ItemTowards developing a pluralistic agricultural extension system: the case of Vhembe district of Limpopo province, South Africa.(2022) Mudzielwana, Rudzani Vhuyelwani Angel.; Mafongoya, Paramu L.; Phophi, Mutondwa Masindi.Agricultural extension is a crucial component of agricultural development, food security improvement and rural livelihood enhancement. However, many farmers are constrained by extension systems that are difficult to access or lack quality services that utilise modern approaches, technologies and training methods. The rationale of this study is to look at the efforts to define and disseminate good practices, strategies and approaches to establish efficient agricultural extension services. This study used a quantitative research design to collect data from 319 respondents. A multiple linear regression model analysed factors influencing smallholder farmers’ performance under pluralistic and non-pluralistic settings. The study findings indicated that credit access (p<0.05), access to public extension (p<0.1), extension feedback (p<0.01) and transparency and accountability (p<0.05) negatively influenced the performance of the smallholder farmers in the study area. A binary probit regression model was used to analyse factors influencing the perception of implementing a pluralistic extension service providers system among smallholder farmers. The findings from the study indicated that age (p<0.05) negatively influenced the probability of implementing a pluralistic extension system among smallholder farmers in the study area. The binary probit regression model was used to analyse the determinants of smallholder farmers’ willingness to pay for extension services. The study's findings indicated that marital status (p<0.1) negatively influenced the probability of smallholder farmers’ willingness to pay for extension services in the study area. The multinomial logistic regression model was used to analyse factors influencing a sustainable extension service system among smallholder farmers. The farm size (p<0.1), extension feedback length (p<0.01), and effectiveness of extension (p<0.1) negatively influenced a sustainable extension service system among smallholder farmers in the study area. Gender (p<0.1), household size (p<0.1), willing to pay for extension service (p<0.01), the difference in output (p<0.1) and annual income (p<0.01) positively influenced a sustainable extension service system among smallholder farmers in the study area. The study encourages collaborations among public and private stakeholders, researchers, extension officers and rural development agencies to implement a cost-effective pluralistic extension system that meets the end users' or clients' (smallholder farmers) agricultural/ farming needs. ItemInvestigating the role of women in agricultural extension advisory services in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: current-status, challenges, and prospects.(2022) Adebayo, Johnson Abidemi.; Worth, Steven Hugh.This study investigated women’s role in agricultural extension advisory service, with a focus on their status, challenges, and prospect, using the uMgungundlovu District of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa as a case study. The study was conceived to identify the gender gaps among agricultural extension workers relative to overcoming household food security and enhancing rural livelihood, especially among women farmers, pointing out some hindrances limiting women's involvement in extension advisory services. Extension plays a significant role in enhancing agricultural production and community development initiatives. However, sustainable agriculture, rural livelihood sustainability, and food insecurity at the household level are still of great concern and continue to be substantial challenges for rural dwellers, especially women farmers in South Africa. Hence, this study Investigates the roles of women in agricultural extension advisory services in South Africa relative to overcoming household food security, the challenges confronting women advisors and farmers, and their empowerment needs, with specific reference to the KwaZulu-Natal province. The research processes used for this study are two-fold: a theoretical and philosophical process, on the one hand, and an empirical process, on the other hand. Both processes Involved a systematic Investigation pattern. This study draws from relevant published works, in the case of the theoretical process, to establish the gap that exists between female and male extension advisors. The study also establishes the degree to which women and men jointly participate as extension advisors, concerning the role of women advisors in facilitating household food security, rural livelihood, and sustainable agriculture among farmers, with special linkage to the profile of women in Africa Agriculture. The empirical process includes data collection through semi-structured interviews with selected respondents comprising of Provincial and district directors and deputy directors of extension and advisory services, a director of a non-governmental organization, female and male extension practitioners, and female and male farmers. Twenty respondents, including fifteen female extension advisors and five provincial and district stakeholders in extension advisory services, participated in the Investigation of the constraint confronting women extension advisors. Also, forty-five respondents were interviewed on the prospect of empowering women extension advisors. Some of the respondents were involved in both investigations. The study found that whereas all other provinces have a majority of male extension advisors, KwaZulu-Natal is more evenly split between females and males’ extension advisors. However, this unique demographic did not appear to offer the female extension advisors any advantage with respect to the challenges they generally face as women extension workers. Key among challenges confronting women extension advisors includes: egoistic attitudes, and are biased toward women extension advisors, a persistent manifestation of gender disparity, Skills deficiency, and security threat. The study also found that female extension practitioners are a crucial support system to smallholder farmers, especially women and are Instrumental in increasing women’s participation in commercial agriculture production. However, key factors such as insufficient or inadequate technology knowledge, especially skills in digital tools, marketing, project management, and soil fertility test knowledge have constantly affected their efficiency. As such, they are limited in the level and extent to which women farmers' extension service needs could be met. Therefore, empowering female extension practitioners holds the prospect of Improving women farmers’ efficiency and effectiveness. The study concluded on the need for appropriate actions that strengthen women participation by creating a conducive work atmosphere that facilitates and promotes female extension practitioners' empowerment and tackle the challenges that often impede their productivity. It recommends the need to include women extension advisors’ voices in policy making. The Implication of this is that women will be directly involved in the design of the policy that shapes their services, given that most time, National policies and/or frameworks do not always translate well to the local level where implementation is required. ItemThe role of agricultural extension and landcare policy in building farmer capacity to manage natural resources: the case of landcare programmes in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.Indima edlalwa abeluleka abezolimo neNqubomgomo ye-Landcare eKwakheni Isisekelokusebenza Sabalimi Ukuze kulawulwe Imithombo Yezemvelo: Ucwaningo Lwezinhlelo Ze-Landcare KwaZulu-Natali, eNingizimu Afrikha.(2022) Ndlela, Sithembiso.; Worth, Steven Hugh.Agriculture is an important element of the South African (SA) economy. However, increasing pressure to produce food has exacerbated pressure on natural resources (NR). The deteriorating state of NR is caused by multiple factors that vary from farm to farm. SA LandCare was established specifically to address this. However, LandCare programmes are perceived to focus primarily on relief and rehabilitation of NR rather than addressing the underlying fundamental complex causes. This study sought to explore the extent to which: LandCare attempts to mitigate core problems rather than symptoms; LandCare works to ensure long-term natural resource management (NRM) by farmers; and extension is contextualised in building farmer capacity to manage NR. This study also sought to provide a theoretical model depicting the positioning of extension within the LandCare programme to improve the sustainability of NRM while maintaining its goal of improving household food security. Primary research comprised semi-structured interviews with 45 key respondents selected using purposive sampling. The respondents included 20 farmers, 20 provincial extension workers and five LandCare officials in the National Department of Agriculture (NDA). These three groups of respondents were selected deliberately as they could provide more accurate information to fulfil the study objectives and help answer the underlying research question. This study had four central findings. First, the role of extension is not adequately contextualized in LandCare in terms of building farmer capacity to manage NR. Extension, in its NR-related work, is mainly involved in training farmers in specific technical skills and not in building learning and problem-solving capacity. This capacity would put farmers in the position of making informed decisions about the intended LandCare development and thereby make them more equal partners in the LandCare initiative. Second, the way the role of extension in LandCare is carried out in practice undermines the significance of local knowledge and experience and effectively dismisses them as not being credible because they are not “scientific” – not informed by recognised scientific theories and methods. This is inconsistent with capacity building theory that posits that true capacity is built starting with what farmers know and have. Third, farmers have limited opportunity to command structures and systems, and limited freedom to participate actively in all the LandCare processes, putting them on the passive receiving end of the programme. Further, LandCare implementation focuses less on empowering and building problem-solving capacity amongst farmer that is relevant to dealing with NR problems (during and post-project life) and more on enforcing change in farmers current practices to practices that are deemed to have less negative impact on NR. This runs a risk of making farmers constantly dependant on external support in addressing their NR challenges. Fourth, while the physical rehabilitation work is generally successfully achieved, there is a disconnection between the LandCare policy and its implementation on the ground. LandCare practice focuses more on rehabilitation of NR and introducing more conservation-friendly farming systems to farmers and gives less attention to building farmer capacity to be selfreliant and resilient in solving their own problems and better manage their NR – which is the antithesis of both the capacity theory and the intention of LandCare programme. Ultimately, the study proposes a framework for unifying the currently disparate processes to ensure that LandCare is simultaneously well administered, rehabilitates land and builds farmer capacity for sustainable NRM. Within the framework is a capacity-building ladder which helps maintain focus on the goal of sustainable NRM through the actions of the farmers on the land. Iqoqa EzoLimo ziyingxenye ebaluleke kakhulu emnothweni waseNingizimu Afrikha. Kodwa, ingcindezi ekhulayo yokukhiqiza ukudla sekukhulise kakhulu ingcindezi emithonjeni yemvelo (iNR). Umumo owehla kabi kwe-NR udalwa yizimo eziningi ezingefani ipulazi nepulazi. I-SA LandCare yasungulwa ukuze ibhekane ngqo nalokhu. Kodwa, izinhlelo ze-LandCare zibhekwa njengezigxile ekusizeni nasekuphuculeni i-NR kunokubhekana nezimbangela ezingelula nezibalulekile. Lolu cwaningo luhlose ukuthola ukuthi ize ifikephi imizamo ye-LandCare ukubhekana nezinkinga ezisemqoka kunokubuka izimpawusifo. I-LandCare isebenze ukuqinisekisa nokulawula i-NR esikhathini eside (i-NRM) okwenziwa abalimi; nokunweba okufakwe ekwakhiweni komthamokumumatha wabalimi ukuze balawule i-NR. Lolu cwaningo luphinde lwahlosa ukuhlinzeka imodeli yenjulalwazi eveza umumo wokunwebeka ohlelweni lwe-LandCare ukuphucula ukusimama kweNRM ngesikhathi kusimamiswa inhloso yokuphucula ukuba khona kokudla endlini. Ucwaningo olusemqoka lufaka izimposambuzo ezingahleliwe ngokugcwele kubalethilwazi abangama-45 abakhethwe kusetshenziswa ukusampula okunenhloso. Abanikilwazi abasemqoka babefaka abalimi abangama-20, abasebenzi basesifundazweni abangama-20 nabasebenzi abayisihlanu bakwa-LandCare emnyangweni kazwelonke wezolimo. Ucwaningo lwathola ukuthi umthamo wabalimi usemqoka ekubhekaneni ne-NR eyehlayo. Lwaphinde lwathola ukuthi nakuba inqubomgomo i-South African LandCare ifukamela ukwakha ingqalasizinda njengomongo, kodwa okwenzekayo kuveza okunye. Ukugxila kusekulungiseni umhlaba, hhayi ekwakheni uhlelokusebenza epulazini. Lokhu kwesekwa wukuthola ukuthi cishe ama-90% ababambiqhaza be-LandCare abalimi bemfuyo abajoyine uhlelo lokusebenza nokulungisa amadlelo okuklaba – okungekho nokukodwa okuyizinhloso zokwakha izinsizakusebenza. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngesikhathi ukunwebeka kuqalisa ukusebenza i-LandCare ayibonakali inenjongo yokwakha insizakusebenza edingekayo nezoba nokungaqondi okwenhlaliswano-namasiko lapho kukhona khona izinkinga eziphezulu. Kunokuxhumana okunqamukile phakathi kanye nokungabi nokuhambisana kwabanesabelo kwa-LandCare; kodwa basebenza ngabojwana. Ekugcineni, ucwaningo luphakamisa ukuthi uhlaka oluhlanganisa izinhlelo ezehlukene njengamanje ukuqinisekisa ukuthi i-LandCare ilawulwa kahle, ibuyisela umhlaba nokwakha umthamokukwazi komlimi nge-NRM esimeme. Ohlakeni lwelada yokwakha umthamo osiza ukugcina olusiza ukugcina ukugxila ekusimamiseni inhloso yama-NRM ngezenzo zabalimi emhlabeni. ItemThe role of community and social development project in improving rural livelihoods, Kebbi State, Nigeria.(2021) Hassan, Shehu Usman.; Caister, Karen Fern.Between the years 2010 and 2013, the Nigerian Government established a transforming structure called the Community and Social Development Project (CSDP). This research explores the influences of that project on livelihoods through the perceptions of participants located in Local Government Area (LGA), Danko/Wasagu of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Four (4) of the twenty-four (24) communities in Danko/Wasagu involved in the CSDP partnership between communities and Government were targeted as an accessible case to investigate. One objective of the study was to identify perceived influences of the CSDP using the programme data. Permission for the researcher to extract (200) individual records from the CSDP data base was approved. Two hundred records (50 for each of the four communities) were identified as a random sample from the project survey data. These records provided livelihood information and perceptions from beneficiaries of the CSDP through data collected before and after the project. Descriptive statistics and Paired Sample t-test were tools used to look for perceived influences between project delivery and post project availability of livelihood resources. To provide a snap shot of perceptions three years after the Programme Project ended, a second objective used a Focus Group approach in 2016 to explore current livelihood options within these communities. Field visits included a purposeful selection of (12) respondents from each of the four target communities. For each community, group discussions were carried out in two (3-4 hour) sessions. Session 1, carried out in the morning, used participatory activities to reflect on the past, present and future. Session 2 in the evening, revolved around discussion and consensus on current livelihoods against an adapted livelihoods framework. In general, communities depended on multiple strategies and combined community effort to achieve livelihood goals. The CSDP sample data inferred improved access to resources particularly in health and transport across all communities. Improved access to water however, was only significant in two communities. Three years later, the focus group discussion revealed that development efforts continued by the LG were not perceived as providing sufficient economic opportunity. To encourage entrepreneurship, mobilisation of the community for collective decision making needs to be reactivated and Local Government needs to continue facilitating the delivery of infrastructure as originally tasked. Further research of actual and potential asset based micro-enterprise would benefit an understanding of innovative livelihood options alongside economic policy agendas. ItemAssessment of the University of KwaZulu-Natal Bachelor of Agricultural extension curriculum implemented at Cedara College.(2018) Polepole, John Sanzimwami.; Worth, Steven Hugh.This study assessed the effectiveness of Bachelor of Agriculture in Agricultural Extension and Rural Resource Management (BAgricExt) qualification of the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), implemented at Cedara College of Agriculture. Any academic programme aiming to achieve success requires regular assessments of its activities to determine areas that need to change or improve. The BAgricExt is considered as one of the potentially pivotal qualifications in agricultural education with a direct link to farmers and primary production. The impact of Agricultural Education and Training (AET) is and will remain considerable in the South African landscape. It is contributing substantially to provide knowledge and skills for production of food and fibre which, in turn adds value to the country’s economy. The quality of education provided in the agricultural field will determine the graduates’ efficiency and ability to contribute to the increase in quality, quantity and efficiency of food and fibre production countrywide. The primary research is presented under three main topics in the form of publishable articles. The first one establishes a framework to assess an undergraduate qualification of any kind. Different elements (input, process, outcomes and influencing factors) to be assessed in the undergraduate qualification are suggested and the most important area to consider as far as qualification performance is concerned are specified. This led to developing a model of assessing an undergraduate qualification. The model is called: ITAPP (Intake, Teaching and Learning, Access to facilities, Performance, and Placement) model. The second paper describes the learning outcomes required to enable graduates to serve effectively as extension practitioners to build the capacity of farmers. In addition to extension theory and practice, the areas of learning include agricultural production, natural resource management, farm business management, and farm engineering. The third part of the literature review establishes a framework showing how better learning can be acquired specifically in the BAgricExt. A qualitative approach, consisting of interviews and focus group discussions with various categories of participants purposefully chosen was followed to collect data. The study was conducted among 65 UKZN students, nine lecturers, three administrative officers and seven potential employers of BAgricExt graduates. With this sample, it was possible to obtain qualitative data and more insights into the research question based on the experiences and knowledge of respondents. Using the ITAPP framework, the learning outcomes required for BAgricExt were established. Learning outcomes were presented based on level descriptors as recommended by the South African government (Higher Education), and determined the environment, including safeguarding quality assurance, conducive to successful completion of the qualification. With reference to the research objective, the study found that the BAgricExt programme with its present curriculum is operational and has a clear delivery and support system that is sustainable. BAgricExt programme allows students to start and finish being well-grounded, with substantial knowledge and skills (theory and practice) in Agricultural Extension, agricultural production, farm business management, resource management and farm engineering. Specifically, against the ITAPP framework, the study found that the BAgricExt was successful on two core elements: ‘Teaching and Learning; and ‘Performance’. While this places the programme on a solid footing, the study determined a need for greater efficiency in the other elements of the framework (Intake, Access to Facilities, and Placement) – which, the study suggests can be improved by taking into considerations the recommendations drawn from this study – particularly regarding the “placement” element. The study recommends to the BAgricExt to give more attention to placement and look at the ways that it increases prospects of a livelihood either as an employee or through selfemployment. The degree should be more directly centred on ‘where the graduate is going’ and how the graduate will gain a living by using the competences acquired in the programme. A model was developed for this purpose, and a revised framework presented to evaluate the BAgricExt in prospect of a livelihood - it is called “Placement-Centred Intake to Performance (PCIP) Framework”. It is anticipated that through this shift in focus the BAgricExt will be substantially strengthened. ItemCommunity action in the management of community forests in Swaziland: the case of Ngcayini and Ezikhotheni chiefdoms.(2018) Singwane, Saico Sibusiso.; Beckedahl, Heinrich Reinhard.It is evident that community action is indispensable in order to attain sustainable management of community resources in general and particularly community forests, as well as to control land degradation. In Swaziland however, the examination of factors behind fruitful community action is quite recent, hence there is a paucity of published documents on this subject. Therefore the aim of the research presented here was to assess the role of community action in the management of community forests in Swaziland using the Ngcayini and Ezikhotheni chiefdoms as case studies. The study focused on the following issues: 1) the management of community resources by internal and external stakeholders; 2) the rules governing the management of forest resources and the manner in which the derived benefits are utilized and distributed, and 3) the extent of community action in the management of community resources. The research has also provided a critical review of the opportunities and threats associated with community action in the management of community forests, the extent of community forest resource utilization, and the nature and extent of land degradation associated with such resource utilization. Data were collected by selecting and interviewing respondents who comprised internal and external stakeholders. The internal stakeholders included 300 heads of households (100 from Ngcayini and 200 from Ezikhotheni), eight members of the community inner council, comprising the headman, three inner council members and three ward elders from each chiefdom), six Natural Resource Management Committee members (three from each chiefdom), as well as the Individual chiefdom councillors (Bucopho) at Ngcayini and Ezikhotheni chiefdoms as case studies. Notably, sampling was only done at Ezikhotheni where 200 out of 500 homesteads selected using simple random sampling. Regardless of the number of households in a homestead, only one head of household was interviewed. External stakeholders included four officers in the Forestry Section of the Ministry Tourism and Environmental Affairs (MTEA); four officers of the Swaziland Environment Authority (SEA); the Livelihoods Manager for World Vision; and the Director of Environment for Conserve Swaziland. Considering that the study involves the views and opinions of human beings as the key subjects, ethical clearance was solicited through the University of KwaZulu-Natal Ethics Committee (protocol reference number HSS/0729/017D). The research findings indicate that access to forest resources is free in natural forests, yet in plantation-style community forests it is controlled by traditional authorities and Natural Resource Management Committees (NRMCs). Resources extracted from plantation-style community forests are sold to community members, and the proceeds are then used to fulfil the needs of the community concerned. For instance, at Ngcayini the proceeds fund community leaders when attending royal duties and buy a royal kraal stamp and its accessories as indicated by 37% of the heads of households and 100% of the community leaders. At Ezikhotheni they financed a water project and support neighbourhood care points according to 6% of the heads of households and 18.2% of the community leaders. In terms of the management of community forests, both internal and external stakeholders relied on a number of strategies. For instance, both males and females indiscriminately engaged in planting, pruning, mending fences, making and maintaining fire breaks and harvesting forest products. Moreover, the findings reveal that there was generally community-wide cooperation from ordinary community members to community leaders in the management of community forests. Nonetheless, such cooperation was challenged by issues such as chieftaincy disputes, prevailing poverty issues and rapid population growth. In the management of community forests, the Ezikhotheni and Ngcayini chiefdoms collaborated with a range of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), government departments and parastatals. Nevertheless, such collaborations were fraught with benefits and challenges. Furthermore, there are elaborate rules governing the management of community forests in the specific chiefdoms studied (90% Ezikhotheni and 88% at Ngcayini). The rules are formulated by all community members and enforced by community leaders. Despite the elaborate rules, there are challenges of illegal burning and harvesting of resources, as well as the theft of fence materials surrounding the forests and gullies. Nonetheless, perpetrators are generally exposed and reprimanded through levying of fines. In addition, community members indicated knowledge of national policies and legislation relating to the management of community forests. On another note, community action appeared to be embraced more extensively at the Ezikhotheni than at the Ngcayini chiefdoms. In spite of this, community action in both chiefdoms was fraught with both opportunities and threats. Regarding land degradation, the findings highlighted that erosion in the form of gullying was active and advancing from 2.14 hectares in 2008 to 2.59 hectares in 2017 at Ngcayini, whereas at Ezikhotheni it was diminishing from 9.78 hectares in 2008 to 9.37 hectares in 2017 due to successful rehabilitation following the planting of trees. Plantation-style community forests were generally increasing from 2008 to 2017 in both chiefdoms (4.48 to 7.15 hectares at Ezikhotheni and 0.35 to 0.48 hectares at Ngcayini), signalling the effectiveness of the afforestation intervention and a success of community action in the management of community forests. Moreover, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) also depicts a general increase from 2008 to 2017 in both chiefdoms (0.34 to 0.43 at Ezikhotheni and 0.33 to 0.56 at Ngcayini); which too is indicative of the effectiveness of the afforestation intervention and the success of community action in the management of community forests. ItemAn evaluation of the role of public agricultural extension services towards promoting sustainable agriculture in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.(2019) Khwidzhili, Rendani Humphrey.; Worth, Steven Hugh.South Africa lacks an inclusive policy on sustainable agricultural practices. This has resulted - in the continued over-exploitation of the natural resources by farmers. This study evaluates the role played by public agricultural extension services in promoting sustainable agricultural practices in Mpumalanga province. The framework of this study was adopted from a Framework for Evaluation of Sustainable Land Management (FESLM) which was developed through collaboration among international and national institutions as a practical approach to assess whether farming systems are trending towards or away from sustainability. The framework of this study was based on the five-pillared framework: maintaining and increasing biological productivity, decreasing the level of risk to ensure larger security, protecting the quality of natural resources, and ensuring agricultural production is socially acceptable. Most literature refers to sustainability and to sustainable agriculture, citing the common three pillared framework of economic, environmental and social sustainability which falls short of key elements found within the five-pillared framework. This study argues that the promotion of sustainable agricultural practices remains the domain of public agricultural extension services. The study proposes a need for the establishment of an inclusive policy that deals specifically with sustainable agricultural practices. In order to bring closer the context of the study, the definition of agricultural extension and the role it plays in agriculture is thoroughly discussed. The study also defines sustainable agriculture and why it became imperative in the last decade to expand the focus to the five pillars as a method for measuring outcomes in the future. The study evaluates the role of agricultural extension practitioners in Mpumalanga province in promoting sustainable agricultural practices. It further evaluates the role of extension managers in supporting extension practitioners. In conclusion, the study seeks to provide guidance to policy makers in considering the five pillars of sustainable agriculture when establishing agricultural policy on sustainable agriculture in South Africa. The study supports the need for training of extension managers, extension practitioners and farmers in the discipline of sustainable agricultural practices. ItemAn assessment of the transformation of Mkwasine Sugar Estate after land reform : the tensions and conflicts.(2017) Muromo, Francis.; Mafongoya, Paramu L.In examining whether corporate agriculture can be replaced by small-scale agriculture undertaken through the nucleus estate-out grower model after land reform in Zimbabwe‟s sugar estates in the south eastern Lowveld, there is need to answer the following critical questions: Has the unbundling of formerly large–scale corporate plantations to much smaller scale farming units destroyed the once vibrant sugar estate? Is the participation of ordinary farmers without experience in sugarcane-production a wise move and does that initiate new modes of accumulation from below? Can contract farming arrangements with corporate processors or buyers provide a more viable support model than involving state support in kick-starting small-scale farmers‟ entry into sugarcane production? Who currently owns what, who does what, who gets what and what do they do with it? Despite the negative perception being peddled in the local and international media about the dramatic transformation of the three sugar estates in Zimbabwe‟s south eastern Lowveld, land redistribution in the sugar estates had to be done to redress the colonial disparity in land ownership. This study therefore examined the subdivision of one of the sugar estates (Mkwasine Estate) into small-scale farming units, against the backdrop of tensions and conflicts between a South African multinational firm-Tongaat Hulett Zimbabwe (THZ) and the resettled black farmers. This is done to determine the changes that have occurred in the land ownership structure, land tenure system as well as contestations that arose over input accessibility, utility provision and sugar pricing after the reconfiguration of the estate. To achieve this, a stratified random sample of 45 farmers from three broad farmers‟ strata, namely the high, middle and low producer categories was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data that described what unfolded in the estate in the aftermath of land reform. Overall, the results highlighted significant land ownership and tenure system changes in the estate after the transformation. The results also established tenure insecurity in the estate as freehold tenure paved way to leasehold tenure after the Fast Track Land Reform Programme (FTLRP). There was gender disparity in the land allocation exercise as only 31.1% of the sample who benefited is women compared to 68.9 % men. Of the same sample 73.3% of the beneficiaries had no sugarcane farming experience against 26.7% who had it prior to receiving farms on the estate. The former are A2 farmers who were resettled under the FTLRP and came from the civil (35.5%) as well as the security services (37.8%) and are farming on a part time basis. The term "A2 farmers‟ refer to a new class of black commercial farmers introduced by government under the FTLRP to deracialise commercial farming. The latter (26.7%) came from the Chipiwa Settlement Scheme and are into full-time sugarcane farming and are former THZ employees. Since their incorporation in the industry, the resettled farmers‟ contribution to total sugar output rose from 17% in 2011 to 33% in 2016. The study also established that two formulas are used by Tongaat Hulett Zimbabwe (THZ) to procure the farmers‟ sugarcane namely the milling agreement (MA) and the cane purchase agreement (CPA). The MA allows farmers to enjoy proceeds from byproducts of sugar whereas the CPA does not allow farmers to enjoy those benefits. Of the sample 26.7% indicated they use the MA and 73.3 % used the CPA raising questions as to why two procurement formulas were used by THZ for farmers on the same estate. Lastly, further evidence from the study also shows the benefits of land reform going beyond sugar production as all the resettled farmers in the estate engage in a diverse range of livelihood portfolios like petty trading, livestock farming and natural resources extraction to augment their family incomes. The study recommends farmer capacity and capability building since over 70% of the sample had no prior sugarcane farming experience. It also recommends the standardization of land sizes and tenure system as well as the adoption of one procurement price for all the farmers‟ sugarcane in the estate. The formation of a sugar council by all the stakeholders to regulate the industry by government is also recommended as it does to other crops under its input support programmes. This would greatly reduce the challenges facing the sugar industry in Zimbabwe. ItemEffectiveness of innovation platforms in enhancing technology adoption, productivity and viability : the case of smallholder dairying in Rusitu and Gokwe, Zimbabwe.(2017) Hanyani-Mlambo, Benjamine.; Mudhara, Maxwell.; Nyikahadzoi, Kefasi.; Mafongoya, Paramu L.Despite numerous interventions, low adoption of dairy technologies, low productivity and viability challenges characterize smallholder dairy farming in large parts of the tropics. The problem lies in the unavailability, low adoption rates and disadoption of available improved smallholder dairying technologies. Using Rusitu and Gokwe smallholder dairy projects in Zimbabwe as a case study and a cross-sectional survey of 227 households, this research set out to: (i) explore the innovation domains and their influence on technology adoption patterns, (ii) determine the socio-economic differences between participants and non-participants in smallholder dairy innovation platforms, (iii) assess the effectiveness of innovation platforms in enhancing productivity and viability, and (iv) determine the potential of innovation platforms in enhancing the adoption of Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) innovations in smallholder dairying. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis identified five distinct innovation domains viz: smallholder dairy producers (61.6%), smallholder dairy heirs (15.9%), new and emergent producers (4.6%), smallholder dairy pioneers (2.0%), and market-oriented producers (15.9%). Innovation domains influence the level of dairy technology adoption, notably those with higher levels of participation in innovation platforms. Further comparisons indicated statistically significant differences between innovation platform participants and non-participants regarding dairy herd size, experience in commercial dairying, training received, dairy management systems, and overall Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) (p < 0.01). Propensity Score Matching (PSM) techniques were used to estimate the Average Treatment effect on the Treated (ATT) in determining the impact of innovation platforms on productivity and viability. Results show an ATT value of 0.135 (p < 0.1), while participation in innovation platforms had a positive significant impact on average milk productivity and gross income (p < 0.01). Multinomial Logit (MNL) regression analysis identified participation in innovation platforms to be significant in determining the adoption of CSA innovations such as artificial insemination and fodder production (p < 0.01), and hence the potential of innovation platforms in enhancing the adoption of CSA innovations in smallholder dairying. Innovation platforms have great potential for enhancing technology adoption, productivity and viability in smallholder dairying. This study recommends the promotion, adoption and sustainable funding of innovation platforms as practical tools for developing smallholder dairying. ItemMobilizing community assets to alleviate poverty among women : a case study of Zimele developing community self-reliance in rural KwaZulu-Natal.(2016) Matimelo, Audrey Mukwavi.; Green, Jannette Maryann.Faith-based organisations (FBOs) play an important role in the health and well-being of urban and rural communities. Most communities, especially in rural areas, depend on FBOs’ health facilities, social networks or charitable development services for their well-being. This study investigates the role of a FBO called Zimele Developing Community Self-Reliance (Zimele) in alleviating poverty among women in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Zimele has served the women of rural KwaZulu-Natal since 2007. Its Self Help Group (SHG) programme seeks to empower women by developing social support within communities and savings which members access for loans. SaveAct, a non-faith based organisation in KwaZulu-Natal doing similar work as Zimele, has been included in this study for comparative purposes. To achieve its objectives, this study researched the poverty context of rural KwaZulu-Natal, with a focus on women. The study provides various definitions of poverty such as income poverty, social poverty, capability deprivation poverty, disempowerment poverty, physical poverty and psychological poverty. The study researched the kind of poverty Zimele is working to alleviate. This study has provided various intervention strategies such as monetary interventions, David Korten’s Four Generations of NGO support, Asset Based Community Development and Paulo Freire’s Dialogical Action and Social Development. The study presented the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SLF), which most FBOs, NGOs and governments use to understand and act against poverty. Literature reviewed on the definitions of poverty, poverty alleviation strategies and the SLF guided the development of a theoretical framework upon which the study is constructed. Extensive literature review and field research were conducted by the researcher to collect the data necessary to achieve the aims of the study. The research design and methodology used were based on the aims and objectives of the study. The research used various data collection methods such as library study, focus group discussions, photography, documentary reviews, interviews and observations. The field research data collected was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) which is a Windows software package used to enter data, analyse data and create tables or graphs. There were eight key results in this study. First, Zimele, a FBO and SaveAct, a non-faith-based organisation, engage in enhancing livelihood strategies as opposed to charitable activities that create dependence. Second Zimele/SaveAct are enhancing the leverage of women’s Livelihood Assets portfolios for improved Livelihood outcomes. Third, Zimele/SaveAct, through their programmes, are empowering women in Swayimane and rural Winterton/Lotheni and rural Bergville to realise improved livelihood outcomes. Forth, Zimele is enabling the enhancement of Political Capital to alleviate disempowerment and physical poverty of the women on its programme while SaveAct does not. Fifth, the differences/similarities between Zimele’s development strategies, compared to SaveAct, indicate that Zimele’s primary focus is the building of Social Capital and Save/Act’s primary focus is Financial Capital, sixth, Zimele/SaveAct programmes are empowering rural women to become actors of their own development as seen in their diversification of livelihood strategies. Seventh, There is a disconnect between programmes implementers, Zimele/SaveAct staff, and the programme participants, the rural women, on the livelihood strategies, change and recommendation on areas of programmes improvements The present study immensely contributes to the academic world in understanding poverty and effective poverty alleviation strategies that help develop self-reliance and sustainable livelihood strategies. The study contributes to academic literature on the work of FBOs engaging with community assets for social transformation, a field on which not much has been written. The study ends with recommendations, based on its findings, to Zimele, SaveAct, social development policy-makers and academicians on implementable aspects that could help with effective poverty alleviation processes among women in rural communities. ItemCattle production, commercialization and marketing in smallholder farming systems of South Africa : impacts and implications of livestock extension and market transaction costs.(2015) Ndoro, Jorine Tafadzwa.; Mudhara, Maxwell.; Chimonyo, Michael.The lagging performance of agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa over the past four decades has been attributed to the underlying agro-ecological and market access conditions. Regions with high agricultural potential are often found in remote and rural areas lacking the basic infrastructure to integrate into the market economy. Such challenges are more pronounced in South Africa. The country’s livestock sector, for example, accounts for 69% of agricultural land and remains a key livelihood strategy for over three million smallholder farmers. Yet cattle markets are still characterized by low participation rates among smallholder farmers, which could be attributed to weak institutional support and high transaction costs. However, empirical evidence remains scanty. This study evaluated the impact of extension programme on cattle production and investigated the effects of extension information, market transaction costs and famers’ motivations on cattle commercialization and marketing in rural KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). The empirical analyses were based on data from a household survey of 230 cattle farmers in 13 communities of the Okhahlamba Local Municipality. Based on a propensity score matching (PSM) approach, the probit estimation results showed that the probability of participating in extension programmes decreases with education and Nguni breed farming and increases with herd size, group membership and distance from the extension office. The results of the Nearest Neighbour PSM algorithm showed that cows belonging to contact farmers and participants in farmers-to-farmer extension programmes produce more calves than their control counterparts. The results showed higher rates of use of veterinary services among participants in farmer-to-farmer extension sessions than among their control counterparts. However, these findings were not robust across different PSM algorithms. The findings, therefore, suggested that the training and visit (T&V) extension approach in the rural KZN remains largely supply-driven and achieves limited success. Based on Double-Hurdle estimation technique, the results of probit and truncated models of cattle commercialization and supply volume decisions showed that farmers with larger herd sizes are more likely to participate in cattle markets and, given positive decisions, they supply larger volumes of cattle to the market. They also showed that the likelihood of participating in cattle markets increases with membership in saving groups, Nguni farming, and cattle tagging, and decreases with proximity to water sources and unearned incomes. The results further showed that the quantity supplied increases with participation in farmer-to-farmer extension and decreases with expected price. These findings suggested that cattle commercialization in rural KZN is encouraged by farmer-to-farmer extension and discouraged by transaction costs and store-of-wealth motives. The estimation results of a multinomial logit model of marketing channel selection showed that selling during December (a festive month) increases the probability of choosing the auction marketing channel versus farm gate, suggesting a scope of market uncertainty during off-peak seasons. The results also showed that knowledge of the buyer and distance to auctions increase the probability of selling to speculators, suggesting that farmers selling to speculators face considerable challenges related to low bargaining power, while participants in dip tank sales face higher opportunity cost of time and efforts to transport the cattle. The results showed a positive effect of volume sold and age on selling at the auction, indicating that farmers spread auction-specific transaction costs over the number of units sold, and they gain the ability to co-ordinate market transaction, at much lower cost, through experience. The findings have several implications for livestock extension policies in South Africa. To be more demand-driven, extension strategists should: (i) explore advisory and facilitation models; (ii) ensure accountability of extension workers at local levels; and (iii) tap into market-led extension models. To facilitate cattle commercialization, extension workers should support farmer groups and promote non-livestock investment opportunities. Video auctioneering could alleviate the market uncertainty and high negotiation cost. Facilitating trust-based relational exchanges could help to eschew the scope of opportunism among itinerant speculators. ItemAgricultural innovation in a changing Ethiopian context : the case of dairy farming and business in the Addis Ababa milk shed, Ethiopia.(2014) Ezezew, Amanuel Assefa.; Fincham, Robert John.; Mudhara, Maxwell.Ethiopia’s economy remains largely dependent on agriculture, where smallholder farming is the main feature. Historically, a dominant smallholder economy came into existence during the communist regime (1974–90), when the government confiscated rural land from the aristocracy and redistributed it to the citizens. The communist regime paid more attention to state farms, with private agriculture being limited to smallholder farms. Following the change of government in 1990, private-sector agriculture developed quickly, although land remained state-owned. The land lease policy of the state allowed for the rapid growth of the private sector in agriculture, manufacturing and trade. Livestock is an important subsector in the country. Ethiopia has the largest livestock population in Africa, but does not benefit sufficiently from this resource. Technical reasons such as genetic limitations of the indigenous animals for milk production, poor quality feed resources, poor artificial insemination (AI) and veterinary health services are as important challenges. However, important but less explored factors of interest in this study include interactional (linkage and communications) limitations, institutional issues, policy and scarcity of knowledge. Development actors, including the government of Ethiopia, need to pay attention to these issues. The role of government on the livestock sector is increasing in some areas. For example, the Growth and Transformation Plan of the Ethiopian Government considers live animal exports an important source of foreign exchange earnings. The plan also recognizes the contribution of small ruminants and poultry to household food security. Dairy development is at the crossroads as there is a growing interest and participation of diverse actors in production, processing and marketing, which has created impetus for innovation. On the other hand, dairy innovation is constrained because of several important challenges. Explaining this paradox and identifying the key leverage points that could help to transform the dairy subsector into a more functional system is, therefore, the main focus of this study. The Addis Ababa Milk-shed is used as a case study. The Agricultural Innovation System (AIS) framework, an alternative to the Transfer-of- Technology (ToT), is the theoretical framework used in this study. The conventional ToT approach has limitations for understanding complex systems and functions. It only recognises the traditional actors in research, extension and farming, while undervaluing the private sector actors. The AIS framework explains how innovation takes place through interactions of people, policy and institutions. It is used in this study to firstly outline important historical episodes in the dairy subsector, and analyse how policies and other factors affect innovation over different periods. Secondly, it analyses the dairy resources and how innovation is enhanced. The third dimension places emphasis on understanding the complex interaction of actors outside the mainstream ToT model. Finally, the fourth area is on policy and institutional issues. This study is therefore premised on developing new insights into the innovation system framework by using concepts of resilience, leverage points, trust building and the implications of historical legacies in shaping contemporary innovation. The innovation capacity assessment model is used to develop the methodology of this study. Data collection, guided by the key components of the innovation system framework, include sector mapping, historical evolution of the sector, resource base analysis, interactions between actors, the policy environment, habits and practices, and resilient features and leverage points. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used for data collection and analysis within this framework. Key-informant interviews, questionnaire surveys, document review and consultative workshops were the main methods used to generate data. For quantitative data analysis, SPSS software was used, while the qualitative data were analyzed using tools such as systems drawing, linkage matrix, typology of linkages, habits and practice analysis, and content analysis. The lessons learned from history were used to identify key leverage points and formulate recommendations for innovation. Analysis considered dairy resources such as land, feed, genetic resources and services. The current system was compared to the previous regime in relation to how dairy innovation was affected. This study has shown a reduction in milk productivity by smallholder farmers in the Addis Ababa milk shed. The policy of the current government, based on a free market economy, privatization and investment, is contributing to diversification and innovation, but mainly in the processing industry and commercial farmers. The study has also identified productive interactions of dairy actors. These interactions are growing over time, but the impacts on the lives of the smallholder farmers have not been as beneficial as expected. For example, the critical problem of access to markets for smallholder farmers is not yet a main agenda item of any of the networks. This study, furthermore, found that four factors contribute to the existing market problems, namely the extended fasting season (196 days per annum) of the Orthodox Church believers; a limited tradition of milk drinking in Addis Ababa; high milk prices when compared to low incomes of the majority of citizens; and underutilization of the capacity of the milk processing industry, mainly as a result of a limited domestic market and the dominance of the informal milk market. The initiatives to enhance innovation to overcome these challenges are few. Promoting smallholder dairy production without addressing the market problems inhibits innovation. The study also concludes that interactions of the actors in the dairy innovation networks and the economic policy measures taken by the government have contributed to the development of the sub-sector. The government needs to consider a “bridging policy” to support the dairy subsector to become competitive in the export economy. Developing the dairy subsector in Ethiopia is urgently needed because the population is increasing as is the emerging middle class. This situation calls for urgent institutional innovation in research and extension agencies, NGOs and the private sector. ItemDimensions of agricultural educational training in formal education centres : in the case of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.(2013) Kidane, Tsion Tesfaye.; Worth, Steven Hugh.This study investigated student and teacher attitudes, factors affecting those attitudes and perceptions of students towards different aspects of agricultural education programme processes offered in secondary schools in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. It can be used by policy-makers and can also assist the various South African Departments of Education (DoE) and schools to improve classroom administration, curriculum delivery and the provision of teaching facilities and other required support. The sample population comprised 375 high school agricultural science students and 180 agricultural science teachers. The research was arranged in nested Concurrent Mixed Sampling Designs. A multi-stage, random, purposeful sampling procedure was implemented to select the sample population. The survey was conducted by using a pre-tested structured interview schedule. The survey used structured and unstructured questions appropriate to the study objective. The supplementary qualitative information was collected from both categories of respondents, using an open-ended questionnaire, observation and interviews. The quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics, such as frequency, percentage, mean, chi-square and the Tobit Model. The qualitative data was analysed using a spiral content analysis. With a 97% response rate, the result showed that there was sufficient agricultural lesson coverage in the teaching and learning process, but that there was often no compensation for missed lessons. Other problems include a shortage of teaching materials, trained agricultural science teachers and support for teaching programs. In aggregate, 76.5% of the students and 88% of the teachers have a highly positive attitude towards Agricultural Education and Training (AET). There was, however, a significant difference between the attitude of students in Dedicated, Rural and Urban Schools towards various aspects of AET. Racial background (African, White and Colored), large family size, discussion about agriculture with other people and family access to farming land, positively and significantly affect students’ attitudes towards AET. African students seemed to have the highest positive attitude towards AET, when compared to the White and Coloured students. Coloured students had the least positive attitude towards AET. Generally, the attitude of students positively increased with an increase in their family size. The absence of family access to farming land, having high school-educated mothers, and a monthly family income of between R500-5000, significantly and negatively influenced students’ attitudes towards AET. Teachers in the age category of 20-29 years have a negative correlation with their attitude towards AET. Teachers in the age category from 30 to 59 years were positively correlated with their attitude towards AET. This means that the attitude of teachers towards AET was positively influenced with an increase in the age of teachers above 30 years. Younger teachers had a more negative attitude than older agricultural science teachers. This suggests that more attention should be focused on motivating and supporting younger teachers to positively influence their attitudes towards AET. The availability of internet access to teachers negatively influenced their attitudes towards AET. This was attributed to the fact that they are not accessing AET-related information through their respective schools, mainly due to the lack of computer and internet facilities in the schools. The results showed that a higher percentage of agricultural science high school teachers were offering AET without having an agricultural science qualification and hence, even if they were more satisfied in terms of salary, their attitude towards AET was still negatively influenced. Conversely, teachers’ attitudes toward AET were positively influenced by racial background (African, White and Colored), having an Agricultural Science qualification, being satisfied with administrative support, experiencing social value, good human relations and respect in their schools and in the larger community, and the availability of good communication between teachers, students, administrators and support staff in their school’s micro-environment. African teachers had a more positive attitude towards AET, compared to the White and Coloured teachers. These findings, which are based on the empirical data should be used as the basis for improving AET systems aimed at establishing open information-sharing and networking between policy-makers and implementers in order to make timely adjustments, for the limitations that occur. The findings also implied the need to improve the quality of AET offered, by creating awareness among policy-makers and implementers at all levels concerning current attitudes of teachers and students, as well as the factors influencing them. They suggest that consideration should be given to teaching-learning infrastructure, income-generating agribusiness sources, such as the establishment of small-scale farming, and in-service training programmes for agricultural science teachers. ItemExploring the cause of the persisting productivity gap of small scale sugar cane planters in Mauritius : new directions for research and development and agricultural extension.(2013) Pillay, Kessawa Pillay Payandi.; Worth, Steven Hugh.Despite progress made by Research and Development in the Mauritian sugar cane industry, a productivity gap averaging 1.5 to 2.5 tonnes of sugar per hectare has been constantly observed between large corporate planters and the small planters. Although recent studies (MSIRI, 2010) show that only a small proportion of the small planters have access to research findings, it is strongly believed that this alone cannot be the reason for this productivity gap. To be able to identify other factors that may also contribute to this gap, a qualitative study was undertaken. It comprised focus group discussions with research specialists, extension officers and representatives of farmers’ organizations and other service providing institutions to explore explored current extension practices in Mauritius. Secondly, a survey was conducted among a sample of small planters operating in three milling areas, located in the major agro-climatic zones of Mauritius. A realistic and practical sample size, adhering as closely as possible to the intent of the concept of saturation (Mason, 2010:1), was used, due to limited resources and funds. A total of 147 small sugar cane planters were interviewed using a questionnaire designed for that purpose and the information collected was processed and analysed using Microsoft Access and IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0. Knowledge of the demographics of the planters is important to be able to understand the reason for the productivity gap. The study found that the majority of the respondents own small-sized fields (less or equal to one hectare), are males over the age of 40 years, and have more than 15 years of experience in sugar cane farming. In terms of cane yield per hectare, a slight majority of the respondents (52%) indicated that they are not achieving their field potential. Among those achieving good cane yields, the majority are experienced farmers (< 15 years farming sugar cane) who own their sugar cane lands; 46% operate on farm sizes of less than one hectare and 94% adopt good management practices. Income, family tradition and a sense of duty were the most common reasons given by respondents for farming sugar cane. However, no single one of these was identified by a majority of farmers as the primary reasons for engaging in sugar cane farming; most gave a combination of these factors. The contribution of this income to the total income of the small planters is generally insignificant. Among the major conclusions of the study, the phenomenon of risk aversion /disincentive among the small planters towards further investments and adoption of new technologies is discussed. Three options are identified for the small sugar cane planters in Mauritius - small planters willing to improve their production levels; those willing to maintain the status quo; and those planters willing to opt out of the sugar cane business. It is conceded that to respond to these options, and particularly if there is a desire to improve the livelihood of the small sugar cane planters in Mauritius, research and extension have to review their functioning. They will, henceforth, have to engage themselves in genuine partnerships with the small planters and in this context a framework is proposed for the research process. ItemThe role of agricultural extension in promoting food security in the context of encouraging biodiversity conservation in South Africa : the case of KwaZulu-Natal.(2013) Abdu-Raheem, Kamal Adekunle.; Worth, Steven Hugh.This study evaluates the roles of agricultural extension relative to overcoming household food security and biodiversity conservation concerns in South Africa, with specific reference to the KwaZulu-Natal province. Food security in South Africa is paradoxical. The country is nationally food secure, yet a sizable percentage of its households remain hungry. The national government identifies agriculture as a potentially viable vehicle to ensure food security among the poor households. On the other hand, agricultural activities have taken a centre stage among the identified major drivers for biodiversity loss in the country. In fact, it is as if the relationship between agriculture, being the driver for food security, and loss of biodiversity is ‘inversely proportional’; hence the efforts to attain household food security and to ensure biodiversity conservation appear to be mutually exclusive. Extension is particularly well positioned to address both food security and biodiversity conservation concerns, since its activities are directly related to both objectives. In this context, this study investigates and unravels the functions which extension currently plays in respect of achieving these two seemingly contradictory objectives within KwaZulu-Natal, and draws conclusions about what must be done to effectively position agricultural extension to realise these currently dichotomised objectives simultaneously in the country. The research processes adopted for this investigation are two-fold: a theoretical and philosophical process, on the one hand, and an empirical process, on the other. Both processes followed a systematic investigation pattern. The influence of extension on food security and biodiversity conservation respectively were first interrogated separately; and subsequently, its influence on both of them simultaneously was examined. Drawing on relevant published works, in the case of the theoretical process, this study was able to establish that extension is particularly well positioned to address both food security and biodiversity conservation concerns simultaneously through the instruments of linkages, local knowledge facilitation, engaging and building on social capital and education. The empirical process involved data collection through semi-structured interviews with respondents, comprising various national and provincial-level food security and extension managers and extension practitioners, as well as food security/extension officers from two NGOs and farmers. A total of 46 respondents participated in the investigation on food security and extension issues, and 44 respondents were interrogated on biodiversity conservation and extension issues. Some of the participants were engaged for both investigations. The study generally found that extension engages primarily in technology transfer and supply of farming inputs like seeds and fertilizers to the farming households. Three sets of factors affecting the capacity of extension to promote food security together with biodiversity conservation emerged: household/community-level factors; social factors; service delivery factors; and ecological factors; the last being specifically related to biodiversity conservation promotion. Key among these factors were: inadequate household production resources including lack of seed banks and poor education, inadequate involvement of youth and men in agriculture, ecological conditions consisting of irregular and inadequate rainfall, drought and flooding, the top-down nature of agricultural and extension interventions, poor collaboration and coordination between extension and biodiversity conservation institutions, and poor extension management and delivery capacities. The study concluded on the need for appropriate linkages between the extension and the food security and biodiversity directorates of the Provincial Department of Agriculture, strengthening extension support system, and creating an atmosphere conducive to extension activities. It recommends that efforts of government, extension management, food security and biodiversity conservation institutions and farmers be integrated and better coordinated to clearly articulate policies for extension, food security and biodiversity conservation. In the light of the conclusions, the study developed and presented a ‘Refurbished Extension Model’ which builds on the current South African model by introducing the following three elements: i. collaboration among all the stakeholders involved in promoting food security, biodiversity conservation and agricultural extension objectives; ii. adoption of capacity-building approach (replacing the current top-down, technology transfer approach) by extension to support farmers who are at the centre of the food security and biodiversity objectives; and iii. re-invigoration of extension institutions by providing specific capacities which are lacking at present within the institution. With these in place, the model postulates that extension, alongside farmers, would be better placed to foster new farming ideologies to address the food security and biodiversity conservation concerns simultaneously. ItemMoving beyond substence : systemic integrity in commercialising homestead agriculture, with the Ezemvelo Farmers Organisation, KwaZulu-Natal.(2012) Caister, Karen Fern.; Green, Jannette Maryann.; Modi, Albert Thembinkosi.The transformation of South Africa’s rural communal spaces into an economically viable, socially stable and harmonious sector is currently on the political agenda, the efforts of the public sector to achieve this however have fallen far short of the intended goal leaving subsistence and emerging farmers with little or no support. A current decline in agricultural activity in South Africa’s rural areas threatens to weaken even further the strength of rural economies. Calls for the return of ‘peasant’ agriculture to the political and academic agendas and a clarion call for South African farmers to rewrite their history lie within the problem of sustaining humanity with the economic, social, environmental and temporal dimensions as a driver for development. This thesis interprets the activities and behaviours that defined the innovative response of small-scale commercial farmers in KwaZulu-Natal who role model ‘farming’ as a ‘way of life’ in communal land spaces. The focus of the research was to interpret a useful meaning in the re-negotiation of power relationships between producers and their market. It conceptualised the process of individuals who had determined, and continue to define, their future. The events observed over the three years of field work, offered the possibility of generating an emergent solution to re-inventing farming as a way of life as season by season, decisions were made at the individual homestead level, collectively at community level and between internal and external decision-makers for market oriented agriculture as an additional farming strategy. A constructivist epistemology, relying on a pragmatic approach to using grounded theory methods within a participatory process, constituted the study design. The research focussed only on emic issues as the ‘culture’ or social and material priorities of the agronomic system in transition. For this reason, sensitising concepts were drawn from within the context to limit the scope and analysis of the study. Following the field work and write up, the literature of agrarian change was used to locate the study and consider the practical contribution of the study. This research identified that ‘successful’ commercial homestead agriculture was the result of changes in mind-set that allowed for new norms and behaviours for farming practice and for relationships. These shifts provided leverage points for overcoming resistance between producers and markets in accommodating a sustainable market oriented agronomy. Influencing the change was the impact of informed decision making, which brought the stakeholders together through the sharing of values and beliefs. Success was interpreted as using the market-orientated production of amadumbe to tap into the factors that sustained and created social cohesion, as well as those that stimulated agricultural activity. This emphasis encouraged the capacity for development and cultivation of sustainability. The research proposes that deliberate interdependence between producers and markets creates the incentive for development that is self-determining, sustainable and derives economic benefits from agricultural activity. This research contributes towards understanding how to re-define commercialisation as an inherent characteristic of traditional agricultural practice and, within this, a meaningful description for stakeholders of the social impact of a deliberate and mutually determined reconstruction of livelihood reality through a farmer-market researcher relationship. The research introduces the need for a new way of engaging over agriculture in communal spaces; how Discourse is defined and managed; for whom the results of evaluation and monitoring are aimed; and to whom the results of research belong. The research raises consciousness of the need for a space within which dialogue and support for sustaining social agriculture and the role that research institutions could play. The product of this research is a theory whose core variable defines successful commercial homestead agriculture as a dimension of systemic integrity between internal and external economic interactions. Systemic integrity has been defined as the process by which commercialisation of traditional agriculture has been demonstrated through tapping into the motivations that stimulate agricultural activity and nurturing social cohesion as the framework for legitimate development partnerships. The findings contribute to the discussion of how to unlock the technological and productive potential of rural communities within the images of supportiveness, solidarity, and communalism that produce food for the survival of humanity in a contemporary and dynamic world. ItemDevelopment of network theory approaches to analyse cause and effect relationships in complex integrated sugarcane supply and processing systems.(2013) Sanjika, Thawani M.; Lyne, Peter William Liversedge.; Bezuidenhout, Carel Nicolaas.; Bodhanya, Shamim Ahmed.Network theory has been widely and successfully used to model, analyse and visualise complex systems. This study aimed to develop approaches to analyse complex integrated sugarcane supply and processing systems. A literature review includes network theory, complex systems, the Theory of constraints, indicator analysis and root cause analysis. The cause-and-effect networks of four sugarcane milling areas in South Africa; viz. Eston, Felixton, Komati and Umfolozi were developed, where the factors that negatively affected the performance of the milling areas were represented by vertices, the relationships among the factors by arcs and the strength of these relationships by weights. Three network theory based analytical tools namely; (a) primary influence vertex analysis, (b) indicator vertex analysis and (c) root cause vertex analysis were developed to analyse the networks. The results from the analyses indicate variations in the numbers and strengths of primary influence factors, problem indicator factors and root causes of problems between the four milling areas. Rainfall, drought and high soil content in sugarcane were identified as the strongest primary influences in the respective milling areas. High crush rate variability, low cutter productivity, running behind allocation and increases in operating costs were identified as the strongest indicators of poor performance in the respective milling areas. Rainfall was found to be the most dominating root cause of poor performance in all the milling areas. Since the South African integrated sugarcane production and processing system is complex, it is likely that the unique approaches developed in this study can be used successfully to also analyse other relatively complex systems. It is recommended that these approaches be tested within other systems. The main contribution of this study is in the form of a relatively easy-to-use network theory based comprehensive systems analyses tool. This analytical approach has, to the author's knowledge, not been used in any agri-industrial application previously. ItemThe value of participatory and non-participatory implementation and evaluation methodologies of HIV/AIDS communication-based interventions in southern Africa.(2004) Niba, Mercy Bi.; Green, Jannette Maryann.; Dalrymple, Lynn I.HIV/AIDS is an epidemic that is in one way or another affecting humankind and particularly the African continent. Due to its devastating nature, many strategies and interventions are being employed at different levels and by different groups of people to fight it. Evaluation has been a component of these projects, but few have been subjected to systematic monitoring and evaluation that provides a foundation for the development and implementation of further projects. This is partly due to the fact that project implementation and evaluation can be rendered complex by several factors, such as the choice of methodologies, donor satisfaction and the very nature of interventions and evaluations themselves. Taking a situation where the aim of a project and its evaluation is to bring about social change, as is the case with many HIV/AIDS interventions, this study sought to investigate approaches that could be considered meaningful, useful and valuable. In order to carry out the investigation of this study, the approach taken was an in-depth analysis of a few cases (in anticipation of greater achievement of insight), rather than broader survey types of perspectives. The study also concentrated on a review of the literature and on validation of documentary and interview evidence provided by beneficiaries, managerial staff and evaluators of communication-based HIV/AIDS. Results of the study highlighted the fact that community-based factors, such as education, poverty, culture, beliefs, gender, crime and age, influenced social change (with respect to HIV/AIDS) in varying ways and depending on the communities concerned. The different ways in which these factors influenced social change within specific communities were noted to have implications on interventions dealing with them. As such, an in-depth assessment of these different ways with respect to specific groups of people was encouraged in order to have a meaningful, useful and valuable HIV/AIDS intervention. The theory of active participation of targeted communities was also propagated in an HIV/AIDS intervention. It was noted that when active participation is encouraged in a project at both implementation and evaluation, taking the example of an HIV/AIDS project that intended achieving group knowledge acquisition, awareness, attitude change, skills acquisition, effective functioning and sustainability, such participation would contribute to: • Override to a great extent, limitations arising from socio-demographic differences (project locations and gender, language, age and race of implementers, evaluators and beneficiaries), in the attainment of project objectives. • Override to a great extent, limitations arising from differences in forms of evaluation (internal versus external evaluators), in the assessment of project objectives. • Create an enabling environment for higher attainment of project objectives in comparison to a situation where active participation is encouraged only at implementation (and not at evaluation). It was further discovered from this study that when beneficiaries are excluded from participating in the planning, action-planning and result-feedback stages of a project and its evaluation, dissatisfaction is experienced on the part of these beneficiaries as well as missed opportunities for useful contributions. The degree and quality of beneficiary involvement in project implementation and evaluation was seen to generate beneficiary excitement and a general sense of project acceptance: all of which was noted to create an enabling environment for the making of proper choices and decisions. Finally, difficulty in accessing traditional evaluations and people's feeling of shame and ineffectiveness was noted in the work (in the area of collecting data pertaining to traditional evaluation). This pointed to possible compromise of meaningfulness, usefulness and value of traditional evaluations. ItemLocal governance and traditional leadership : a case study of Umgungundlovu, Umzinyathi, Uthukela, and Amajuba Districts in KwaZulu-Natal.(2008) Ndlela, Rejoice Nomusa.; Green, Jannette Maryann.; Reddy, Purshottama Sivanarain.The purpose of this study was to examine aspects of rural local governance within the democratic local government system in the Umgungundlovu, Umzinyathi, Uthukela and Amajuba districts of KwaZulu-Natal. This study could feed into the management and policy making systems of the Department of Local Government and Traditional Affairs of the Province. It would also inform a practical traditional administration centre model. It also intends to provoke a debate on issues of rural local governance in particular within the democratic local government system in South Africa. The study looked at the evolution of the institution of traditional leadership over the years. Policy issues with regard to the functioning and structuring of traditional leadership institutions in local governance were used as a basis for this discussion. Different items of legislation relating to local government and traditional leadership in South Africa generally and in KwaZulu-Natal in particular were analysed to give insight into the issues of rural local governance. It was found that traditional leaders have always worked hand in hand with government and that the government has and still is making deliberate efforts to keep traditional leadership under its control by paying their salaries and controlling all processes and systems in the functioning of traditional authorities. National and Provincial policies were found to be giving government (both National and Provincial) too much discretionary powers regarding the roles and functions of traditional leaders. The KwaZulu-Natal Department of Local Government and Traditional Affairs (DLGTA) had transformed tribal courts into Traditional Administration Centres (TACs) in line with the government's call to bring government services closer to the people. There are sixty four TACs in the Umgungundlovu, Umzinyathi, Uthukela and Amajuba districts of KwaZulu-Natal. This study reviews the level of functionality of these TACs over a period of 6 months. The activities of all TACs were monitored and recorded daily for the duration of the study. The study revealed that the TACs were generally not being used to their full potential. A combination of well equipped centres coupled with motivated and committed support staff is crucial for the effective functioning of TACs. The study also looked at different community centre models and compared them with the traditional administration centre model to help develop a practical traditional administration centre model. The study further recommends that TACs be linked to the Multipurpose Community Centres (MPCCs) either as extensions or satellites thereof. In terms of ownership, it is recommended that TACs be handed over to the local municipalities in order to ensure proper maintenance and sustainability thereof. As part of rural local governance, the study also investigated synergistic partnerships between the institution of traditional leadership and municipalities. This was done through focus group discussions with government officials, traditional councils, municipal councillors and community members. The focus group discussions also revealed the level of understanding on the roles of traditional councils and municipal councillors by different groupings i.e. government officials, traditional councils, municipal councillors and community members. The study concludes that conflict between traditional leaders and municipal councillors is inevitable and that it is difficult but not impossible to form functional linkages between the two. South Africa has seen remarkable improvements in the transformation of the institution of traditional leadership in terms of composition, functions and legal manifestations. There is a reasonable understanding on the roles of municipal councillors but traditional councils seemed not to be clear about their roles and policy issues in general. Many subjects believed that direct intervention by National and Provincial governments was desirable if sound local governance was to be attained. The study also recommends that agency agreements be entered into between traditional councils and municipalities and between traditional councils and provincial governments to allow traditional councils to perform certain functions on behalf of government departments and municipalities. ItemFactors influencing smallholders participation in agricultural markets in Southern Niassa, Mozambique.(2005) Lukangu, Gastao.; Green, Jannette Maryann.; Worth, Steven Hugh.; Greenfield, Peter L.Government, donors and NGOs in southern Niassa have been, after the 1992 peace agreement, extensively involved in agricultural development programmes to improve smallholders' food security. A study of the area and literature review revealed that many factors limited the benefits of agricultural market development programmes. Yet, opportunities in southern Niassa suggested that appropriately designed programmes could improve the standard of living of smallholders if these programmes were designed on a solid understanding of factors and strategies influencing agricultural market participation by smallholders. The main research hypothesis of this study was that: smallholders would participate in agricultural markets when their wealth status was high, when they had enough available household labour and when cash crops were profitable." Four main hypotheses were investigated: (i) factors and strategies identified through smallholder perceptions would provide local and time specific information on the constraints and solutions to smallholder market participation; (ii) wealth status and wealth-ranking factors were positively related to market participation where agriculture was the main economic activity as in southern Niassa; (iii) labour aspects such as crop labour requirements (CLR) could be negatively related, while available household labour (AHL) and the ratio AHL/CLR could be positively related to smallholders cultivation of cash crops and subsequent participation in agricultural markets; and (iv) aspects of profitability and indicators could be used to predict smallholder cash crop preferences. Data for this study were collected in Cuamba district of Mozambique from nine focus group discussions (FGDs) with community leaders, 287 household-head questionnaires and staff interviews during September 2002. Nine villages were randomly selected. The leaders' FGDs provided the criteria utilised to rank households according to wealth status and much of the qualitative information of this study. The wealth-ranking tool was used to identify and analyse the socio-economic factors that influenced smallholder market participation. A follow-up interview of managers of promoting institutions also provided greater insight on some aspects raised by smallholders. The study employed (i) descriptive statistics such as means and frequencies; (ii) correlation analysis and standard scores (iii) qualitative analysis was also used for some wealth-ranking, perceived labour demand and aspects of profitability influencing cash crop cultivation, preference and market participation based on information from FGD, farmers and staff; and (iv) simple mathematical expressions for analysis and interpretation of the research findings. This study relied on perceptions, knowledge and experience of smallholders, leaders and leaders of promoting institutions. Smallholder-suggested factors and strategies were in line with the limitations of socio-economic characteristics such as low effective household labour, particularly for females. These strategies included an improvement in outputs and inputs markets, agricultural services and credit at a subsidised prices or low interest rates. Other strategies for improving smallholders' participation in agricultural markets included promotion of profitable cash crops, household food security, provision of extension support services and information about cultivation and agricultural markets. However, smallholders did not identify some factors that have been acknowledged to influence agricultural market participation: ecological and natural resources, policies, institutional infrastructures and physical infrastructures. Smallholders also did not mention socio-economic factors (except household labour) as influencing their decisions to participate in agricultural markets in spite of the fact that researchers assume these factors in almost every study on smallholder market participation. The findings of this research confirmed that a wealth-ranking tool could be used to identify the socio-economic factors affecting smallholders' participation in agricultural markets. The identified wealth-ranking factors such as labour, livestock number, implements and bicycles significantly correlated with wealth status and subsequently to smallholder agricultural market participation. Conversely, household socio-economic characteristics not indicated as wealth-ranking factors such as age and gender related poorly to market participation. The wealth-ranking tool could also be used to identify strategies for improving smallholder participation in agricultural markets, and to evaluate an agricultural market development programme. The study found that, other factors being held constant, CLRs were negatively related to market participation. Weeding was the most labour intensive operation followed by harvesting, soil preparation, transportation, land clearing and seedling preparation. It also found that AHL and the ratio AHL/CLR were positive and significantly related to market participation. The ratio AHL/CLR together with household consumption requirements and yield were used to estimate the total area a household could cultivate, both for food crops for consumption and for cash crops; the proportion of farmers likely to participate in the market; and those unable to cultivate enough for consumption. The research also confirmed that profitability-related aspects correlated to cash crop preferences. Yield was the most important factor that influenced smallholders' preference for cash crops. It was also found that indicators incorporating more aspects of profitability correlated strongly with cash crop preferences. The correlation increased as more aspects were incorporated. A crop, such as tobacco, with a profit of more than twice the profit for food cash crops was preferred more than food cash crops. The indicators and underlying aspects of profitability were used to interpret the current and projected cash crop preference.