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Doctoral Degrees (Community Development)

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    Community development: evaluating governance sphere and service delivery challenges: the case study of Inkosi Langalibalele local municipality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    (2021) Moloi, Marole Nkosikhona.; Khalema, Ernest Nene.
    Since the advent of democracy in South Africa, municipal governance and service delivery has been marred with many challenges. These include but are not limited to high levels of corruption, performance, lack of transparency, poor financial management, lack of competent leadership and poor service delivery. All these challenges reflect poor governance across most local governments, often resulting in service delivery protests. This study sought to reflect and evaluate governance and service delivery sphere challenges in the Inkosi Langalibalele Municipality as one of the municipalities placed under “provincial intervention” as per Section 139 of the Constitution of South Africa of 1996. Since 2017, Inkosi Langalibalele Municipality has been under “provincial intervention” to address failures in delivering essential services, poor functioning of oversight structures, lack of consequence management, and inability to demonstrate sound financial management. Though there is a consistent exploration of different challenges and loopholes existing in municipal governance across studies, there remains a dearth of the researcher that engaged in critical evaluation of the impact of “provincial intervention” in addressing governance and service delivery challenges in South Africa. Therefore, this study aimed to provide a detailed evaluation of governance and service delivery challenges in a municipality under “provincial intervention”. To adequately address this, a contextual study approach had to be conducted, and the following questions were crucial in guiding the study: (i)What is the relationship between good governance and service delivery in Inkosi Langalibalele Municipality?;(ii) What are governance and service delivery approaches utilized by the Municipality?; (iii) What are existing governance and service delivery challenges in the Municipality? and; (iv) What are strategies to improve governance and service delivery in the Municipality? Using a qualitative exploratory research design, 20 in-depth interviews were conducted with key informants to understand the governance and service delivery challenges and identify measures that can be used to address these challenges. The study's findings revealed that there have not been any significant improvements in the governance infrastructures with the provincial intervention in place. On the contrary, service delivery remains very slow, and public participation processes have been grossly affected. Improving standards of local governments while detached from the constitutional values of public participation is a crucial challenge that needs attention if “provincial interventions” are to be successfully effective in practice.
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    Developing an implementation model to address food shortages in Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe.
    (2019) Muzerengi, Tapiwa.; Nene, Khalema Ernest.
    Matabeleland South Province has since 1980 to date been experiencing acute food shortages. Currently, it is the province with the highest number of food insecure people. The study recommends a bottom up approach, that is beyond ZimASSET, that addresses food shortages in Matabeleland South Province. The purpose of this study is to develop an Implementation Model to address food shortages in the Matabeleland South Province of Zimbabwe. The study employed the Grounded Theory approach utilizing a purely qualitative design. Purposive sampling of 200 stakeholders, that is expert and typical case sampling was the primary method of research. As the study was unfolding, a theoretical sampling was later employed. A confirmatory retrospective document review of food security documents from the Zimbabwe Vulnerability Assessment Committee and the Famine Early Warning systems Network was done. The Entitlement Theory by Sen Amartya, and the Systems Theory by Von Bertalanffy were utilised as the theoretical point of departure for the study. The study utilised Key Informant Interviews, Focus Group Discussion and Document Analysis to mine data. Data was analysed using the thematic approach. Major findings and results showed a disjuncture and dissonance within the Provincial Food and Nutrition Security Task Force approaches used to address the food insecurity situation in the province of Matabeleland South. The findings showed that, there is an implementation gap in need to be filled, and all stakeholders must apply a bottom up approach in addressing the problem of food shortages. The developed Implementation Model was validated by the stakeholders who participated in the data collection phase and endorsed the bottom up approach, which as intended, conveyed the community’s views. The Food Security Implementation Model is forwarding the community development aspirations to a new level that leaves footprints on the development terrain with a pragmatist component of coming up with home grown solutions to the problem of food insecurity.
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    ‘Unshared vision’ : decentralisation in Zimbabwe, a special reference to the Harare City Council.
    (2016) Masvaure, Steven.; Hargovan, Hema Keshavlal.; Sithole, M. P.
    Decentralisation in most African countries is fraught with problems and failures. A few countries in Africa experienced some successes in their pursuit of decentralisation. Several studies on democratic decentralisation have been conducted in the context of one political party controlling both the central state and the decentralised institution, where it is assumed that there is a concordance of vision between the central state and the local decentralised institution. However, a new context of decentralisation is emerging in the African context with opposition political parties capturing the decentralised institutions; thereby creating a disjuncture in vision between the central state and the decentralised institutions. This thesis examined the impact of shared or unshared vision between the local and central government in the event that there are different political parties controlling the two spheres of government. It also examined how service delivery and public participation plays out in the context of ‘unshared vision’. The location of the study was primarily the City of Harare, the capital of Zimbabwe, where an opposition political party is in power. The main theoretical framework in this study is critical realism. Primary and secondary data was collected from various sources. Primary data was collected through structured and unstructured interviews with various stakeholders in the City of Harare. The key findings of this thesis are that there is ‘unshared vision’ between the decentralised institutions and the central state. This disjuncture in vision is manifested in various contestations between these two spheres of the state; resulting in political battles being prioritised at the expense of services delivery for the residents of the City of Harare. Consequently, the voices of the citizens have been lost. The disjuncture has also resulted in the prime reason for decentralisation, namely; bringing government closer to the people, not being realised. This study contributes to the broad academic debate on decentralisation in situations where there is unshared vision between the local and central state.