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Masters Degrees (Education Studies)

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    Formative assessment practices of teachers in selected primary schools in Nkomazi in South Africa.
    (2021) Nsingwane, Thobeka Faith.; Maharajh, Lokesh Ramnath.
    The study aims to explore the formative assessment practices of teachers in selected primary schools in Nkomazi in South Africa. The research sought to determine whether teachers practice formative assessment in selected schools in Nkomazi in South Africa. The study was qualitative. A purposive sample of five schools was selected from the Nkomazi West circuit in the Ehlanzeni District. Five teachers (one teacher from each school) were selected to be part of the study. The interpretive paradigm guided the study. The data of the study was generated through interviews and observation. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data was generated, analysed, and reported. The study findings indicate that the participants were not able to share their understandings about formative assessment. The participants lacked knowledge of formative assessment. Consequently, they did not plan to practice formative assessment. The participants also indicated that they never attended any training based on formative assessment. Through the study, the participants had elaborated on factors that inhibit them from implementing formative assessment: overcrowding in their classrooms and lack of resources. And other challenges were insufficient feedback to the learners due to excessive workload and learners’ absenteeism. The implication of the study is that schools and districts need to play their vital role in investing in a high-quality, sustained formative assessment professional to develop teachers. The Department of Education in Mpumalanga should train teachers on forms of assessment and types of assessment. They should also provide teachers with relevant resources at school. There is a need to reallocate resources to ensure that teachers have concentrated time and support to build their knowledge of implementing formative assessment in their daily lessons. Teachers need to play their role to be lifelong learners since the system changes through them empowering themselves. Higher education institutions should develop a module on assessment and implement the formative assessment.
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    Teaching english first additional language to grade 4 learners through play: a seasoned teacher's self-study.
    (2023) Ngcongo, Emmaculate Nompumelelo Nokukhanya.; Masinga, Masinga, Lungile.
    My self-study research focused on teaching English First Additional Language to Grade 4 learners through play. This study aimed to improve my teaching practice by exploring new and innovative strategies for effective teaching and learning of English FAL. I undertook this study because I was concerned about my learners' under-performance in English FAL and my unintentional role in continuing this pattern. Adopting a Sociocultural theoretical perspective helped me understand that learning a language is embedded in social and cultural experiences. Thus, it was essential to pay attention to what learners experienced in their social and cultural interactions (prior knowledge level). The first question that guided my research was: What can I learn from my personal history about teaching and learning English First Additional Language through play? This question helped me reflect on my educational journey and engagement with language learning, starting with my family, community, primary and high school, and early school teaching experiences. I identified five significant learnings from my lived experiences that influenced my teaching of language: (a) Learning through playing traditional games, (b) Learning through storytelling, (c) Learning through rhymes and games, (d) Learning through role-playing and (e) Learning through interaction with others. My second research question was: How can I better facilitate the teaching of English First Additional Language through play? In responding to this question, I worked with my Grade 4 class as research participants on various activities I designed for this study. Working with the learners in different activities and my reflective journal helped me understand how learners recognised the teaching and learning of English FAL. In this self-study, I also worked with my two critical friends who are also studying Master's Degree in Curriculum Studies. I generated data using six research methods, namely: collage, artefact retrieval, drawing, audio recording, reflective journal writing and Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) and lesson plans. In engaging with this self-study, I considered five learnings concerning learning and teaching of English FAL: Curiosity and interest to learn stimulated through play, Physical engagement through play encourages class participation, Social interaction through play is an advantage to learning, Play promotes and develops creativity in learners and Play as a teaching technique to improve learner performance. In addition, I learned that learning a language is not an individual activity but a social experience that should be connected to learners' daily experiences.
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    Grade 7 technology teachers' topic-specific pedagogical content knowledge in teaching graphic communication.
    (2022) Mcambi, Zanele Sphokuhle.; Singh-Pillay, Asheena.; Mabaso, B.
    Graphic Communication (GC) is a universal language in the technology and engineering sector. In the field of engineering and the manufacturing industry, graphic communication is useful for the design, development, manufacture of products and construction of structures and systems throughout the world (Lockhart et al., 2018). Graphic communication forms the backbone of all design operations that work within a framework, ranging from conceptual design, detailing of drawing specifications, analysis, interpretation of graphic text and iterative re-design, to making working drawings prior to manufacture of artefacts, assembling of mechanical components and construction of building structures (Dobelis et al., 2019). Through graphic communication skills, learners ought to be taught, by teachers, how to read, interpret, design, and draw using freehand or instrument drawing techniques guided by the South African National Standards (SANS) code of practice. GC is one of the content topics that teachers of technology do not find easy to teach. The National Senior Certificate (NSC) examiners and moderators’ reports for engineering graphics design, civil technology from 2016 to 2021 reflect learners’ remarkable ineptitude regarding graphic communication skills. The diagnostic reports repeatedly highlight learners’ poor performance on examination questions that test for graphic communication skills. While learners’ learning and performance is related to many factors these diagnostic reports allude to the interconnection between learners’ poor performance in GC to the teaching to which they are exposed. In technology education learners are introduced to GC in grade 7. This means that the GC learnt in grade 7 forms the platform for all other GC learning in the subsequent grades. Thus, it is quintessential to explore grade 7 technology teachers’ topic specific pedagogical content knowledge pertaining to GC. Within the South African context, technology is a relatively new subject in the curriculum, as it was introduced in 1998. Many teachers teaching technology teach out- of -field. This means they were not trained to teach technology and lack the subject matter knowledge and pedagogical knowledge needed to teach graphic communication. In response to the afore mentioned issues, this study sought to explore grade 7 technology teachers’ topic specific pedagogical content knowledge in teaching graphic communication guided by the following research questions: 1. What is grade 7 technology teachers’ subject matter knowledge on graphic communications? 2. What topic specific knowledge do grade 7 technology teachers use when teaching graphic communication? 3. Why do grade 7 teachers use their topic specific pedagogical content knowledge for teaching graphic communication in the way that they do? This qualitative study adopted a case study design, and data was collected using questionnaires and interviews. Mavhunga (2015)’s Teachers’ Topic Specific Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TSPCK) frames this study theoretically. Findings of this study revealed that teachers have three understandings of GC: GC conveys an idea or thought via drawings or sketches. GC is a technological process that learners use to do a practical assessment task when designing to communicate ideas into paper or an article. Moreover, GC is a language spoken by architects and contractors. Regarding the way they teach GC, two themes emerged, they use a hands- on approach and the talk and chalk approach. The way teachers teach is influenced by the fact that they are teaching out- of- field and the lack of professional development. Hence the findings of this study concluded with a proposal for a continuous professional teacher development program to be put in place which will assist teachers to stay on par with all the needed information and resources regarding technology and GC.
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    Developing as subject specialists in a rural school: narratives of novice teachers.
    (2023) Ngcobo, Nokuphila Thobeka.; Pillay, Daisy.; Pithouse-Morgan, Kathleen.
    his study explored the lived stories of two novice qualified teachers who taught in a rural school in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study's primary purpose was to understand what factors influenced their lived experiences as developing subject specialists. Thus, the study did not intend to bring about change regarding the participants’ shared stories but rather gain insight into their lived experiences. I was prompted to conduct this study by my own early experiences when I first entered a rural classroom as a novice teacher and my personal motivation to develop as a subject and classroom specialist in the first three years of teaching. The study adopted a qualitative interpretivist approach, allowing the participants to be as expressive as they wished in their storied narratives. The qualitative interpretivist approach enabled me to obtain rich information, which assisted me in gaining a deep understanding of the participants’ professional lives through their shared stories as newly employed teachers in a rural school. A qualitative approach, specifically narrative inquiry, elicited thick descriptions that embraced the participants’ subjectivity. Three data-generating methods were used: journal writing, drawings of rich pictures, and an open-ended telephonic interview. These three methods enabled the participants to share their memories and to reflect on their unique personal and professional journeys towards becoming subject specialists. My analysis of the lived stories suggests that novice teachers find it relatively easier to adapt to a rural school if they have been previously exposed to such a setting. However, novice teachers can experience a cultural shock when they have to immerse themselves in a rural setting if they have never experienced it before. I found that networking within and outside the school plays a vital role in the development and growth of novice teachers. Other findings include that an ineffective mentoring culture may cause frustration among newly qualified teachers, while a well-established networking system will support and sustain them. The overall implication is that the novice teachers in this study fully understand the demands on them as developing subject specialists; they do all they can to engage in continuous development by acquiring enhanced skills, knowledge, and values from both human and online resources. My analysis of the storied narratives taught me that these novice teachers are willing to learn more about their subjects, especially if they know that they lack some content knowledge even though they are fully qualified. They appreciate networking relationships with more experienced teachers, which also enhances their personal and professional development.
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    Are we there yet? exploring Black women academics’ experiences of navigating their belonging at a South African university.
    (2022) Ngcobo, Bongiwe Mayibongwe.; Hlatshwayo, Mlamuli Nkosingphile.
    In this research project, I explored and theorized women academics’ experiences of navigating and negotiating their belonging in a South African university. Through an exploratory case study, I purposely recruited 10 Black women academics to explore their experiences in higher education. To gain in-depth data and to respond to research questions, I used 25 qualitative semi-structured interview questions. I relied on intersectionality as a theoretical frame for analyzing and making sense of women academics’ experiences in the academy. The findings of this project reveal that women academics often must navigate and negotiate a deeply entrenched environment in colonization and micro-politics. The findings also show that women academics’ career progression is further negatively delayed by other factors such as the double burden of womanhood, marginalization, gender inequality, race, and inequality in higher education. I argue that there is need for some sector and institution-wide implementation, and possible policy interventions, for helping women academics enter, negotiate, and succeed at university. I also recommended that higher education institutions further draw attention to implementation and possible policies to have more women academics in an environment, which allows them to further their academic endeavors.
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    Identity reconstruction of black african learners in a muslim primary school.
    (2022) Makhanya, Euphemia Nonhlanhla.; Mkhize-Mthiyane, Ncamisile Parscaline.
    The overarching objective of this study is to explore and understand how Black African Learners (BAL) reconstruct their identity and how this influences their lives. Learner identity ‘reconstruction’ is still under-researched, especially in Muslim schools. This is supported in literature, where it is highlighted that regarding learner identity studies, the becoming and changing process is either neglected or not ascribed much significance (Lundgren & Scheckle, 2019, Kerr, Dean & Crowe, 2019). The rationale for conducting this study is mainly rooted in my personal experiences and observations as a teaching practice assessor, an employee in one of the higher education institutions in KwaZulu-Natal, Durban. The framework that underpinned this study was Social Identity Theory (SIT) by Henri Tajfel (1974). This theory assisted me in exposing what learners think and how they interpret their educational experiences, which include what they see and how they feel about multiple realities in their school, across, within, and between cross-cultural and post-disciplinary boundaries, as proposed by Wilber (2005) and Marquis (2007). An interpretivist paradigm and qualitative case study was adopted. One Muslim Primary School (MPS) and five learner participants were purposely selected. Data was generated utilising written narratives, semi-structured one-on-one interviews, and focus groups discussions where these were transcribed and thematically analysed. The findings of the study revealed that identity reconstruction of BAL in MPS represent a lever that can perpetuate or decrease inequality; depending on how it is philosophically interpreted. Immigration was viewed as one of the precursors for identity reconstruction sparked by immigration of BAL families from other parts of the continent into South Africa. Furthermore, BAL encounter a wide range of experiences that incorporate more painful, positive, and even contradictory, perceptions about self. The study concludes that identity reconstruction in an MPS ought not to be framed by foreign conceptions, but should rather be anchored in local, indigenous knowledge systems and practices. Instead, BAL should build up their Black African dignity and reclaim African-Muslimcentric identity; something to look forward to as democracy matures in South Africa, as BAL individually and uniquely reconstruct their identity.
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    Learning to play the game: exploring the experiences of early career academics in negotiating their belonging at a South African university.
    (2022) Majozi , Nkululeko Vusumuzi Gift.; Hlatshwayo, Mlamuli Nkosingphile.
    This research study contributes to the increasing body of knowledge that explores the experiences of early career academics working in and around institutions of higher learning in South Africa. Using a qualitative approach, academics new to the academic landscape recounted and shared their academic experiences in relation to their professional transition, and how they negotiated their belonging within the institution of higher learning where they are employed. An interpretive case study, focusing on eight sampled early career academics as participants from the University of KwaZulu Natal, Edgewood campus, was used to capture their experiences. The early career academics who were purposively sampled reflected on, and shared their experiences. These were theorized and broken down into five main themes, namely; academic development, publications and funding, academic responsibility and community engagement, prioritizing student-centred teaching and learning, and the visibility of line managers and supervisors. Through the semi-structured interviews, participants provided detailed and valuable responses about their lived experiences of what transitioning into academia feels like for an early career academic in a South African institution of higher learning. This data generation method was seen as an appropriate tool to use to generate data that that offers unique insights in this study. This study revealed that the experiences by early career academics as they transitioned into higher education were multi-faceted. Early career academics appeared overwhelmed, tired, frustrated and even angry at the occupational conditions that are intensified by their professional world of work. Furthermore, it revealed that the difficulties that these academics were often exposed to resulted in their early departure from academia, with no intention of returning. This left the institutions in dire situations when they left. This study therefore, recommends that more scholarly work focusing on the experiences of ECAs when transitioning into higher education be done. Whilst a great deal of recommendations to mitigate some of these negative experiences have been explored in this body of work, neglecting the need for further research into this phenomenon can have a long term adverse impact on the development of new academics, and that of the higher education sector at large. Further exploring and understanding how early academics negotiate their belonging when transitioning into the academic landscape will enable institutions of higher learning to device new initiatives and modem programmes to lessen the pressure and negative experiences. Moreover, while there was some form of support extended in these institutions through formal and informal mentorship opportunities from supervisors and fellow colleagues, this study further recommends formalising and institutionalising such programmes for the development of ECAs within the system, their well-being and the survival of the academic profession.
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    Exploring the motivation of grade 9 learners in their subjects’ choices in a school in Nqutu: a case study.
    (2021) Kubheka, Alfred Sibusiso.; Mbatha, N.P.
    This is a qualitative study that is intended to explore the motivation of grade 9 learners in their subjects’ choices in a school in Nqutu: a case study. Using Lent’s Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) explored how subject choice affect the career decision of a learner and its influences thereafter. The case study methodology has been used together with two methods of generating data. Participants were interviewed and had to write a one-page essay titled my future career reflecting on their future career choice. I used the random sampling method to recruit twelve participants. The findings of the study emphasise that grade nine learners are mostly on their own with little assistance they get from subjects’ educators regarding the choice of subjects at grade ten. The study also indicated that parental support, most parents left the decision to be taken by the learners; they only advised them to choose right. Another important finding is that in the area of Nqutu, uMzinyathi district, not all grade nine learners are taken for career expo or career guidance, unlike in other districts like aMajuba district where all the grade 9 learners are invited into a common venue for subjects’ choice. What was also evidenced in the study was that the world of work term four chapters in the Life Orientations chapter is not dealt with in grade 9 in preparation for grade ten subjects’ choice. The study reveals that the subject choice at grade 9 is neglected. As a result, learners do not choose subjects correctly; as a result, they fail in the FET phase or else fail their first year at tertiary, and they change courses. I, therefore, suggest a policy that will promote more advocacy programmes on subject’s choice across the country by the national department of education to provinces and then districts to schools.
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    Mitigating violence directed at teachers: a narrative inquiry.
    (2022) Khanyase, Siphelele Fortunate.; Hlalele, Dipane Joseph.
    Violence directed at teachers has become a pervasive problem with long-term consequences for teachers and educational outcomes. The issue of violence directed at teachers warrants urgent attention. All those within the school environment, learners, teachers, heads of departments, deputy principals, principals, and support personnel, should feel safe when they are in the school environment. In the same way, learner safety is prioritised within the school environment, teachers’ safety within the classroom and school should also be prioritised so that they can confidently perform their duties. This study is a collective case study of two schools couched within the interpretivist paradigm. This paradigm was suitable for understanding teachers' experiences of violence that is directed at them and the consequences thereof. The study adopted qualitative data generation methods, which included narrative interviews. For the interviews, a purposive sampling of the participants was adopted; there was no set formula rigidly applied to determine the sample size. The study adopted the social cognitive theory. Findings provide evidence of the high rate of violence directed at teachers, especially when accounting for both physical and non-physical forms of violence. The findings established that verbal violence was the most common form of violence that is directed at teachers. Furthermore, it was found that most of the teachers were negatively affected by the violence directed at them, with significant repercussions for their wellbeing. Recommendations made were that there should be a comprehensive approach to addressing violence directed at teachers. Teachers should be trained in classroom management and crisis intervention. Individual intervention strategies should be recommended for learners with serious behavioural problems. Furthermore, there should be an explicit school policy and effective strategy to handle issues of violence directed at teachers. The study concluded that violence directed at teachers is exceptionally prevalent. Moreover, it is complex, multi-dimensional, and dynamic, and it also negatively affects educational outcomes. Mitigating violence directed at teachers should a critical component of school violence programs.
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    Foundation phase teachers’ enactment of curriculum differentiation in a full-service school in the Zululand District.
    (2023) Mngomezulu , Thandeka Faith.; Khumalo, Samukelisiwe.; Khoza, Bhekumuzi Simon.
    The study presents a qualitative action research exploring teachers’ enactment of CAPS curriculum differentiation in one of the full-service schools in Paulpietersburg under Zululand District, KwaZulu-Natal. The main objective of the study was to explore foundation phase teachers’ enactments of curriculum differentiation in a full-service school in the Zululand District. As such, why do foundation phase teachers enact the curriculum differentiation in particular ways in a full-service school in the Zululand District? Also, how do the teachers enact curriculum differentiation in a full-service school in the Zululand District? The study employed emancipatory action research to draw on pragmatic philosophy, which led to new practical knowledge, and new abilities that created knowledge within a pragmatic context. Six teachers were purposefully sampled for the research data collection. Data was generated using focus-group meetings, observations, reflective activities, and semi-structured interviews. The thematic analysis was applied to analyse data using the inductive process to organise data according to the conceptual framework: curriculum content, teacher’s use of CAPS, lesson objectives, enactment methods, teaching strategies, teachers’ role, learning and teaching support material (LTSM), lesson duration, teaching and learning environment, assessment tasks, as well as reflection and enrichment on activities. Literature explored three types of curriculum enactment influenced by a performance (content-based) curriculum, a competence (social-based) curriculum, and a differentiated (personal-based) curriculum. The research study findings on the teachers’ curriculum enactment revealed that teachers’ enactment of the curriculum was dominated by performance curriculum principles. As such, teachers and learners were frustrated by the level of underachievement in the prescribed objectives due to a lack of understanding and knowledge of the curriculum differentiation implementation. However, the teacher’s enactment of the differentiated curriculum was improved during the second phase of the action research. Additionally, the teachers were able to trust and apply their differentiation strategies to achieve the CAPS-prescribed objectives. Nevertheless, the quality and volume of content achieved within the stipulated time raised concerns. The different enactment methods also postulated doubts in terms of meeting each learner at the point of their educational needs, taking into consideration the size of the classrooms. The study recommends that teachers be more developed in curriculum differentiation enactment to interconnect the performance curriculum with a competence-based curriculum, thereby designing and applying the differentiated curriculum in class. The study further encouraged teachers to use different strategies to foster the curriculum without tampering with the prescribed content and skills.
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    Exploring academics’ experiences of emergency remote teaching: a case study from the University of KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2022) Mbatha, Duduzile Amanda.; Hlatshwayo, Mlamuli Nkosingphile.
    In light of the social-distancing and non-medical preventative measures placed on South African citizens to curb the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, many higher education institutions were compelled to shift from their traditional pedagogy (Kehrwald & McCallum, 2015). This resulted from the sudden closures of these institutions, which presented academics an opportunity to shift from the traditional pedagogy to a new student-centred mode of instruction, namely; emergency remote teaching (ERT) (Motala & Menon, 2020). This temporary shift of instructional delivery to an alternate mode due to circumstances (Hodges et al., 2020) was meant to ensure that the academic year was not lost. However, academics found themselves confronted with the challenges of transforming their traditional methods of teaching face-to-face, to incorporate online pedagogies, while also dealing with fear of the unknown, technological stressors, and the inherent trauma of the pandemic. In this study, I explored the academics’ experiences of ERT using an interpretivist qualitative approach, with phenomenology as a theoretical lens. I explored and theorised the complex and rich experiences of academics in their implementation of ERT. Seven participants were purposively selected, and semi-structured interviews conducted with them. The findings reveal that the sudden start of ERT presented time constraints on academics, which in turn, limited their preparedness and ability to produce quality online programmes. Moreover, the academics could not timeously put measures in place to control the increase in plagiarism. Academics longed for contact classes because of the lack of contact with students which allowed for the adoption of the ethics of care. The importance of technological support, the ability to adapt to change, and the need for adopting a care approach during such unprecedented times, was paramount. This study sought to uncover the importance of technical support and its benefits, and how institutions could improve the support provided. The study recommends that systems and policies be put in place to prevent the negative impact of plagiarism due to assessment methods used. It also recommends that academics experiences and insights of the emergency remote teaching be recognised, and that they be given platforms to effect change, where necessary.
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    Teachers’ experiences of working with Learner - Teacher support material resources in the 21st century.
    (2022) Madlala, Valentine Nontsikelelo.; Jairam, Visvaranie.
    The Gauteng Department of Education (2011) defines learning and teaching support materials (LTSM) as those resources that help teachers to teach and learners to learn, and which provide support to both the teacher and all the diverse learner needs in the classroom. A variety of research has concluded that having a varied LTSM in schools positively impacts academic performance (test scores). Research has also revealed that the Department of Education in South Africa supplies schools under section 21 with LTSM. Despite this, no research has been conducted that explores teachers’ experiences of LTSM. Experiential learning theory was chosen as a theory that underpinned this study, because the theory states that prior knowledge plays a significant role in the learning process, where people have two modes of taking a hold of experiences and two modes of changing experiences. Teachers, although they are seen as authority figures in the classroom, are still learners in their field of work and their experiences during the teaching process informs how they proceed going further. The study was underpinned by a qualitative approach to research, and fell within an interpretivist paradigm. The study utilised a phenomenological research style, and a purposive and convenient sample of eight fulltime teachers were sampled from a section 21 public school in Umlazi. The data was generated using zoom scheduled focus group discussion and telephonic standardised open-ended interviews. Findings revealed that LTSM positively shape the way lessons progress in the classroom, however LTSM are not updated on a regular basis, and teachers are still using old LTSM. It is recommended in the study that the school finds ways to not rely on LTSM brought by the Department of Education alone furthermore teachers need to find ways in which they prolong the life of the LTSM.
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    Experiences of teaching financial literacy in economic and management sciences: a case study of grade 9 teachers in three selected schools in Hammarsdale, South Africa.
    (2023) Banda, Philisiwe.; Khumalo, Samukelisiwe.
    The study explored Grade 9 teachers’ experiences of teaching Financial Literacy in Economic and Management Sciences. It used a case study of Grade 9 teachers in three selected schools in Hammarsdale, South Africa. The aim of this enquiry was to stimulate a discussion on the experiences of Grade 9 EMS teachers in teaching Financial Literacy. This study, which was conducted under the discipline of Curriculum Studies, used Mishra and Koehler’s TPACK Theory as its framework to explore the Grade 9 EMS teachers’ experiences in teaching Financial Literacy and to measure the EMS teachers’ overall ability to integrate diverse knowledge outlined in the TPACK theoretical framework to successfully implement Financial Literacy. The reviewed literature included global studies conducted to acquire a comprehensive understanding of the different arguments and perceptions proffered by various scholars regarding the teaching of integrated subjects such as EMS in the global context. In its exploration of the Grade 9 EMS teachers’ experiences of teaching Financial Literacy, the study adopted a qualitative, multi-site case study located within an interpretive paradigm with the aim of gaining new knowledge about and understanding of the phenomenon. Semistructured interviews and document review were the key methods employed to generate data that fundamentally provide clarity to the phenomenon under scrutiny. Three Grade 9 EMS teachers were intentionally identified and selected as suitable participants in three selected schools in Hammarsdale on the basis that they would provide sufficient information needed to foster understanding of the Grade 9 EMS teachers’ experiences teaching Financial Literacy. A thematic analysis technique was employed to analyse generated data, which played a crucial role in identifying and analysing patterns from the data set. This assisted in producing accurate and trustworthy results. The findings revealed that the participants’ experiences in teaching Financial Literacy in Grade 9 were influenced by numerous factors such as insufficient time allocation and limited professional development that is critical for implementing Financial Literacy. The study recommended that policy makers, education providers and all the relevant stakeholders need to play an active role to ensure improvement in the teaching of Financial Literacy in Grade 9.
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    Ucwaningo lokuhlola izindlela namasu asetshenziswa othisha bebanga lesithathu ekufundiseni isingisi ulimi lwesibili kubafundi abenza nesiZulu ulimi lwasekhaya ukuthuthukisa ubulimimbili obengezayo ezikoleni ezimbili eziseNanda.
    (2021) Xaba, Nobuhle Nomvula.; Nkosi, Zinhle Primrose.
    ISIFINGQO Ukufundwa kolimi lwesibili ezikoleni zaseNingizimu Afrika kuthathwa njengesenzo esibalulekile uma kubukwa isimo sezwe sobuliminingi. Yize kunjalo, kubukeka kusenezinselelo zokungabinawo kwamakhono nolwazi ngezindlela namasu nangenqubo yokufundiswa kwesiNgisi ulimi lwesibili kothisha basezikoleni ezisemalokishini. Ucwaningo lwenziwe ezikoleni ezimbili zamabanga aphansi elokishini lama-Afrika lase-Inanda lapho isiZulu siwulimi olukhulunywa emphakathini kanti nasezikoleni zamabanga aphansi kusetshenziswa sona njengolimi lokufundisa. Abahlanganyeli balolu cwaningo kwabe kungothisha abane besifazane, ababili babekwesinye isikole, nabanye ababili bekwesinye. Lolu cwaningo ucwaningo lobunjalo besimo (qualitative case study), ngaphansi kwe- interpretivist paradigm. Kusetshenziswe izinhlololwazi ezisakuhleleka (semi-structured interviews), ukubukelwa kothisha befundisa (observations) kanye nendlela yokuhlaziywa kwamadokhumenti (document analysis) njengezindlela zokuqoqa ulwazi. Ucwaningo luphinde lusebenzise izindlela zocwaningo lobunjalo besimo ukuhlaziya ulwazi olutholakele. Kusetshenziswe injulalwazi kaKrashen (1981) yokutholwa kolimi lwesibili kanye nohlaka lwemicabango ukuhlaziya ulwazi olutholakele. Kugqame izindikimba ezine olwazini olutholakele. Kukhona emayelana nokungabi nolwazi olwanele ngezindlela namasu okufundisa isiNgisi ulimi lwesibili. Lapha kuvele ukuthi othisha abanalo ulwazi olunzulu ngezindlela namasu okufundisa isiNgisi ulimi lwesibili. Enye indikimba imayelana nokungabibikho kwezinsizakufunda nezinsizakufundisa ezanele. Lapha kuvele ukuthi othisha basebenzisa ibhodi likashoki nezincwadi ezihlelelwe ukufundisa ulimi kuphela lapho befundisa isiNgisi ulimi lwesibili. Enye indikimba imayelana nokungatholwa kosizo loMnyango WeZeMfundo eyiSisekelo ngokwanele. Kanti enye imayelana nobungoti bokwazi ulimi lwesibili okuyisiNgisi kothisha. Lapha othisha babonakala bengenalo ulwazi olwanele ngolimi lwesibili okuyisiNgisi. Imiphumela yalolu cwaningo ikhomba ukuthi usemningi umsebenzi okusafanele wenziwe mayelana nokuthuthukiswa kolwazi ngezindlela namasu okufundisa isiNgisi ulimi lwesibili kanye nokuthuthukiswa kwamakhono okufundisa isiNgisi ulimi lwesibili. Ngakho-ke ucwaningo lusonga ngokuthi uMnyango WeZemfundo eyiSisekelo kufanele wenze isiqiniseko sokuthi izinhlelo ozihlelayo kuba yizinhlelo eziqhubekayo (on-going) ezizothuthukisa amakhono othisha okufundisa isiNgisi ulimi lwesibili.
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    Izindlela namasu okufundisa ukulalela nokukhuluma kubafundi bamabanga 10-11 abenza isiZulu ulimi lokuqala lokwengeza ezikoleni zasesifundeni saseMlazi ezixube izinhlanga.
    (2023) Ngcongo, Noluthando Guglethu Felicity.; Ntshangase, Sicelo Ziphozonke.
    IQOQA Lolu wucwaningo lwesimo oluyikhwalithethivu oluqhutshwe ngenhloso yokukhiqiza imininingo mayelana nezindlela namasu okufundisa ukulalela nokukhuluma kubafundi bamabanga 10-11 abenza isiZulu uLimi Lokuqala Lokwengeza ezikoleni zasesiFundeni saseMlazi ezixube izinhlanga. Lolu cwaningo lusebenzise izindlela zokukhiqiza imininingo bukhoma noma ubuso nobuso kubahlanganyeli abayisihlanu, kusetshenziswa izingxoxo ezisakuhleleka, ukwethamela kanye nokuhlaziya amadokhumenti. Lolu cwaningo belulawulwa yinjulalwazi kaVygotsky (1978) i-Social constructivism. Le njulalwazi iphakamisa ukuthi ukufunda kwenzeka uma abantu besebenza ngokubambisana futhi ikhuthaza abafundi ukuba babambe iqhaza ekwakheni ulwazi olusha. Le njulalwazi igcizelela ukusebenzisana okunxantathu lapho abafundi bakwazi khona ukufunda ulimi kothisha babo, kontanga kanye nakumalungu omphakathi ukuze kuthuthuke izinga lokukhuluma ulimi. Nokho, imiphumela yalolu cwaningo iveza ukuthi nakuba othisha abafundisa isiZulu uLimi Lokuqala Lokwengeza emabangeni10-11 bezisebenzisa izindlela namasu ahlukene ukufundisa ikhono lokulalela nokukhuluma kodwa abafundi bazithola besabhekene nenkinga yokukwazi ukukhuluma lolu limi ngenxa yokuthi ukusebenzisana okunxantathu lapho abafundi abafunda khona kothisha, kontanga nasemiphakathini yabo akuphelele kahle. Akuphelele ngoba isiZulu asikhulunywa emiphakathini laba bafundi abaqhamuka kuyona ngoba akulona lolu ulimi abavamise ukuxhumana ngalo emakhayo. Ngaleso sizathu, laba bafundi bazithola bengakwazi ukusebenzisa ulimi lwesiZulu njalo uma sebephumile ekilasini. Ngakho-ke, lolu cwaningo luthole ukuthi izinhlobo ezahlukene zezindlela namasu okufundisa okusetshenziswa ngothisha besiZulu uLimi Lokuqala Lokwengeza ngeke zibe impumelelo uma ukusebenzisana okunxantathu kungaphelele, lapho abafundi bakwazi khona ukulalela nokukhuluma ngokukhululeka ulimi lwesiZulu nothisha, ontanga namalungu omphakathi, ngaphakathi nangaphandle kwamagceke esikole. Amatemu anqala: Ikhono lokulalela nokukhuluma, isiZulu uLimi Lokuqala Lokwengeza, I-Social constructivism; izindlela namasu okufundisa; ukufunda okunxantathu
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    Ucwaningo lwemibono yothisha nabafundi bebanga leshumi nanye besiZulu ulimi lwasekhaya ngosiko lokuthwala amantombazane esikoleni esikwaNdengezi.
    (2021) Mahlaba, Priscilla Khangezile.; Nkosi, Zinhle Primrose.
    ISIFINGQO Inhloso yalolu cwaningo ukubheka ukuthi othisha nabafundi besiZulu ulimi lwasekhaya bebanga le-11 banamiphi imibono ngesiko lokuthwala. Lolu cwaningo luhlose ukuphendula imibuzongqangi emithathu yalolu cwaningo ethi: (a) Othisha besiZulu ulimi lwasekhaya bebanga le -11 banamiphi imibono ngesiko lokuthwala esikoleni esiKwaNdengezi esikoleni? (b) Abafundi besiZulu ulimi lwasekhaya bebanga le-11 banamiphi imibono ngesiko lokuthwala esikoleni esiKwandengezi? (c) Zizathu zini ezenza othisha nabafundi babuke isiko lokuthwala ngendlela abalibuka ngayo esikoleni esiKwaNdengezi? Lolu cwaningo lwenziwa esikoleni samabanga aphezulu endaweni yaKwaNdengezi. Lapho abahlanganyeli balolu cwaningo kwakungothisha ababili abafundisa isiZulu ulimi lwasekhaya kanye nabafundi abayisishiyagalombili, abafana abane namantombazane amane abafunda isiZulu ulimi lwasekhaya. Lolu cwaningo lusebenzise indlela yekhwalithethivu ngaphansi kwepharadaymu egxekayo (critical paradym) ngoba lepharadaymu ibuka umhlaba ngeso lokuletha ushintsho kumbe ilethe intuthuko esimweni senhlalo yabantu. Ngalokhu kuhloswe ukuthi uma abantu befunda lo mbhalo bashintshe indlela abaqhuba ngayo leli siko. Lolu cwaningo liwucwaningo lwesimo (case study). Ulwazi luqoqwe ngokusebenzisa izingxoxo ezisakuhleleka (semi-structured interviews) kanye nezingxoxo zamaqembu (Focused groups). Kulolu cwaningo kusetshenziswe injulalwazi yefeminizimu nemaksizimu. Ngisebenzise lezi zinjulalwazi ngoba zombili lezi zinjulalwazi zilwela ukuthi kube khona ubudlelwane obuhle phakathi kwemiphakathi ehlalisene. Kusetshenziswe nohlaka lwemicabango lapho kusetshenziswe amakhonsephthi ukuhlaziya ulwazi olutholakele. Ziyishumi nantathu izindikimba ezigqamile kulolu cwaningo olwazini olutholakele. Imibono yothisha nabafundi ngesiko lokuthwala iveze izindikimba ezilandelayo: indikimba yokuqala ithi: isiko lokuthwala nokuphazamisa umsebenzi kathisha nowomfundi. Izingane ezithwaliwe ziyalova, zikhulelwe bese ziphoqeleka ukuba ziyeke isikole. Eyesibili imayelana nesiko lokuthwala nokuqhutshwa kobugebengu. Lobu bugebengu bumbandakanya ukuthumba, ukudlwengula kanye nokuhlukunyezwa kwamalungelo abantu besifazane. Eyesithathu indikimba iveza isiko lokuthwala nokuba nemali. Abantu abathwala izingane zamantombazane ngoba banemali baheha abazali bazo ngemali. Eyesine indikimba imayelana nabasemagunyeni nokuthwalwa kwezingane zamantombazane. Le ndikimba iveza ukuthi iziphathimandla azenzi lutho ukunqanda leli siko ngoba zilibona kuyisiko elihle kanti nazo ziyaleza leli siko. Eyesihlanu indikimba ibalula ukuthi isiko lokuthwala alisahambisani nesikhathi esiphila kuso manje. Leli siko libukeka seliphelelwe isikahathi. Indikimba yesithupha iveza ukuthi abazali abazivikeli izingane zabo. Le ndikimba ikhombisa ukuthi abazali abazivikeli izingane zabo kuleli siko kunalokho bavele bavumelane nabenzi baleli siko. Eyesikhombisa abafundi nencazelo zabo ngesiko lokuthwala kanye nemithelela yalo. Lapha kuvela izindlela ezintsha esekwenziwa ngazo leli siko. Eyesishiyagalombili indikimba iveza isiko lokuthwala nokuhlukunyezwa kwamalungelo abantu besifazane. Le ndikimba ikhombisa ukuthi abantu abadala abathwala izingane ezincane zamantombazane bayazihlukumeza ngezindlela eziningi ngendlela yokuthi bathwala izingane zamantombazane ngaphandle kwemvume yazo. Indikimba yesishiyagalolunye mayelana nabafundi nalwazi ngabake bathwala. Le ndikimba iveza ulwazi abafundi abanalo mayelana namantombazane ake athwalwa. Yilapho kuvela khona ubuhlungu obuzwiwa abasondelene nezisulu zaleli siko. Eyeshumi imayelana nokubukelwa phansi komuntu wesifazane emphakathini. Le ndikimba iveza ukuthi ukuganiswa kwezingane zamantombazane ngempoqo kuyinkomba yokungalingani ngokobulili emphakathini. Eyeshumi naye umendo njengento ebaluleke kakhulu kubantu besifazane. Le ndikimba iveza ukuthi abazali benikela ngezingane zabo kubantu abangabazi ngoba wonke umzali ufuna ukuthi ingane yakhe igane. Eyeshumi nambili imayelana nezinga eliphansi lemfundo yamantombazane. Le ndikimba iveza ukuthi amantombazane ayizisulu zesiko lokuthwala agcina engasiqedanga isikole. Eyeshumi nantathu iveza indlela abazizwa ngayo labo abasondelene nezisulu. Le ndikimba iveza ukuthi isiko lokuthwala alihlukumezi izisulu kuphela kodwa nalabo abasondelene nezisulu. Ucwaningo luphetha ngokuthi kumele kuhlangane zonke izinhlaka zemiphakathi kukhulunywe ngemiphumela emibi yaleli siko bese kushaywa imithetho eqeda leli siko ngoba liyisiko elinesihluku futhi licindezela amalungelo abantu besifazane
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    An exploration of novice teachers’ experiences of induction and mentoring in a secondary school in the Umzinyathi District.
    (2023) Dlongolo, Zimiso Qiniso.; Pennefather, Jane.
    The significance of induction and mentorship as key components of novice teachers' professional development has regularly been underlined in various studies. The role of induction and mentoring within organisations ensures that newly appointed members of staff are quickly adapted to their new roles and how these institutions function. This indicates that it is crucial to introduce a new employee to their new workplace. In South Africa, many schools face challenges of large classes, few resources, and remote locations, leading to novice teachers feeling overwhelmed and discouraged. This makes the role of induction and mentoring even more significant. The purpose of this research was to examine the lived experiences of selected novice teachers concerning induction and mentoring in the early years of their teaching profession in a rural Secondary School in uMsinga, KwaZulu-Natal. Hudson’s Five-Factor Model for Effective Mentoring was used as the conceptual framework in the study. This qualitative study was located in the interpretative paradigm, using semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Although there was evidence of induction and mentoring, the findings revealed that the induction and mentoring received was not consistent across participants, which would suggest a lack of a formally designed programme. This also suggests that mentors did not fully understand their roles and as a result, the five key factors of effective mentoring outlined by Hudson were not applied equally. This led to gaps in the induction and mentoring received. Secondly, the study revealed that there was no formal structure to the induction and mentoring provided in the school, as evidenced by the lack of minutes of meetings on induction and mentoring. There was no policy on induction and mentoring other than the DOE mandated QMS policy for schools, and the QMS policy document was not shared with novice teachers. The study found that mentoring support could be strengthened if mentors understood their roles more fully and if there was a clearly developed programme in place. In addition, there was a need for the SMT to lead the process and use the system of QMS to develop effective induction and mentoring. Finally, it was recommended that the DOE play a key role to ensure full implementation of the QMS in schools.
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    A self-study of my emotions and teaching history forms 1-5 at a high school in eswatini: a professional journey
    (2023) Thwala, Isaiah Vusie Sikelela.; Naidoo, Jaqueline Theresa.
    The purpose of this self-study research was to explore my emotions and how they influence my history teaching in forms 1 -5 at a high school in Eswatini. By doing this self-study I aimed to better understand my history teaching to further improve my teaching practice in the subject. The first question that guided my research was “what emotions do I experience in my teaching of history in forms 1-5 (Grades 8-12)?”. This question helped me to reflect on my past teaching, think deeply and obliterate the undesired practices in my teaching. The second question that directed the study was “to what extent do my emotions influence my teaching of history in forms 1-5 (Grades 8-12)?”. In responding to this question, I wanted to explore my “true self” and history teaching. The third question that guided this study was “how do I regulate my emotions in my teaching of history in forms 1-5 (Grade 8-12)?”. This helped me to come up with better strategies for regulating and suppressing undesired emotions and displaying the most wanted emotions. I was the main participant and researcher in this study. Other participants were learners in forms 1-5 and I worked closely with critical friends who were teachers in my school. Data was generated using three research practices, namely, letter writing, reflective journals and a collage. Zembylas’ genealogies of emotions and Hargreaves's emotional geographies of teaching were used as conceptual frameworks to analyse the data. This self-study found that teaching history is an emotional practice involving blended positive and blended negative emotions. Also, the study revealed that the uncertainty of the Covid-19 pandemic resulted in ambivalent feelings and being emotionally drained. However, the study showed that the Covid-19 pandemic never paralysed my teaching but instead positive emotions enhanced my history teaching while negative emotions compromised my history teaching. Nevertheless, anger was an emotion that compromised my teaching but at the same time, anger served as the motivator that fuelled me to teach with great eagerness and exuberance in such circumstances. Lastly, the study highlighted that I suppressed and regulated my emotions using strategies such as collaboration with happy positive colleagues, self-motivation, and suppression of negative emotions and showing desirable expressions. The study recommends that further self- studies be conducted on emotions and teaching other subjects.
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    Blended learning and flipped classroom approaches as learning strategies in electronic control and digital electronics at a technical and vocational education training institution.
    (2021) Odayar, Thirushen.; Naidoo, Jaqueline Theresa.
    In recent years, there have been great advances in technology, encouraging teachers to use technology to improve learning and understanding in their classrooms. As a result of these significant advancements in technology, specifically handheld devices, smartphones and wireless networks, blended learning can be used as an innovation in engineering classrooms in the vocational sector of South Africa. The flipped classroom approach has been increasingly used internationally; however, it is not well recognised and used in South Africa. The main focus of this study was to examine whether a blended learning strategy that made use of the flipped classroom approach enhanced student learning in Electronic Control and Digital Electronics at a Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) College. This study also aimed to improve my classroom practice, using an action research design. This study took place during the Covid-19 pandemic which highlighted the importance of using blended learning platforms during lock downs and social distancing measures at TVET Colleges. This study was located within the critical paradigm and used an action research methodological approach. For this study, data was generated using various data generation instruments from a purposive sample of 12 Level 2 TVET College students. Data generation instruments included focus group discussions, questionnaires, a survey and an observation schedule. The theoretical framework adopted in this study was Garrison and Vaughan’s (2008) community of inquiry framework which analysed the factors that affected learning. Garrison and Vaughan’s (2008) community of inquiry outlines three presences that are vital when using a blended learning model. These are the teaching, social and cognitive presence. Within each of these presences are factors that either hinder or enhance learning and teaching using the blended learning model. The factors associated with each presence were used to analyse data and contributed to the findings of this study. While literature highlighted factors that could have hindered this study, there were unique factors in this study as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic affecting the country. The key findings of this study revealed that blended learning using the flipped classroom approach promoted flexible learning, enhanced collaboration and collaborative learning of both teacher and learners, and improved understanding and self-development. This study also found that while blended learning using the flipped classroom approach offered safety to teachers and students during the Covid-19 pandemic, it was also compromised due to challenges related to connectivity and lack of resources. It is therefore critical that TVET Colleges take cognisance of how best to support lecturers to implement blended learning strategies that will enhance teaching and learning.
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    An exploration of foundation phase teachers’ learning in a professional learning community.
    (2023) Nyathi, Thembisile Racheal.; Zulu, Free-Queen Bongiwe.
    In the South African context, the Integrated Strategic Planning Framework for Teacher Education and Development (ISPFTED) Department of Basic Education and Department of Higher Education and Training, regard Professional Learning Communities as an effective model for teacher professional development at a local level (Department of Basic Education, 2011). The purpose of this research study was to explore the nature of teacher learning activities for teachers in the Foundation Phase PLC and the kinds of teacher knowledge they could acquire through their participation in the selected PLC. The study was located within an interpretive paradigm and adopted a qualitative case study design. Semi-structured interviews and participant observations were used to generate the data to respond to the key research questions of the study. The participants comprised five (5) Foundation Phase teachers, who were members of the PLC. This study adopted Kwakman’s (2003) categories of professional learning activities and Grossman’s (1990) domains of teacher knowledge as conceptual frameworks. The findings of the study revealed that the Foundation Phase teachers participating in the Professional Learning Community (PLC) activities learned through interacting with facilitators and sharing experiences with their colleagues and peers. It was also found that teachers learned through modelling as Foundation Phase (FP) learners. Furthermore, the study revealed that teacher learning and Continuous Professional Development (CPD) also occurred outside workshops through WhatsApp group platforms. However, the findings revealed several challenges, including the COVID-19 pandemic, inadequate internet connection, lack of resources, lack of support in some schools, and heavy teaching workloads, which impacted the teachers’ participation in the activities of their PLC. Nevertheless, the findings of the study reveal that subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, general pedagogic knowledge and knowledge of the context were learnt. The findings show that there was more emphasis on pedagogical content knowledge. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the teacher learning activities should include concepts from all four FP subjects. This will enhance teachers’ ability to teach all learning areas with confidence. The facilitation roles should be rotated amongst all members of the PLC for the effective functioning of the PLC. Members of the PLC should agree on the time and venue for meetings to allow members to attend meetings regularly.