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Masters Degrees (Childcare and Protection)

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    Combating substance abuse amongst learners in South African schools.
    (2021) Ngubane, Nozipho Babra.; Clark, Brigitte Jennifer.
    Substance abuse amongst learners in schools seems to play a big role in destroying the dreams and future of leaners. This study aims at looking at the causes that may lead to substance abuse and the effects it has on the learners, families, community and the country as a whole. The leaners have families, they belong to certain communities and form part of the country. This is the reason why the researcher decided to broaden the study to include all other people that might have an impact and who are also affected by this plague of substance abuse amongst leaners. The causes of substance abuse that are outlined in this study includes loneliness, rejection peer pressure, stress, exposure via modelling, environmental surroundings and socialisation and family conflict. Peer pressure and stress are very dominant causes towards substance abuse. However, the fact that leaners come from different families with different family background and financial status is stressful that other leaners end up being exposed to peer pressure while trying to make friends. This however leads to unplanned sexual activity, an increase in sexually transmitted diseases, depression, cancer, suicide, personality disorders, and homicides. It contributes to a number of school dropouts, unemployment, crime, and poverty. These effects have an impact in all citizens from leaners, their families, the communities and the country at large. This study further looks at the available legislation in combating substance and drug abuse amongst leaners in South African schools. The legislations are available but the research specifically on leaners abusing substances has not been explored, hindering the researcher to get as much facts as possible. However, the legal framework set out the rules and regulations of substance abuse. The researcher identified that the problem is with implementing the available legislations resulting to substance abuse issues not being adequately addressed. Different legislations such as the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, United Nations Convention on Rights of the Child, The National Drug Master Plan, Constitution of South Africa, Children’s Act, South African Schools Act and other legislation were looked at in comparison with other countries legislations to identify the gap. Professionals have roles and responsibilities in assisting the learners affected by substance abuse, their parent and families. A comparison between South Africa and the United State of America for strategies that proved to be effective in combating substance abuse was done. This can assist in answering the research question as to what can be done to assist the learners and families who are affected by substance abuse.
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    Exploring child participation in parental divorce matters in African ind[i]genous communities of KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2021) Zondi, Nokukhanya.; Zibane, Sibonsile Zerurcia.
    This descriptive, Afrocentric study was aimed at exploring child participation in parental divorce matters in indigenous African communities of KwaZulu-Natal. The research paradigm, methodology, principles, values, and processes underpinning this study were framed within the context of the Afrocentric philosophical and theoretical perspective. Since the study focused on African knowledge and value systems, it thus placed the African people, their culture, and experiences at the centre. The data were generated from the perspectives of indigenous Black African people. This study adopted a qualitative research approach and utilised a descriptive Afrocentric research design. Semi-structured interviews were used as data collection tools. The participants were selected using the purposive and snowball sampling techniques. The total sample was fourteen, of whom nine were senior community members and five were indigenous leaders who have facilitated divorce mediation in indigenous African communities. The data collected were then analysed using thematic analysis. The findings have revealed that mediation is an ancient practice and a system that has been addressing the needs of children in indigenous African communities. The indigenous African people cherish mediation not as a single incidence but as a way of life that is embedded in the indigenous African family systems. The study further revealed that in the indigenous setting child participation occurs in various forms both direct and indirect forms and occurs in different stages of a couple’s marital life. In indigenous African communities, child participation begins from the period of pregnancy. Thus, the concept of child participation is better understood through an understanding of the role children play in indigenous African marriages and family system. The child’s role in mediation is culturally defined and relates to their phase of development and the sequence of childbirth from the firstborn to the last-born child. In this study, mediation has therefore been discussed as an accessible, appropriate communication platform, a unit of psychosocial support, and a costless emotional support system embedded in African indigenous settings.
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    An assessment of child marriage and its human rights implications on the girl child in Zimbabwe.
    (2021) Muchineripi, Notebulgah.; Bernard, Rowena Bronwen.
    No abstract provided.
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    Challenges experienced by children in child headed households (CHH) in South Africa.
    (2021) Bhengu, Jabulisile Precious.; Balogun-Fatokun, Victoria Aderonke.
    The civilization of society from inception has always been accompanied by unintended consequences. Such as the disorientation of families. Subsequently, the prevalence of minors assuming duties of parents within households is increasingly becoming a concern in this modern age. Researchers have coined the term Child Headed Household to contemporary refer to households headed by a child/children younger than 18 years. The phenomenon is seemingly not adequately recognised as a social problem since there is little literature available on the matter. Therefore, this has propelled this research to precisely examine the legal elements and the extend in which the rights of children living in child headed household are protected. The causes and possible remedies to prevent this anomaly of minors having to assume responsibilities of parents in a household. And the legislations together with government policies effectiveness or the lack thereof, in addressing the challenges faced by the children acting as heads of households. Ukuhlaliswa komphakathi kusukela ekuqaleni bekuhlala kuhambisana nemiphumela ebingahlosiwe. Njengokudideka kwemindeni. Ngemuva kwalokho, ukwanda kwezingane ezithatha imisebenzi yabazali emindenini kuya ngokuya kukhathaza kule minyaka yobudala. Abaphenyi baqambe igama elithi i-Child Headed Household ukuze libhekise emakhaya anamuhla aphethwe yizingane / izingane ezingaphansi kweminyaka eyi-18. Lo mkhuba ubonakala unganele ngokwanele njengenkinga yezenhlalo, ngoba kuncane izincwadi ezitholakalayo ngalolu daba. Ngakho-ke lokhu kuqhubekise lolu cwaningo ukuthi luhlolisise kahle izici zomthetho nokunwetshwa kwamalungelo ezingane ezihlala ezindlini eziphethwe yizingane. Izimbangela namakhambi akhona okuvimbela lokhu kungalungi kwezingane okumele zithwale imithwalo yemfanelo yabazali ekhaya. Nemithetho kanye nezinqubomgomo zikahulumeni ezisebenza ngempumelelo noma ukuntuleka kwayo, ekubhekaneni nezinselelo izingane ezihlangabezana nazo njengezinhloko zemindeni.
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    The integration of orphans and vulnerable children into society: a case study of St Monica Children’s Home, Bluff.
    (2022) Magumise, Blessing.; Bernard, Rowena Bronwen.
    The integration of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) into mainstream society has highlighted the inefficiencies of the orphanage system. Orphanages also known as child and youth care centres (CYCC), are devoted to taking care of OVCs that have been removed from their biological families due to the risks they faced. The study employed an exploratory qualitative research technique with the aid of the socio-legal research framework to depict the challenges that are faced by the OVCs during integration. The research made use of non-probability sampling techniques, in particular, purposive sampling to select participants for the interviews. Socio-Legal empirical research theory and Content analysis were employed to assess the information which was collected from the telephonic interviews. The research concludes that institutions are creating a dependency syndrome that makes it difficult for the OVCs to adjust to life outside the children’s homes. Unfortunately, the policies implemented to safeguard the lives of the OVCs in the institution does more harm than good. The OVCs are inadequately prepared for life after reunification. Reunification is a process whereby a child is transitioned back to his or her biological family. The reunification process is flawed making the OVCs vulnerable. The study depicted that post-institutional support provided by the Department of Social Development is ineffective. The study focused on the legal implications of the reunification process. It was evident that children are not capable to lead an independent life after reunification. They still feel the need to get assistance from the institutions they were once placed. The reunification process struggles to meet up with the promulgated best interest of the child principle provided in the Children’s Act. Social workers who have a responsibility to assist OVCs who are found to be in need of care and protection are overwhelmed with high caseloads and struggle to effectively reintegrate these children back into society.
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    Challenges facing child victims in South African courts: an overview of the South African legal framework and the protection of such children, with a specific focus on courts in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2022) Ngubane, Bathabile Mandisi Maureen.; Bellengere, Adrian Hugh.
    South African children are most vulnerable to sexual offences and the high level of sexual violence against children in South Africa is of great concern. Currently, South Africa is facing the challenge of rising crime levels across most sectors of crime, but sexual offences affecting children are amongst the most predominant of the crimes facing the country. Delays in the criminal justice processes, as well as the re-victimisation of child victims, result in many sexual offences going unreported to the police. Therefore, many victims remain without justice. Some research indicates that child victims of sexual offences experience secondary victimisation when seeking assistance from the police, officials, criminal justice officials in courts and correctional services. This research study sought to investigate how (or whether) South African law protects child victims during the criminal justice process and to ascertain how it could be improved. The study discovered that the sexual offence of a child victim of a sexual offence is mostly perpetrated by people that children trust and are familiar with. Secondary victimisation is perpetrated by police officials when victims report the crime, health workers during medical examination, court officials during court proceedings and correctional officials when granting parole without liaising with all parties involved.
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    The mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse in South Africa.
    (2021) Mpanza, Fortunate Makhosazane.; Singh, Annette.
    This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the legislation that protects children against sexual abuse, the factors that influence the mandatory reporting of sexual abuse in South Africa and how to incorporate different professionals mandated in the mandatory reporting of sexual abuse. In relation to that, the objectives were to examine the extent to which the legislation that protects children against sexual abuse in South Africa is effective in promoting the mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse; to examine the factors that influence the mandatory reporting of sexual abuse; to determine methods in which mandatory reporting can be improved to increase the reporting rate in South Africa; and to make recommendations for the compliance of mandatory reporting of sexual abuse. Study was a desk research and the findings were based on what was found by different researchers on the subject of mandatory reporting. Much focus was placed on prosecutors, police officers, psychologists, teachers and social workers as mandated reporters. It emerged from the study that some gaps still exist in the legislation that protects children against sexual abuse. Among the factors that have led to cases of sexual abuse not being reported was a lack of knowledge of the procedures for reporting, distrust among professionals, uncertainty about the outcomes of reporting, as well as a lack of faith in the judicial system. Inter-disciplinary efforts, the training of teachers on mandatory reporting and systemic interventions, among other methods, can be used to improve the mandatory reporting of the sexual abuse of children in South Africa. This study recommends the use of multiple and diverse interventions; the training of both professionals and the public on children’s rights and their obligations; placing social workers in community health settings; and investing more resources in the training of teachers as they are the ones that spend the most time with children among all the professionals.
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    Exploring the response of the religious leaders towards child abuse in eThekwini Municipality, KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2021) Niyodusenga, Alphonse Paulin.; Mthembu, Maud Nombulelo.
    Child abuse is considered as a societal problem. Globally, studies have shown a high rate of child abuse in communities. However, very little is known is social science research about the response of religious leaders towards child abuse. This study aimed to understand the response of religious leaders towards child abuse in eThekwini Municipality, KwaZulu-Natal. The study used the ecological systems theory as a theoretical framework to understand the extent of child abuse as a societal problem influenced by different environmental factors and church leaders’ experiences in managing and dealing with child abuse cases. This qualitative study included twelve church leaders from different denominations selected through a purposive sampling technique. Data were collected through semi-structured individual interviews, which were audio-recorded and later transcribed. The thematic analysis method was used to analyse the data. The study findings showed that child abuse is a pandemic in communities. The socio-economic circumstances such as substance abuse, parental/caregiver mental health, and cultural beliefs are key contributors to the abuse of children. The participants reported sexual and emotional abuse as the highest cases they deal with in communities. Despite South African legislation that protects and promotes children's rights, the participants reported that many child abuse cases are not reported to authorities. Lack of knowledge about the reporting procedures, the child's safety after reporting, and the safety of the church leaders were reported as major challenges in reporting child abuse cases. Findings revealed that church leaders play a critical role in managing child abuse cases. They offer social, spiritual, and child and family support. Some of the churches’ leaders provide ongoing life skills programs for youth to help them cope with everyday challenges. The findings highlight the religious community's critical challenges in fulfilling the mandate of the Children’s Act of mandatory reporting of child abuse cases in communities. These challenges impact child protection responses. Despite these challenges, the religious sector offers a wide range of preventive and family interventions in communities that strengthen children's support.
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    Financial security of child and youth-headed households in South Africa.
    (2020) Ndlovu, Nkululeko Praisegod.; Holness, Willene Audri.
    There is a growing number of child and youth-headed households in South Africa. Illnesses such as Tuberculosis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are main factors that cause mortality and morbidity of parents. The indigenous South African family system that used to absorb orphans and care for them is no longer coping because many extended families are without parents. South Africa was the first country to give legal recognition to child-headed households. Thus, these households are recognised as a form of alternative care. However, children living in these households strive for survival in the midst of their limited means to generate income. Social grants are the main source of their income. Nevertheless, children living in these households are exposed to poverty. This brings about a question of the financial security of these households in South Africa. This study analysed the domestic, regional and international law applicable to the protection of the financial security of these children from the perspective of a human rights-based approach. It found that the definition of child-headed households exclude youth who also head these households, prejudicing their rights. Children in child and youth-headed households receive insufficient state support towards their financial security.
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    Early child marriages: recent law reform and jurisprudence in Africa towards banning the practice.
    (2020) Popoola, Puriphine Snenduduzo.; Holness, Willene Audri.; Parker, Judy.
    Many young girls m the developing countries, mainly in Africa, are subjected to early marriages. The majority of such girls cannot choose their marriage age or the person they marry. In this dissertation, the literature on early child marriages in Africa as well as recent legislative reforms towards curbing the practice are reviewed. Most of the findings from empirical studies indicate that the incidence of early marriages is high in Africa and that those young girls who marry early tend to possess fewer years of schooling and start childbearing prematurely. Malawi, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Ghana have experienced increases in early child marriages and the integration of international and regional legislation has been, at ti.mes, in conflict with customary laws. Moreover, empirical evidence suggests the existence of disparities in the minimum age of marriage for girls and boys in Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa with age differences under separate laws such as under customary laws and other marriage laws. Studies also indicate that within Africa as well as other regions of the world, longstanding risk influences such as poverty and male-dominated social values work together to weaken the effect of interventions to curb early child marriages. The most documented successes against early child marriage in Africa have been credited to the propagation of schooling opportunities for young girls as well as women economic empowerment policy interventions. The literature reviewed suggests a high prevalence of child marriages not only in Africa, but across the world. Cases of early child marriages were found to be enabled by a plethora of socio-economic and cultural factors such as poverty prevalence, weak legislation, deep-rooted stereotypes about gender roles and cultural and religious practices supporting early child marriages.
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    Do the children act provisions which legalize virginity testing violate any of the constitutional rights of girls?
    (2020) Ndebele, Nobuhle.; Strode, Ann Elaine.
    No abstract available.
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    Examining substance abuse prevention strategies to combat school violence in Inanda KZN, South Africa.
    (2020) Ndawonde, Samekilisiwe.; Balogun-Fatokun, Victoria Aderonke.
    Summary Violence in South African schools is a cause for concern for schools, law enforcement and communities. Violence takes various forms including bullying, theft of property, robberies and vandalism, sexual violence, harassment and rape, gang-related violence, violence related to drug use and alcohol abuse, physical violence, shooting, stabbing and murder, violence through student protests and racially motivated violence. Regardless of the form of violence, there are devastating effects on the school system such as physical and psychological trauma, educational damage and societal breakdown. The main aim of this dissertation is to work towards the creation of safer schools, which uphold the values of the South African Constitution. This thesis finds that there is very little evidence to stop the abuse of substances among pupils in schools in the Inanda township, north of Durban in KwaZulu-Natal. The thesis, therefore, proposes recommendations that will be relevant to a township context, such as Inanda. There are numerous services currently in place to support abused victims and perpetrators, including, school-level support plans and specialised support services; however, the problem persists. This research proposes alternatives to dealing with the prevalence of substance abuse in schools and the consequent violence associated with the abuse of illicit substances. Isifmyezo Udlarne ezikoleni zaseNingizimu Afrika luyimbangela yokukhathazeka ngezikole, ezomthetho kanye nomphakathi. Udlame luthatha izindlela ezahlukahlukene kufaka phakathi ukuxhashazwa, ukwebiwa kwempahla, ukuphanga kanye nokucekelwa phansi, udlame olubhekiswe ocansini, ukuhlukunyezwa kanye nokudJwengulwa, udlarne oluhlobene neqembu, udlame oluhlobene nokusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa kanye nokusebenzisa kabi utshwala, udlame emzimbeni, ukudubula, ukugwaza nokubulala, udlame ngokubhikisha kwabafundi kanye udlame olushukunyiswa ubuhlanga. Noma ngabe uluhlobo luni lodlame, kunemiphumela emibi ohlelweni lwezikole ezifana nemiphumela engokomzimba nengokwengqondo, ukulimala kwemfundo nokuwohloka komphakathi. Inhloso enkulu yalokhu kusebenzela ukusebenzela ukudala izikole eziphephe kakhulu, ezixhasa amagugu oMthethosisekelo waseNingizimu Afrika. I-thesis ithola ukuthi kunobufakazi obuncane kakhulu bomsebenzi owenziwayo wokumisa ukuhlukunyezwa kwezidakamizwa zabafundi ezikoleni elokishini lase-Inanda, enyakatho neTheku KwaZulu-Natali. Ngakho-ke, lo mbhalo uphakamisa izincomo ezizoba zilungele ilokishi umongo, njenge Inanda. Kunezinsiza.kalo eziningi ezikhona njengamanje zokuxhasa abahlukunyezwa kanye nabenzi bokubi, kufaka phakathi, amacebo okusekela esikoleni kanye nezinsizakalo ezikhethekile zokusekela, kepha inkinga iqhubeka. i-dissertation iphakamisa ezinye izindlela zokubhekana nokwanda kokusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa ezikoleni, kubandakanya nokubhekana nodlame oluhambisana nokuhlukunyezwa kwezinto ezingekho emthethweni.
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    Perceptions of caregivers about children’s participation in the Umkhosi WoMhlanga (reed dance) in the Nongoma District.
    (2020) Mchunu, Fikile Ruth.; Bernard, Rowena Bronwen.
    No abstract available.
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    An assessment of the implementation of the CYCC under the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008.
    (2020) Singh, Chetna.; Bhamjee, Suhayfa.
    No abstract provided.
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    Back to the future: in light of present - day research, would AB v Minister of Social Development have been decided differently?
    (2021) Edgcumbe, Aliki.; Thaldar, Donrich Willem.
    This study investigates whether the case of AB v Minister of Social Development would be decided differently in 2020. The AB case was heard in 2015 and revolved around the ‘no double- donor’ requirement, which is a condition for a valid surrogate motherhood agreement. This prerequisite, contained in section 294 of the Children’s Act, excludes those who are ‘pregnancy’ and ‘conception’ infertile from accessing surrogacy as a means to have a child – a limitation justified as being in the resultant child’s best interests. The empirical studies in 2015, which investigated children up to the age of ten, cast doubt on the established belief in the importance of genetic relatedness for the positive well-being of children. Consequently, the constitutionality of the impugned provision was successfully challenged in the High Court; however, the applicants failed to convince the majority in the Constitutional Court, who rejected the empirical findings, fearing psychological harm would result in children who lacked certainty regarding their genetic origins. The research in 2015 could not conclusively respond to this concern as it was clearly deficient in examining adolescence – the key stage in a child’s identity formation. Since then, the best available empirical research includes the adjustment of adolescents – and the results now confirm that, despite lacking a biological and gestational link to their parents, donor-conceived surrogate children are well-adjusted and exhibit high selfesteem. The new evidence shows the fears of the majority to be unfounded. In the absence of a rational link between section 294 and the child’s best interests, the Court should declare the impugned provision unconstitutional. This study clearly shows that the no-double-donor requirement of section 294 fails to fulfil a legitimate government purpose. Nevertheless, the remaining regulations are not adequate to provide the necessary clarity nor the safeguards to protect the interests of all parties should the impugned provision be struck down. New regulations will need to be fashioned which are better suited to the regulation of double-donor surrogacy, such as permitting it only in the case of full surrogacy. These decisions are undeniably policy choices, which must be left to the Legislature.
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    An investigation of the knowledge and attitudes of kinship care amongst social workers employed by the Department of Social Development in KwaZulu-Natal: implications for child protection policy and practice.
    (2020) Mkhize, Mirriam Sinethemba.; John-Langba, Johannes.
    Although kinship care is historically a valuable source of care and support within the social structure of families in Africa, however it is not a legally recognised form of alternative care option in South Africa. The foster care system is experiencing a backlog; as a result, children are exposed to unstable care. The reserve in the foster care system is as a consequence of increasing kinship caregivers attempting to bring in additional financial backing through the foster care grant. The legal recognition of kinship care has the potential to address this backlog and has positive implications for child protection policy and practice frameworks in South Africa. This study aimed to examine the knowledge, attitude, and practice of social workers towards kinship care in South Africa and its policy and practice implication on child protection. Grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, this study employed a quantitative research design to examine knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control of public sector social workers towards kinship care. Additionally, the Ecological Systems theory was utilised to explore the implications of kinship care on child protection policy and practice. A convenient sample of social workers (n=100) in the public sector in the uMgungundlovu district of KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa participated in the study. Participants from five regional offices in uMgungundlovu district a self-administered questionnaires consisting of five measures that assessed knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control towards kinship care as an alternative child protection intervention. Descriptive findings indicate that over two-thirds (77%; n=77) of the participants had previous kinship care experience, whereas only above a quarter (n=23; 23%) had no prior experience in kinship care practise. More than half (60%; n= 60) of the social workers had high knowledge of kinship care which reflects the central principle of family reunification in social work practice. Over half (52%; n=52) of the participants reported a positive attitude towards kinship care. Subjective norms were a high predictor of behaviour in this study as approximately (61%; n=61) of the participants agreed that “they feel under social pressure to explore kinship care when a child comes into care”. In contrast, perceived behavioural control was reported to low predictor of behaviour, (46%; n=46) of the participants disagreed that “it would be easy to place a child in foster care, without contacting their kin first.” This indicates a low control over the social worker’s choices towards this practice. Finally, the literature reviewed strongly supported that kinship care has positive implications for policy and child protection practice. The implications of kinship care for child protection policy and practice are in the best interest of children in kinship placements. Concurrently, improving the practice of social workers and other child protection professionals in providing a mandated and guided practice in child placement. The pertinent policy recommendations of this study are under the Draft Children’s Amendment Bill-2018 and Social Assistance Bill-2018 towards the legal recognition of Kinship care in child welfare policy and affording kinship caregivers additional financial support through the Child Support Grant (CSG Top-up grant). Overall, the policy, practice, and research recommendations are directed at informing practice interventions for professionals and policy towards legal recognition of kinship care for the best interest of vulnerable children in South Africa.
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    Provision of psychosocial care and protection services by home and community based care and support organisations.
    (2020) Gumede, Zamanguni Genevieve.; Bernard, Rowena Bronwen.; Matthias, Carmel Rose.
    Providing adequate care and support for OVC continues to be a significant challenge in South Africa. For the province of KwaZulu-Natal, the situation is even worse, with this province remaining the highest in HIV prevalence and incidence. Several initiatives have been undertaken to provide psychosocial support to orphaned and vulnerable children, including education, food, shelter, and counselling. This research study aimed to document what psychosocial care and support services are being provided to orphaned and vulnerable children (OVC) by home and community-based care and support organisations in the EThekwini Metro. The intention was to generate practical information that could be used to improve delivery of these services to OVC. Underpinned by a qualitative approach and descriptive design, the study utilised semi-structured, in-depth interviews to obtain data from a sample of two HCBC organisations in both urban and semi-rural settings. The two HCBC centres covered in this research have one common goal, and that is to provide care and support to OVC. Generally,caregivers in both HCBC organisations understood necessary PSS requirements, although low skills levels negated this. In respect of the psychosocial care and support programmes delivered, both organisations use innovative, low-cost methods, such as partnerships and resource sharing to deliver PSS services to OVC. Key challenges hindering the delivery of these services include a shortage of skills, financial constraints, and lack of cooperation from participating Departments. The critical needs of OVC were, among others, primary child care, protection against abuse, documentation, support, and nutrition. Overall, provision of psychosocial care and protection services to OVC in the participating HCBC organisations was relatively stable despite the lack of resources. The study makes some recommendations for practice, policy, and further research.
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    Poverty and patriarchy as contributors to child sexual abuse.
    (2019) Ramiah, Vanitha.; Bernard, Rowena Bronwen.
    This research paper discusses the social and legal aspects of child sexual abuse in South Africa. Two significant contributors namely poverty and patriarchy are considered against a background of a paucity of information. In this regard, a comparative analysis is made between certain developed and developing countries. The legal aspects of child sexual abuse in South Africa are discussed and the relevant legislative provisions are evaluated and criticised in terms of their progressiveness. This research paper further discusses the pitfalls of the lack of medical evidence in establishing child sexual abuse and how this impacts on the prosecution of offenders. This paper concludes with recommendations that mitigate sexual violence against children with particular emphasis on prevention, where concerted efforts are required from both government and society in particular.
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    Child and youth care workers’ support of grandparents raising orphaned grandchildren.
    (2019) Mzimela, Patrick Mzokhona.; Holness, Willene Audri.
    No abstract available