This study contributes to the body of literature on understanding the operations of the funeral parlour industry and how it is governed, particularly within the context of eThekwini Municipality. It also contributes essential information on how the public is affected by the policy structures and policy implementation irregularities within this industry. The study makes recommendations that are essential to ensuring policy implementation strategies that focus on the involvement of all stakeholders responsible for the implementation of policies within the funeral parlour industry under the jurisdiction of eThekwini Municipality. ItemAssessing the causes of youth unemployment in Durban townships: the case of Cato Manor.(2018) Ntshiza, Sibusiso Blessing.; Cele, Nokuthula Peace.This study has been conducted to examine the causes and the impact of youth unemployment in Durban townships in South Africa with a specific focus on Cato Manor Township. Through the use qualitative and quantitative research methods, the study aims to find out why youth unemployment persists to pose a challenge, especially in township areas despite the fact that the South African government has implemented a number of programmes, measures and strategies to address it. Data collection techniques such as personal interviews, focus group interviews and observation as well as questionnaires have been used to collect data from three group categories: unemployed young people without matriculation; unemployed young people with matriculation as well as unemployed young people with tertiary qualifications aged 18 to 34 years. This study has discovered that lack of relevant skills and qualifications; lack of relevant previous work experience; high rate of corruption, nepotism and connections in the labour market are some of the major factors that increase unemployment among the youth especially in townships. This makes it hard for the companies (private companies) and government to create more job opportunities. Findings reveal that youth unemployment is not just a threat on its own; it also has a bearing on other problems such as poverty, crime and drugs abuse. As most young people find it hard to meet their basic needs such as food, shelter and clothes due to unemployment, they end up committing crime in attempts to meet such needs. This study then calls for skills development in different categories in order to address the issue of youth unemployment in Durban townships. This will help in closing the gaps between the skills needed by the employers and the skills possessed by most young people. The companies (private companies) and the government must also ensure that only the qualified and deserving people are employed into job positions in order to avoid the cases of nepotism, favouritism and cronyism in the recruitment sphere. This can be achieved through ensuring that the employment procedures and processes are being monitored accordingly and transparently. ItemAnalysis of the socio-political and economic dynamics of the language policy in South Africa: perspectives from the University of KwaZulu-Natal.(2017) Mthombeni, Zama Mabel.; Ogunnubi, Olusola Rasheed.The promotion of multilingual education can be regarded as a force that is driving change in teaching and learning in South Africa’s higher education institutions. This research situates itself amidst the increasing tensions about multilingual policy implementation in South African higher education institutions. South Africa’s democratic constitution has been revised, which directly compelled change in the education legislation, forcing many universities to undergo a process of altering their language policies. The South African government has, at least on paper, taken recognition of the unquestionable fact that African languages must be advanced as languages of learning and teaching in all educational institutions for the empowerment of the African people. Thus far, multilingual education is not mainstream in South African higher education institution and on the overall, little has changed in terms of language-in-education issues in the country. However, there have been some efforts in the higher educational sphere to develop indigenous African languages as languages of learning. The University of KwaZulu-Natal has implemented a bilingual language policy, which stipulates that isiZulu will be a compulsory subject for undergraduate’s students from 2014 onward. The issue remains controversial. From one perspective, indorsing the African languages in tertiary education supports what Alexander (2001) calls democratic responsibility of the post-apartheid university. From another perspective, this language policy is perceived as reverting to apartheid style Bantu Education practices and as fostering ethnic identities and tribalism rather than supporting a development of a broader and more inclusive South African identity. This research therefore is an analysis of the socio-economic and political implications of the University of KwaZulu-Natal bilingual language policy. In discussing the political implications, the study looks at the policy implementation process undertaken in determining the policy and at the positive and negative viewpoints arising regarding the language policy. To understand the social implications, the study looks at the impact of having a bilingual language policy and lastly, it discusses the economic implications of utilizing bilingual approach to education at the tertiary level. ItemThe effectiveness of the Occupational Health and Safety principle in relation to women workers at the Lesotho Precious Garment factory.(2018) Chesetsi, Lisemelo Lydia.; Nzuza, Nokwanda Yoliswa.The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the occupational health and safety principles at the Lesotho Precious Garments factory. The study investigated the perceptions and the experiences of Basotho women working at the Lesotho Precious Garments factory. The study employed an evaluative, qualitative research design. Major findings were gathered through the use of semi-structured, open-ended interviews with women working at the Lesotho Precious Garments factory, and the officials from the Ministry of Labour and Employment and the Department of Health and Environment. Findings from this study revealed that some of the common hazards that workers are exposed to include: physical, ergonomic, psycho-social and mechanical hazards. Furthermore, the findings revealed that there is no national policy regarding occupational health and safety in the textile industries of Lesotho. It became evident from the narratives of the participants that the absence of a national health and safety policy in Lesotho has trivialised safety issues within the industry. Consequently this has increased the rate of occupational hazards in textile industries. The study therefore recommends that there is a need for a comprehensive national policy to oversee the activities of factory owners in complying with international labour standards. ItemThe use of monitoring and evaluation systems by Non-Governmental Organizations: a case study of Umthombo Street Children SA.(2018) Zulu, Sphiwe.; Rieker, Mark Ivan.Absract available in PDF.