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Doctoral Degrees (Public Administration)

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    Complex adaptive leadership approach in the South African local government: a case of uMzimkhulu Local Municipality, South Africa.
    (2023) Ngqoyiya, Andile Christopher.; Mutereko, Sybert.; Ndebele, Nduduzo Comfort.
    The South African local governments are faced with a growing trend of service delivery protests from a population that requires an array of high-quality services. To overcome the service delivery challenges faced by South African local government there is a need for strong adaptive leadership. The main objective of this study was to recommend an adaptive complex leadership style towards achieving optimal performance in a specific South African Local Municipality with a view to assisting local government to achieve optimal service delivery and reach set goals of the South African Constitution. This study was conducted in the uMzimkhulu Local Municipality. A mixed-method approach was used. Data were collected through interviews and a survey questionnaire. Qualitative data were analyzed through the use of NVIVO software and quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24. A total of 112 respondents completed the questionnaires and 11 participants were interviewed. The findings of this study revealed that effective leadership strategies should be adaptive to complex internal and external environmental factors. Leadership effectiveness is affected by several internal environmental factors. These internal factors include personality clashes among employees, conflicting interests between management, tensions from agent interactions, management unwillingness to embrace innovation, lack of skills among employees, employee lack of passion and a lack of organisational cohesion. External factors affecting leadership included: technology, political influence, public pressure, economic factors and changes in the needs of residents. A model for complex adaptive leadership should include leadership that is enabling, administrative, and adaptive, and must have a combination of different leadership styles. In conclusion the model confirms that leadership is a complex phenomenon as it demands the understanding and appreciation of various factors occurring simultaneously. Leadership decision making requires an understanding such complex internal and external factors. From the study, it is recommended that future studies should focus on understanding the cause of the internal and external complexities affecting leadership in local municipalities.
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    An exploration of the drivers of vulnerabilities in informal employment: a case study of the agricultural sector in uPhongolo Local Municipality.
    (2023) Ndlangamandla, Wiseman Siboniso.; Mubangizi , Betty Claire.; Okem, Andrew Emmanuel.
    This study explores the drivers of vulnerabilities in informal employment using the agricultural sector in uPhongolo Local Municipality as a case study. The study is against the backdrop of inefficient enforcement laws governing the relationships between employers. This study employed a qualitative research methodology with 30 purposively selected participants comprising, twenty farm workers, five municipal workers, and five officials of the Department of Agriculture & Rural Development. Data were collected using face-to-face in-depth audio-recorded interviews. The interviews were transcribed, coded thematically, and analysed using the Institutional theory. The study’s findings revealed that informal agricultural labourers have substantial risks and vulnerabilities due to the unpredictability of their working status, the lack of a documented labour contract, and the lack of efficient enforcement of regulations surrounding the terms of their employment. The government's inability to effectively enforce labor regulations in the agricultural sector has resulted in worker vulnerability in this sector. Due to these factors, informal agricultural workers have limited access to good and affordable health care for themselves and their families. Most unprotected agricultural laborers face a variety of difficulties, including significant criminal exposure and a lack of legal and social protection. Lastly, most farm workers are victims of salary deductions without any contractual or verbal agreement, low remuneration including unpaid overtime, and inconsistent working hours. This study recommends that government must review current labour legislation in the agricultural sector, this could be done by creating a single joint interdepartmental collaboration structure. This study also recommended that there is a need for increasing digital communication mechanisms and media coverage on labour issues in the agricultural sector. There is a need for amendment and enforcement of the Labour Relations Act of 1995; and the Basic Conditions of Employment Act of 1997 (Sectoral Determination 13: Farmworker Sector). The government has the mandate to ensure that Determination 13 for Agriculture is applied in agricultural farms. This can be done by maximizing the number of professional labour inspectors. Finally, the study recommended a need for the establishment of a workplace forum to represent farm workers’ labour rights.
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    Monitoring and evaluation in public governance: a case study of the KwaZulu-Natal department of health.
    (2014) Mngomezulu, Thembeka Mary-Pia.; Reddy, Purshottama Sivanarain.
    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems have in the recent past attracted attention as an important management tool that monitors performance and evaluates outcomes against set targets and within set timeframes. This means that M&E measures efficiency and effectiveness of programmes or interventions. However, despite the introduction of the Government-Wide Monitoring and Evaluation (GWM&E) System in 2007, performance was not sufficiently achieving the overall goal of the Department of Health (DOH) - optimum health for all the citizens of the Province. This deficit was expressed by the populace through media reports and corruption that was rife in the Government in general and in the DOH in particular. Simultaneously, the establishment of the DPME in the Presidency at national level resulted in the M&E being a “buzz-word or a magic bullet” (Chilimo 2009: 320) that would solve all performance problems, improve service delivery and rid of corruption. The study examined the effectiveness and efficiency of the M&E System of the DOH and its use as a management tool throughout all the spheres of the Department, namely: Province, Districts and Sub-districts or Facilities. A combination of the M&E Theories and the Public Administration Models formed the theoretical foundation of the study. The investigation was conducted in the Head Office (at Province) and in the Districts and the Facilities using the Unit and Component Managers at Head Office; the District Managers, their Deputies, Programme Managers, District Information Officers and the Facility Information Officers. Data collection was undertaken through structured interviews of 12 participants at management level; and ten focus group discussions conducted in the eight selected districts and the two at Head Office. Over and above this, the document reviews were undertaken in reports and other relevant Department records. Findings of the study indicated that despite the fact that the M&E System in the DOH was introduced in 2008; four years later it has still not been accepted by the majority of Programmes and Components particularly at Head Office. It was partially accepted at the district level. Although the Clinical Managers accepted it, they did not fully comply with some of the Framework prescripts. The non-clinical Managers did not completely feel part of the whole process. At facility level little was known about the M&E, which caused it to be poorly implemented. The study also established that poor implementation was because the M&E System was not well introduced from its inception - readiness assessment and participation was not undertaken. The staff felt that it was imposed on them resulting in poor political will. This condition was aggravated by other factors, namely: lack of the M&E structure; the M&E function not incorporated in the job descriptions of the relevant staff; the lack of knowledge of the M&E concepts; lack of necessary skills to implement M&E as well as the negative attitudes of the staff, which was counteractive to the implementation. In addition to the lack of capacity, there were inadequate data collection and verification tools; and standard operating procedures. This resulted in the poor mainstreaming of the M&E System and poor utilisation as a management tool throughout the Department. Such findings resulted in the proposal of a new model to evaluate the M&E System of the Department. The proposed model was not tested; once tested it could be adapted and used in other departments or organisations as the case may be. The study recommended that a review of the M&E System of the Department be conducted. In this regard, the priority should be the establishment of a structure that will be committed to the mainstreaming of M&E and the creation of a conducive environment. A red thread should run through the structure from the Head Office through to the facilities and vice versa. This means that a top-down and bottom-up approach should be adopted. Its function should change from the silo function and adopt a participatory approach which will involve the relevant stakeholders. The study also recommends that the M&E System should have a framework that has an Implementation Plan that monitors its implementation. The Framework should incorporate all the activities necessary to drive the process of mainstreaming the M&E System, namely: data quality measures, data verification systems, dissemination, usage and reporting to mention but a few. The M&E Framework should also include a guideline for the districts, programmes and facilities to develop their own M&E Implementation Plans to monitor the District Operational Plans based on the District Health Plans. Furthermore, an M&E Forum should be established with the terms of reference that will enable representation of all the Units. This Forum would be responsible for the review of the system, its implementation and serve as an information sharing platform. Training on M&E should be conducted for all the staff on an on-going basis and the induction for the newly employed should include a module on M&E. The correct data collection tools should be in place and the standard operating procedures are available in order for all to understand systems and processes. Additionally, the study recommends that at Head Office a Health Information Team should be formed and similar teams reinstated at all levels. In order for the Teams to properly scrutinise the data (and reports), they should be supported and guided by the M&E Component. Finally, the study recommends regular reviews of the M&E system of the Department. A model that was developed and proposed for evaluating the M&E system should be used periodically to assess if the M&E System is succeeding in achieving its goal.
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    A system dynamics model to explore the impact of S&OP processes within an FMCG organisation.
    (2015) Moodley, Kenneth.; Bodhanya, Shamim.
    ABSTRACT The process of understanding how an organisation can continue its drive towards becoming more competitive was initiated by recognising that S&OP is one of the methodologies that underpinned the success of an organisation. It covered the operational, tactical and strategic aspects of the organisation and affected various functional teams. The impact S&OP has on the business is deemed significant for these reasons and hence ensuring that it functions as intended is vitally important to ensuring the business is making headway in the correct direction. The organisation spends large amounts of time and resources towards ensuring that the S&OP cycle is performed at the required level. It is therefore necessary to understand how effectively and efficiently the S&OP process is functioning and its impact on the organisation. Given the complex nature of the problem and the volatile and uncertain environment, it was recognized that a suitable methodology is required to ensure these complexities are captured and understood in an adequate manner. The system dynamics methodology was identified as being suitable to this application due to its propensity to model complex problems, causal inter-relationships and feedback loops. This methodology was guided by the use of a case study approach with the empirical work being conducted within a large multinational FMCG (Fast Moving Consumer Goods) that is based within a developing country. The FMCG organisation on which this research study was conducted is known. However, due to there being a necessity to protect the confidentiality and anonymity of the organisation this approach was taken. The challenges that are faced in most developing countries are similar hence; the applicability and benefits of the study are still maintained. The model building process involved the use of data collected primarily from the mental database of individuals via interviews and questionnaires, supported by data acquired from the numerical and written databases. This highlighted the various aspects of the S&OP process, which in turn was used to determine the sectors that would form the basis of the system dynamics model, namely: (1) organisational focus (2) demand (3) supply planning (4) factory (5) procurement (6) customer ordering (7) distribution (8) management information. The management information sector contained the business metrics that were identified as being important and hence any model developed or scenario analysis conducted would be evaluated based on these metrics. vii Once the model was validated and ascertained to be fit-for-purpose, a number of policy interventions were identified and simulated. Analysis of the outputs led to the identification of two further interventions, which simulated the impact of implementing two policy changes versus one. The outputs showed that optimizing the demand and customer ordering profiles would lead to the largest reduction in variability and have a positive impact on the business metrics that were selected. It was further identified that to implement these policy interventions there would need to be a paradigm shift in the thinking of individuals and the organisation. This view was reached due to a few themes that emerged during the study, namely: (1) behavioural issues (2) conflicting Key Performance Indicators (KPI) (3) individuals having own views of which variables are endogenous versus exogenous (4) leadership behaviour leading to conflicting messages (5) misalignment between individuals and functional teams (6) thinking in silos.
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    Community perceptions about climate change in iLembe district municipality.
    (2022) Zondi, Nokukhanya Thobeka.; Nzimakwe, Thokozani Ian.
    The country has experienced significant climatic shocks over recent years. Water is the primary medium through which the impact of climate change is going to be felt in South Africa. As one of the world’s top CO2 emitters, this reflects a political commitment to ensuring that the country transitions to a low-carbon economy. Successfully navigating this transition will require a nuanced understanding of public opinion and behaviour, in order for policy processes to take account of individual preferences, concerns, and lived realities. This study used political ecology, and the stakeholder engagement theory into understanding and examine the phenomenon of climate change and considered the link between governance. This was highlighted in order to reveal the missing mechanisms of governance that would help public organizations and other stakeholders to take on joint responsibility for the impacts of climate change. The study also focused on the relationship between beliefs about climate change, concerns about climate change as well as personal norms and efficacy beliefs. An investigation into the Ilembe District has been provided and served as a departure point from which to critically examine the governance around water management and climate change attitudes in Noodsburg, Ilembe district municipality. The study employed a qualitative research design. New data on this topic was collected via focus groups which consisted of South Africans 18 years and older living in ward 6 Noodsburg. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with ILembe District municipality officials in the environmental and planning units. The study provides insights into the understanding of Noodsburg community members’ attitudes toward climate change. The findings revealed that the community members in Noodsburg identified a range of expected adverse effects over the coming decades, particularly water shortages and drought, food shortages, and higher temperatures. These findings have relevance to climate change communication in the country, and matter for ongoing policy interventions that are striving to minimise the human development consequences of climate change. The study concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings and recommendations for crafting effective climate change frameworks and policy interventions in South Africa in the coming years.
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    The crime prevention role of street committees in selected townships in the eThekwini Municipal area.
    (2022) Ngcobo, Nhlanhla Floyd.; Ferreira, Ignatius Wilhelm.; Wissink, Henry Frank.
    The role of street committees (SCs) in crime prevention in South Africa (SA) is key to combatting crime. Black local authorities (BLAs) commenced in 1982, leading to the formation of several civic structures. BLAs served the black population, but they were never accepted by the black majority for political reasons. They were regarded as apartheid projects. Moreover, BLAs allegedly contributed to the social stratification of society, and individuals who represented them developed a confrontational attitude towards the local community structures that boycotted them. In areas, such as Lingelihle in Cradock, boycotts led to the resignation of councillors from the BLAs. The Cradock Residents Association (CRADORA) was instrumental in the resignation of councillors in this area, owing to the pressure it had applied. It appears that, because of this pressure, CRADORA paved the way for the first formation of SCs in the country, although, before the advent of BLAs, civic organisations had been formed by the Committee of Ten (CoT) in Soweto in 1977. CRADORA was responsible for recruiting numerous township residents for the SCs, although the introduction of these structures in other areas differed from one community to another. SCs were robust structures that the security forces and police of the apartheid government could not control or disband. However, in 1988, SCs were ended by the repressive apartheid government that declared a state of emergency with a view to supressing political protest, rather than dealing with the crime prevalent in the 1980s. However, these structures continued to operate clandestinely. Numerous crime prevention strategies have been used by the government. The crime scourge has ravaged many families, communities, businesses, and other societal sectors. This has necessitated the ANC-led government and a president of the country to call for the resuscitation of SCs to assist in crime prevention. This study focussed on the role of SCs in preventing crime in the townships of Chesterville and Clermont in the eThekwini Municipal Area. The investigation followed a mixed-methods methodology, and a case study design to collect and analyse data. The contribution to knowledge is that municipalities should enact by-laws that recognise street committees
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    Governance in food security programmes in the OR Tambo District, South Africa.
    (2021) Maluleke, Justice.; Mubangizi, Betty Claire.
    Using a qualitative approach based on semi-structured interviews, this study investigated the role of organisational culture, coordination, planning, monitoring, and evaluation and how they affect good governance, i.e., effectiveness, efficiency, responsiveness, accountability, and the approach to governance in food security programmes in the OR Tambo District. Literature is often silent on factors impacting food security governance in rural municipalities. Fifty-eight purposively selected individuals participated in the face-to-face interviews. Collected data was analysed using Thematic analysis. The study finds that organisational culture impacts good governance in the implementation of food security programmes. The Department of Rural Development and Agrarian Reform (DRDAR) and the Department of Social Development mainly use the top-down approach, with the local government mainly using a bottom-up approach to the implementation of programmes. Within this context, the lower-level employees of DRDAR feel that they are not involved in decision-making. Further, some state agencies implementing food security programmes are highly centralised while others are decentralised. The centralisation of certain services by the Head Office of the DRDAR to address procurement delays, are only effective when decisions are taken timeously when there were contracts with service providers. It was also established that most challenges faced by food security policy implementation in the District are attributed to planning and coordination while the one-size-fits-all approach used in project implementation is detrimental to efficiency, effectiveness, and responsiveness. It is recommended that food security implementation finds a solution to the challenges of planning, coordination, and the politics-administration dichotomy. Further, effective consequence management mechanisms, monitoring and evaluation are to be established to enhance programme effectiveness. A favourable work climate and organisational learning will go a long way in improving programme impact. The theoretical contribution of the study is that contrary to the notion that the bureaucratic approach to governance is 'long dead', food security implementation in the Eastern Cape, specifically in the OR Tambo District, still retains many aspects of a bureaucratic approach. Further, contrary to the general belief that the New Public Management has replaced the bureaucratic approach as a model of public policy implementation, this study found very little evidence to support that notion.
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    Exploring the effects of collaborative global health partnerships in the Ministry of Health and Child Care's monitoring and evaluation systems in Zimbabwe.
    (2022) Grand, Zacharia.; Mutereko, Sybert.
    Global Health Partnership support for monitoring and evaluation (M&E) policy and practice has strengthened Zimbabwe's public health system. Recent evidence suggests that hybrid governance systems such as partnerships can play an essential role in co-producing and co financing public health policies and programmes. Most public governance studies have embraced this approach as progressive. However, scholarly arguments on collaborative partnerships have missed an opportunity to fully investigate their effects on local health systems from a critical constructivist and dialogic policy approach to capture local partner reflexivity and resistance to external influence in public health policy planning and implementation. As a result, the current scholarly approaches to the collaborative partnership discourse have failed to account for the limits of agentive reflexivity in a global public health space tilting towards neoliberalism. This study used a qualitative case study approach, drawing from the Collaborative Governance of Partnership and Critical Discourse analytic frameworks to illuminate the effects of dialogic and discursive soft power encounters and its impact on M&E policy and practice in Zimbabwe. Data were collected using a documentary review of M&E policies and key informant interviews with Ministry of Health M&E staff. The findings suggest that collaborative partnerships for health have resulted in (un)intended effects that include digital exclusion of local partners, competition among partners, threats to sovereignty, fear of job losses, brain drain from government among other unanticipated challenges. As a result, the study argues that collaborative partnerships for M&E are contested spaces in which Global Health Partners(GHPs) revive old paternalistic aid tactics through control of governing rationalities that promote the local reproduction of neoliberal, market oriented ideas that influence and shape the ‘co-creation’ of M&E policies in Zimbabwe. The study further observes that the Ministry as a local partner apply various soft power strategies that include victimhood, extravesion,obsfucation and discourse control to counter GHP influence contrary to the key tenets of collaborative partnership for M&E. The study concludes that government counter-discourse and soft power strategies are perverse reflections and performative reproductions of neoliberal rationalities by converted local responsible agents who (un)knowingly contribute to maintaining partnership power imbalances in favour of Global Health Partners.
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    Public employment programmes and their contribution to service delivery and rural livelihoods in South Africa.
    (2023) Dladla, Lungisani Gift.; Mubangizi, Betty Claire.
    ENGLISH ABSTRACT Public Employment Programmes (PEPs) are considered an important and widespread social protection tool to address the challenges of persistent unemployment and dire poverty. They provide a ‘win-win’ policy option through job creation, while ensuring that assets are created and services are delivered. In South Africa, the government implements the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP), a countrywide PEP initiative which aims to provide job opportunities and income transfer to unemployed people through productive work in the delivery of community services and the creation of public assets, and thereby contributing to community development. This is similar to PEPs elsewhere in the world. The impact of PEPs in South Africa has mostly been measured based on their contributions to employment opportunities. However, this creates a gap in the holistic measurement of the EPWP, as its contribution to service delivery and asset creation by which people sustain their livelihoods is not given as much attention. This study's objective was to evaluate and critically assess the role of PEPs and their contribution to service delivery and rural livelihoods in South Africa. A qualitative research method was adopted, using both the purposive and snowball sampling strategies. Program Theory Evaluation (PTE) and the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework were applied as the underpinning theoretical frameworks for this investigation. The study found that the EPWP has positively contributed to service delivery and improvement in rural livelihoods in South Africa. This was revealed by the three categories of research participants representing EPWP workers, community informants, and government officials who are part of and play a role in programme coordination and implementation. However, the study also revealed challenges facing the programme. These include the flouting of some regulations governing the programme, such as the payment of participants below the minimum wage rate, interference in the recruitment of job-seekers, lack of proper planning, and inadequate human resources to coordinate the programme from the EPWP implementing bodies. Furthermore, the study noted the struggle to achieve the youth target by the programme, despite the soaring South Africa's rate of youth unemployment. On the basis of these findings, the study makes key recommendations to be considered in addressing these challenges. They include the introduction of a national EPWP policy with enforcement mechanisms, an improvement in the capacity of public bodies to coordinate and implement the programme, the introduction of youth-focused programmes, and scaling up the existing programmes. Finally, the study recommends that the government reconsider and re evaluate the EPWP in light of the current prevailing conditions of unemployment. isiZULU ABSTRACT Uhlelo Lwezemisebenzi Yomphakathi seluthathwa njengethuluzi elibaluleke kakhulu futhi eselisetshenziswa ezindaweni eziningi ukuvikele inhlalakahle yomphakathi kanye nokubhekana nezinselelo zamazinga aphezulu okwentuleka kwemisebenzi nobubha. Loluhlelo lukhobisa impumelelo nhlangothi zonke kwinqubo mgomo, ngoba ngesikhathi luletha amathuba emisebenzi lubuye futhi lufeze izidingo zokwethulwa kosizo kanye nengqalazisinda emphakathini. ENingizumu Afrika, uHulumeni wethula Uhlele Lwezemisebenzi Yemiphakathi Olwengeziwe njengohlelo lukazwelonke oluhlose ukuletha amathuba emisebenzi yethutshana kulabo abangasebenzi bese bethola imadlana ewumholo ekulethweni kwengqalasizinda kanye nosizo emphakathini oluholela okuthuthukeni kwemiphakathi. Loluhlelo lwaseNingizumu Afrika luyafana nezinye izinhlelo eziwuloluhlobo ezithulwa kwamanye amazwe. Imiphumela yezinhlelo ezinje eNingizumu Afrika ihlezi icutshungulwa futhi ikalwa kakhulu ngasohlangothini lokulethwa kwamathuba emisebenzi, okwenza kube nesikhewu esivulekayo ekukalweni ngokuphelele kwemiphumela namagalelo aloluHlelo izimpilweni kanye nasenhlalweni yemiphakathi, nokuthi leyongqalasizinda elethwe uHulumeni ngaphansi kwaloluHlelo iyithuthukisa kanjani imiphakathi. Inhloso yalolucwaningo ukubhekangokujulile, uhluze, ucubungule indima edlalwa yiloluhle lukaHulumeni kanye namagalelo alo ekulethweni kwezinsiza kanye nengqalasizinda emphakathi yesemakhaya nakwinhlalo mpilo yawo umphakathi kwizwe lonke lase eNingizumu Afrika. Lolucwaningo luhlonze indlela yekhwalithethivu njengendlela oluzoqhutshwa ngayo, luphinde lusebenzisa ngofunayo iphaphosivu kanye nesinobholi njengamasu namaqhinga ukuhlonza labo abazoba yingxeye yalo. Lube seluqoka injulalwazi yokubheka nokucwaningwa kwezinhlelo kanye nohlaka ulubhekele ukuthuthukiswa kwezimo zempilo oluqhubekayo njengezinjulalwazi eziwumgogoda walolucwaningo. Ucwaningoke lubeseluveza ukuthi Uhlele Lwezemisebenzi Yemiphakathi Olwengeziwe lube nemiphumela emihle ekulethweni kwezidingo, iqhlalisizinda Kanye nokwenzancono inhlalompilo yabantu basemakhaya eNingizimu Afrika. Lokho kuvezwe izigaba zontathu zalabo abebebambe iqhaza kulolucwaningo kusukela kwisebenzi zalo belu loluhlelo, izisebenzi zikahulumeni ezengamele loluhlelo kanye namalunga ophakathi aqavile. Kusenjalo, ucwaningo luphinde lwaveza izingqinamba ezibhekene naloluhlelo okubalwa phezukwezinye: ukungalandelwa kwemigomo ulawula loluhlehle ikakhulukazi uma kuqashwa abantu okumele bazosebenza, nokungakhokhwa kwamaholo njengalokhu umthetho ubekile; lubuye lwaveza futhi ukuthi akukho ukuhlelwa kahle okulandelayo izinhlaka ezihambisa loluhlelo, futhi zona lezizinhlaka azinabo abantu abanele ukulwethula loluhlelo ngendlela efanele. Ucwaningo luphinde lwaveza inselelo loluhlelo ebhekene nayo yokungakwazi ukufinyelela ezibalweni ezibekiwe zokuqasha abantu abasha phezu kwezinga eliphezulu kakhula eNingizimu Afrika lokwentuleka kwemisebenzi kubantu abasha. Uma sekulandelwa, kubhekwa imiphumela yalolucwaningo, umcwaningi wethula leziziphakamiso ekusizeni ezindwani lapho izinselelo sivezwekhona. Leziziphakamiso zifaka ngaphezukokunye ukwethulwa komgomo kazwelonke obhekelele loluhlelo ozoba nezindlela namandla wokuthi labo abasemagunyeni bangenelele uma kukhona okungahambi kahle; kuphinde kuthuthukiswe inani labantu kanye nezinsiza ekwethuleni loluhlelo ezinhlakeni zonke zikahulumeni ezibambe iqhaza kuloluhlelo; ucwaningi luphinde luphakamise ukuthi izinhlelo eziqonde ngqo kubantu abasha zibekwe eqhulwini zethulwe, bese kuthi lezi ezikhona zikhushulwe uma kuya kwinani labantu ukumele maqashwe. Ekugcineni ucwaningo luphakamisa ukuthi uHulumeni aphinde alubukisise kabanzi loluhle ngenjongo yokuliyamanisa nesikhathi isiphila kuso kanye nezinselelo ezikhona esikhathini samanje uma uqhathanisa neminyaka esondele emashumini amabili lwasungulwa loluhlelo.
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    The confluence of regionalism, state functionalism and public private partnerships in southern Africa: perspectives from Botswana, Malawi and South Africa.
    (2017) Nkhalamba, McBride Peter.; Ruffin, Fayth Anese.
    This thesis examines the politico-administrative efficacy of regional integration (RI) and statecraft in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) with implications for public private partnership (PPP) development. Through comparative case studies of Botswana, Malawi and South Africa, one aim, inter alia is to determine the degree to which SADC RI accounts for any relationship between RI, state fragility or state functionalism and PPPs. The units of analysis are the three countries embedded with individual multi-sector stakeholders. The multi-inter-trans-disciplinary approach employs a sequential transformative multi-method qualitative research design underpinned by philosophical worldviews of interpretivism, pragmatism, critical theory and post-positivism. Primary qualitative data are drawn from interviewees in the three countries across multi-sector organisations while secondary qualitative data stem from literature and policy documents. Secondary quantitative data are drawn from a variety of global indices, including the State Fragility Index, the Country Policy Institutional Assessment, and the Global Competitive Index and analysed for trends across the SADC fifteen-member countries. Qualitative data are analysed through content, textual and discourse analysis whereas quantitative indicators from indices are analysed afresh through SPSS, considering parameters related to the study. The study found that an ideological deficit in perceptions, architecture and measures of politico-administrative dimensions of RI, state fragility or functionalism and PPPs limits SADC’s role in advancing the synergy between these dimensions. Findings challenge the incoherencies derived from the predominance of Eurocentric and trans-Atlantic theory, particularly westernised notions of state fragility that seem to pre-empt emergence of endogenously-driven state functionalism to facilitate RI. Results show how new modes of theoretical perspectives and discourses help to deconstruct, redefine and endogenously establish functional polities that fit the governance context of the current political-economy of the SADC region and its stride toward RI. The thesis submits new conceptual formulations and theoretical propositions on RI and African statecraft, including introduction of the endogenously-driven concept of ‘Afristate functionalism’ that promotes epistemological pluralism.
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    Evaluation of local government capacity- building interventions by the provincial government in KwaZulu-Natal. Ukuhlola imithelela yokukhulisa amandla okusebenza komasipala nguhulumeni waKwaZulu-Natali.
    (2021) Khunoethe, Halima.; Reddy, Purshottama Sivanarain.
    Capacity and capacity-building are not simple concepts. Broadly defined, the term ‘capacity’, when it refers to an organisation, means the ability of the leadership to make plans and set goals; acquire, manage, and effectively use resources; resolve problems and manage the achievement of the goals. In terms of this definition, capacity-building is much more than intervening to develop the skills and knowledge of employees to set and achieve goals; it also requires the establishment of a workplace that is conducive to the successful application of these competencies. To ensure that local government organisations operate efficiently and effectively, various capacities, including legal frameworks, policy directives, powers and functions, operational support, and financial, human, and other resources, are available. However, although these capacities are available, they have not produced a functional local government that citizens can rely on for service delivery and socio-economic development in local areas and communities. This study assesses capacity-building interventions in selected municipalities in the Province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) by its provincial government. The study was conducted in seven Municipalities in KZN. Six are local municipalities: Umzumbe, Msunduzi, Inkosi Langalibalele, Emadlangeni, Edumbe, Mtubatuba, and the seventh is a district municipality, Umkhanyakude. All councillors, senior administrators, and skills development officials from these municipalities – who could be reached – were requested to be part of the study. Those who accepted the invitation were interviewed. All the municipalities are in rural areas of the province except for Msunduzi, an urban region in which Pietermaritzburg, the second-largest city in KZN, is situated. They are all challenged in meeting their service delivery mandate and other performance goals and targets. The theoretical framework is the model for capacity developed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation’s (UNESCO’s) International Institute for Capacity-building in Africa (IICBA). It identifies three levels of capacity: environmental, organisational (institutional) and individual levels and pictures them as three levels of capacity in a system. Organisational capacity provides the context within which individual capacity is applied, and environmental capacity provides the context for organisational capacity. Understanding the background against which capacity-building interventions can be evaluated, this study has explored the three levels of capacity available to local government. This study has five aims. They are to determine the following: issues that hamper provincial departments in developing the skills and knowledge of councillors and administration officials; appropriate processes for conducting skills audits; appropriate individual capacity-building programmes for councillors and administration officials; appropriate processes for conducting institutional capacity assessments; and appropriate processes for building institutional capacity. Two data-gathering exercises were conducted to gather data in respect of the objectives. First, semi-structured interview schedules recorded opinions and comments from municipal councillors, senior administrators, and skills development officials. These schedules were then analysed numerically to identify trends and highlight challenges and concerns. Second, a survey of provincial departments engaged in support and capacity-building of municipalities was used to collect opinions and comments about their challenges and achievements in working with municipalities. The number of participants from each municipality was as follows: in Edumbe Local Municipality, 20 participants; Emadlangeni Local Municipality, 32 participants; Inkosi Langalibalele Local Municipality, 27 participants; Msunduzi Local Municipality, 80 participants; Mtubatuba Local Municipality, 34 participants; Umkhanyakude District Municipality, 25 participants; and in Umzumbe Local Municipality the number of participants was 28. The study found that although there are challenges in the quality of some of the capacities and capacity-building interventions made available to municipalities, the most significant challenges exist within the municipalities, which reduces the effectiveness of institutional and individual capacity-building interventions by provincial government departments. The key challenge in institutional capacity-building is the occurrence of various forms of political interference in recruitment. This phenomenon leads to the appointment of under-skilled and under-qualified senior managers in municipal administrations. The consequences are weak leadership, weak institutions, poor management of financial resources, weak governance, weak accountability to communities and the lack of a learning culture. An under-skilled leadership also results in poor human resource management and an ineffective Human Resource Development (HRD) function, which renders affected municipalities unable to attract, develop or retain staff in scarce-skill positions, including all levels of technical and financial skills. The study also found that the key challenge in building individual capacity in municipal councils lies in many elected officials’ inadequate educational and work experience. At this point, a set of universal educational requirements for the appointment of elected officials does not exist. Political parties appoint officials according to criteria set by the political party, and then, once they have been elected, skills development opportunities are offered by the provincial government. However, a minimum requirement for an individual to benefit from workplace skills development is that basic skills in numeracy and literacy are necessary. This requirement is higher when the skills required are related to councillors’ high-level oversight functions. Many senior municipal administrators and municipal councillors in KZN are not equipped to carry out their duties or effectively use the support or capacity-building resources and interventions. The research findings led to several recommendations of which the most significant are that: political parties should set criteria for the nomination of municipal representatives to ensure that the appointed officials can benefit from capacitybuilding programmes; municipal councils should set performance standards for councillors that include personal development plans to encourage learning; the institutional capacity of municipalities should be strengthened to enable them to withstand political interference, competence-based appointments are made, people with scarce skills are attracted, and the South African skills development system is understood and implemented. Iqoqa: Ucwaningo luhlola imithelela yokukhulisa amandla okusebenza komasipala abakhethiwe KwaZulu-Natali nguhulumeni wesifundazwe. Izinhloso zocwaningo kwakungukuveza izimo ezelekelela iminyango yesifundazwe ukuthuthukisa amakhono kanye nolwazi lwamakhansela kanye neziphathimandla; izindlela ezilungile ukubheka ucwaningomabhuku lwamakhono, izinhlelo eziqondene zokukhulisa amandla okusebenza zamakhansela kanye neziphathimandla; izinqubo ezilungile ukwakha amandla okusebenza aqondene nesikhungo. Imisebenzi emibili yokuqoqa imininingo yenziwa. Okokuqala, izinhlaka zezingxoxo ezisakuhleleka zasetshenziswa ukuqopha imibono kanye nokuphawula kwamakhansela kamasipala, iziphathimandla eziphezulu kanye neziphathimandla ezibhekelele ukuthuthukiswa kwamakhono. Umsebenzi wokuqoqwa kwemininingo wesibili kwakuyisaveyi yeminyango yesifundazwe ebandakanyeka ukweseka kanye nokukhulisa amandla okusebenza ukuqoqa imibono kanye nokuphawula mayelana nezingqinamba kanye nokuphumelela. Ucwaningo lwathola ukuthi kunezingqinamba ezinkulu ezikhona phakathi komasipala futhi zehlisa ukusebenza kahle kwemisebenzi yokukhulisa ukusebenza ngamandla kwezikhungo zeminyango kahulumeni wesifundazwe. Izinhlobo ezahlukene zokungenelela kwezepolitiki ekuqashweni, kuholela ekuqashweni kwezimenenja ezisezikhundleni eziphezulu ezingazilungele lezo zikhundla ekuphathweni komasipala. Umphumela kube sekuba ubuholi obuntekenteke kanye nezikhungo, ukwengamela okusezingeni eliphansi kwezidingo zabantu kanye nezezimali, ukuphatha okuntekenteke kanye nokuzinikela okungaphelele emiphakathini kanye nokungabi bikho kwesiko lokufunda. Imiphumela yocwaningo yaveza futhi ukuthi ingqinamba enkulu ukukhulisa amandla okusebenza kwamakhansela kamasipalala, kuncike emfundweni engaphelelanga kumakhansela kanye nesikhathi sokusebenza esandulela esokuqala umsebenzi lowo ngokwephesenti elikhulu. Izincomo eziningi zaphakanyiswa, okungukuthi amaqembu ezepolitiki kumele abeke uhlaka oluchaziwe lokuqashwa/ ukubekwa ezikhundleni kwamakhansela kamasipala, ukuqinisekisa ukuthi bayakwazi ukuzuza ezinhlelweni zokukhulisa amandla okusebenza, ukuthi ukukhulisa amandla okusebenza kwezikhungo zomasipala kumele zithuthukiswe ukuqinisekisa ukuthi bayakwazi ukumelana nokungenelela kwezepolitiki kunoma iluphi uhlangothil futhi okubaluleke kakhulu, benze ukuqasheka okusezingeni elikulungele, bese okokugcina kuhehe abantu abanamakhono adingakalayo nangandile.
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    Training and development for public governance: a case study of the department of government communication & information systems in South Africa.
    (2021) Nkwanyana, Bongeka.; Mutereko, Sybert.
    It has been previously observed that all components of the public service are impaired by a deficiency in expertise and professionalism. Studies have shown that many workers in the public sector have not performed well because of a lack of basic training and development (T&D). In order to enhance organisational efficiency and the ability of employees to provide high-quality services to the public, T&D of public servants are required to ensure the development of effective skills and practices. Drawing upon governance theory, human capital theory and learning theories, this study explored T&D in the Department of Government Communication and Information Systems (GCIS). In addition, through the use of a mixed methods design, the study aimed to provide evidence of the inherent weaknesses that currently exist in the public sector, using the case of the GCIS, when it comes to the systematic planning, implementation and evaluation of T&D. A method involving documentary research, interviews (13), and surveys was used in the study (108 questionnaires). The research attempted to show how T&D is implemented and evaluated in the GCIS department by using both qualitative and quantitative enquiry methods. The findings show that, despite the existence of T&D policies and different training frameworks, different obstacles continue to obstruct its successful implementation in the GCIS. These include a lack of standardised training, supervisory support and rigid and lengthy implementation processes. These challenges militate against training leading to increased capacity in the public sector and addressing the skills challenge that hinders national development, social development, economic development and progress in the attainment of the government’s developmental goals at large. The findings will be of interest to public sector human capital development practitioners and researchers alike, as they have several practical implications. There is a need to establish a robust legislative framework that is sufficiently flexible to accommodate the training needs of the employees. Another finding of this study is that there is an urgent need for the implementation of training programmes that reflect the individual needs of employees in the GCIS. Overall, this study reinforces the idea that the systematic and appropriate implementation of T&D is crucial in order to improve the quality of public sector services.
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    Access to municipal markets by agro-smallholder producers in eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality: a public administration perspective.
    (2020) Nyawo, Jabulani Christopher.; Mubangizi, Betty Claire.
    The government's inability in South Africa to ensure that both local and national markets adequately accommodate smallholder producers is hindering the sector’s ability to grow and develop. Minimal research has focused on how local government interacts with other spheres of government to improve and ensure accessibility to municipal markets for agro-smallholder producers, and limited studies have been conducted that explore the influence of municipal markets on agro-smallholder producers. Therefore, this study aimed to critically examine municipal markets' influence on agro-smallholder growth within a decentralised state. This study employed a qualitative exploratory research methodology using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. The researcher utilised a non-probability, purposive sampling method—the sample comprised participants from government departments and agrosmallholder producers falling under the eThekwini Municipality’s jurisdiction. The researcher conducted seven individual face-to-face interviews with government officials and 15 focus group discussions with agro-smallholder producers. The data collected were analysed using the thematic analysis technique. The study results show that the municipal markets and the extension services do not provide substantial support to agro-smallholder producers who are seeking access to markets. Furthermore, the study found that there is no integration or relationship between the eThekwini Municipality and the KZN Agriculture and Rural Development on the issues related to the promotion and development of agro-smallholder producers. Through the application of administrative theory, the study recommends that the government institutions incorporate stakeholders’ insights, lay a policy foundation for a whole-of-government approach to planning, and set the direction for agrosmallholder's planned future. The creation of a coherent planning and coordination system could assist government institutions in ensuring that better outcomes are achieved to deliver support services to agro-smallholder producers. Furthermore, the government institutions will be more effective if they have sufficient human resources who are qualified and able to ensure their departments' effective management and smooth functioning.
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    An analysis of revenue management in water and sanitation in Harry Gwala and Ugu water services authorities.
    (2019) Nkabane, Nobuhle Pamela.; Nzimakwe, Thokozani Ian.
    Local government municipalities in South Africa are beset by poor revenue collection and management and the Harry Gwala and Ugu WSAs are no exception. In this regard, public finance is a decisive and overriding factor in determining the financial viability of municipalities. Failure to collect revenues properly compromises the quality of service delivery, including the provision of water and sanitation. In general, financial viability of urban and rural municipalities differs respectively. This claim is based on the fact that some municipalities are self-sufficient while others remain dependent on national revenue for survival and the revenue base in most rural municipalities is weak and unsustainable, rendering service delivery ineffective and unsatisfactory. Arguably, the transition to democracy has instilled a culture of non-payment and a culture of entitlement even though households are able to pay for service charges. However, 25 years later the government is still providing free services to such individuals. This study intends to conduct an explorative analysis of revenue management of water and sanitation with specific reference to Harry Gwala and Ugu WSAs. The study explored the communication challenges being experienced by both WSAs in the provision of metered services in water and sanitation service delivery. It assessed the challenges relating to the billing system and to the management of revenue collection for water and sanitation in the Harry Gwala and Ugu WSAs. Furthermore, the study investigated the challenges of compliance management for water and sanitation businesses in Harry Gwala and Ugu WSAs. The research approach uses a qualitative research method. Data collection methods were interviews and questionnaires as the primary data collection strategy. Based on the empirical data collected and analysed, the study further developed and introduced a normative model/new conceptual framework on revenue management for water and sanitation service delivery which the researcher has found as being a gap in the literature. The normative model/conceptual framework will contribute to the body of knowledge and reinforce existing theories, which will assist in determining the financial standpoint of rural and urban water services authorities. The study has recommended how best the WSAs can improve water and sanitation revenue inflows to ensure availability and sustainability of revenue sources in order to operate, maintain and refurbish the existing infrastructure to ensure that the future generation is not deprived an access to this precious ecological resource.
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    Social deprivation and government employment of the non-profit sector: a two-phased interrogation of the welfare policy-practice phenomenon in KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2020) Engelbrecht, Samuel Douglas.; Du Toit, Francois.; McArthur, Brian Walter.
    Social services delivery in South Africa is substantially achieved through the contracting by provincial governments of select civil society organisations, required to be registered as non-profit organisations. The questions that arise are whether non-profit organisations operate in the area of greatest deprivation and whether the contractual relationships established by government with select non-profit organisations effectively impact citizen deprivation. Conducted from a pragmatic research perspective as a principally quantitative enquiry, the research investigates at the level of population study, in two phases, the phenomenon of non-profit organisation welfare service delivery in KwaZulu-Natal. The first phase interrogates the spatial relationship between the distribution of the human-welfare non-profit organisations and the distribution of human deprivation over the eleven municipal districts of KwaZulu-Natal. Undertaken as a cross-sectional study, a multidimensional deprivation measurement instrument was developed to measure deprivation throughout the province. Correlative association testing was performed to assess the form and extent of the relationship between all registered non-profit organisations, as well as the subset government-contracted non-profit organisations, and deprivation intensity. The second phase of the study was conducted as a five-year longitudinal investigation of provincial government’s disbursements to contracted non-profit welfare organisations, from fiscal year 2013. Regression analysis was undertaken for each provincial District Municipality, modelling the impact of annual disbursements to contracted NPO welfare providers on district poverty headcounts. The goal was to determine the explanatory effect of this expenditure on provincial deprivation levels. The findings of the first phase reveal that there is no discernable relationship between the provincial incidence of welfare non-profit organisations generally and the deprivation experienced by the provincial population. However, a very distinctive positive association is distinguished between the geographic incidence of deprivation and the location of government-contracted non-profit organisations. Second phase analysis demonstrates there is limited impact of government contracted non-profit organisation welfare provision on deprivation intensity in any region of KwaZulu-Natal. The evidence demonstrates that government’s social developmental welfare spend is neither impactful, nor judiciously targeted. It is concluded that this spending is palliative at best, markedly distinct from government’s stated ambition.
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    The implementation and sustainability of pro-poor local economic development initiatives in the King Cetshwayo district municipality.
    (2019) Jili, Noqiniselo Nokukhanya.; Nzimakwe, Thokozani Ian.
    The main aim of the study was to critically explore the implementation and sustainability of pro-poor Local Economic Development in the KCD municipality. The secondary objective of the study was to determine how the implementation and sustainability of LED initiatives are organised, assessed, strategized and reviewed in the KCD. The implementation of economic development policies seemed to be a persistent problem hindering Local Economic Development (LED) in South Africa. Local government is a sphere of government that is closest to local communities and is so placed to identify, drive and implement programmes aimed at addressing unemployment, poverty alleviation and developmental challenges facing local communities in South Africa. The King Cetshwayo District (KCD) is not excluded from these challenges, which include the challenges of stimulating pro-poor LED by creating jobs and promoting the growth of small and medium business enterprises (SMMEs). The need to address poverty and unemployment is one of the most critical issues in this municipality. This research study was founded on the theoretical framework of the World Bank Local Economic Development model that involves several stages of LED strategic planning. A qualitative approach was adopted whereby eight in-depth interviews were conducted to interview municipal officials which included the mayor, the municipal manager and LED officials in two local municipalities in the KCD. The study further conducted 14 focus group discussions with community members which included co-operatives. Thematic analysis through an interpretive approach was used to analyse and present data for this study. The findings have shown that LED in the KCD is conceptualised generally as a form of partnership or coalition undertaken between the key players in a local municipality and involves the development of partnerships between the private sector, government and civil society. Moreover, the Richards Bay Industrial Development Zone (RBIDZ) together with other stakeholders, including the municipality, have put measures in place to assist SMMEs to benefit from the RBIDZ activities. LED initiatives in the uMhlathuze local municipality are intended to stimulate both the enhanced growth of the local economy (pro-growth) and to address concerns of persistent poverty (pro-poor). The study also noted that both local municipalities have adopted the LED strategy but they are not sufficiently guided by the strategy to respond to the people’s needs. Pro-poor LED initiatives allow community members to showcase their skills and their desires and at the same time they can earn a living. Both municipalities are, however, not adequately monitoring and reviewing the LED strategies and initiatives, hence most of the pro-poor LED initiatives in the KCD are not sustainable. From the discussion of the findings the study concluded that LED initiatives that are established in different communities, particularly the KCDM, lack uniqueness and face stiff competition. There is also a lack of skills to manage LED initiatives, a lack of knowledge about the processes and the procedures of implementing and sustaining pro-poor LED initiatives. Moreover, there is inadequate funding to facilitate and implement LED and there is a need to involve the people from the planning stage and a request for more community participation.
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    Employee wellness : a strategy for enhancing performance in the KwaZulu-Natal Administration.
    (2018) Badul, Sanoosha.; Subban, Mogesperie.
    Employee Health and Wellness Programmes were introduced in the workplace as employer-initiated programmes to assist employees whose performance has been impaired. The aim of this was to identify and provide recommendations on problems that impact on the employees’ ability to perform their duties. In relation to employee wellness and employee productivity, the concept of performance management has been in the forefront of transformation in the Public Service post-1994. The need to review practices to ensure optimum performance and service delivery was identified in this study. Employees experience a multitude of factors that impact on the quality of performance, thus resulting in the workplace exploring programmes such as Employee Health and Wellness. The study was conducted within the scope of Provincial Administration and from the perspective of a Developmental State. The study aimed to provide a greater understanding of the linkage between Performance Management and Employee Health and Wellness, as a means for supervisors to contribute to the agenda of service delivery. One of the key questions in the study was to ascertain the perceptions of supervisors of Employee Health and Wellness programmes as a performance management tool to attain the desired work outcomes. Mixed methods was adopted and undertaken through a research paradigm of Pragmatisms with closed-ended questionnaires and in-depth interviews. The study was theorised within the paradigm of Public Management, highlighting the synergy between healthy and productive employees and good service delivery relationship and the need for optimising worker productivity and enhanced service delivery. Views from Supervisors, Employee Health and Wellness Practitioners and Managers and Provincial Forum Members informed the findings of the research study. The theories underpinning the study were Goal-Setting, Attribution Theory and the Results-Based Model. The research focused on the importance of accountability of public service supervisors to ensure that employee performance is aligned with the developmental agenda of the Public Service. The research proposed an integrated approach to addressing problems in managing particularly poor or impaired performance. A key finding was that supervisors need to be capacitated to manage the impact of Employee Health and Wellness, on the employees’ ability relative to performance. The research provided recommendations in terms of policy and workplace interventions to address the impact of poor or impaired performance, and its consequential effects on service delivery. The study concluded with the need for a nuanced approach for supervisors to manage performance in the public service. This is whilst embracing the health and well-being of employees, and in so doing, mitigate the risks impacting on good governance.
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    Public participation and collaborative governance in Zimbabwean flea markets: a case study of the City of Harare.
    (2019) Mapfumo, Linos.; Mutereko, Sybert.
    Public participation can play an important role in addressing developmental, governance and administrative challenges being faced by local authorities. Studies have shown that a highly participatory and engaged public determines the county’s level of development and this enhances participatory democracy. Drawing upon Sherry Arnstein’s typology of the ladder of participation and Mathew A. Crenson’s democratic model of public participation, the study explored public participation in the City of Harare. It also looked at Harare’s public participation framework and the role of stakeholders in the governance of the informal sector. It argues that participation is far from being achieved due to a multiplicity of factors. The study employed a mixed-methods approach which involved documentary analysis, in-depth interviews (32), and survey methods (165 questionnaires). By employing qualitative and quantitative methods of enquiry, I attempted to illuminate how Zimbabwean local government policymakers utilise public participation legislation within the context of collaborative governance. Furthermore, through the use of mixed methods design, the study sought to provide evidence for the validity of the hypothesis and find solutions to the inherent weaknesses that currently exist in Zimbabwe’s local government sphere when it comes to public participation. The results indicate that despite the introduction of a progressive constitution and the existence of various participatory mechanisms, various challenges continue to inhibit public participation in Harare. These include lack of funding, continued central government intervention, re-centralisation of governance due to loss of political power by the ruling party, political polarization, resistance by administrators to co-opt the public in decision-making processes and failure to adapt to change. The findings will be of interest to local government practitioners and scholars alike as they have a number of practical implications. The results of this study indicate that there is a need to put in place a robust legislative framework that promotes citizenry involvement and de-link party politics with development and governance of local authorities. A key policy priority should, therefore, be to inculcate a culture of inclusivity, tolerance, and de-centralisation of power and governance. Overall, this study strengthens the idea that public participation is sacrosanct and vital for political and economic development.
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    Understanding the dynamics of food (in)security and vulnerability in the Amathole District of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.
    (2018) Ngumbela, Xolisile Gideon.; Khalema, Ernest Nene.; Nzimakwe, Thokozani Ian.
    Food insecurity is a major development problem facing many third world countries. It is caused by a myriad of factors in the global, regional, national and local spheres of human life. Numerous efforts by different actors have been put in place to alleviate food insecurity globally, regionally, nationally and locally. Communities in the Amathole District Municipality of the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa experience severe food insecurity and government and other nongovernmental organisations have been striving to ameliorate the situation. Despite concerted efforts, the poverty and food insecurity situation continue in the district. There is a dearth of empirical study on the nature, causes and possible solutions to food insecurity among vulnerable people in this district. Also, there is a need to find out whether the food security approaches and strategies put in place by governments, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and communities have produced the intended results of pushing poverty frontiers. It is against this background that this study determines the dynamics of food security and vulnerability among people in the Amathole District Municipality of the Eastern Cape. A mixed-methods research approach of quantitative and qualitative triangulation design was adopted to carry out this study. A total sample of 330 heads of households from the six local municipalities in the Amathole District Municipality participated in the study. Quantitative data was collected through a validated questionnaire and qualitative data was collected through a key informant interview schedule. A triangulation approach was adopted in analysing the data where qualitative analysis was used to complement the quantitative data. The qualitative analysis was completed through themes informed from the research questions, while the quantitative analysis was completed through descriptive statistics, multiple regression and a significance level adopted of 0.05. The results of this study show that the main source of income for the vulnerable people of the Amathole District Municipality is pension money (58.8%), the main source of water is tap water (61.0%) and the main source of food is through purchase (58.0%). The majority (74.0%) of residents rarely have access to enough food. Factors such as measures taken against food shortage, time of food shortage, causes of food shortage, acquired agricultural skills, agricultural activities and available agricultural resources have a significant contribution to the level of food security. xxix The study concludes that vulnerable people in the Amathole District Municipality are still facing food insecurity despite the efforts put in place by the present government. The sources of income and food of these people are not sustainable. The study recommends empowerment of the vulnerable people through agricultural activities with adequate provision of agricultural resources to the entire district
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    Faith-based organisational management: strengthening church-led healthcare provision in Malawi and Zambia.
    (2018) Nondo, Edward.; Ruffin, Fayth Anese.
    Collaboration between government, faith-based organisations (FBOs) and local communities for healthcare management and delivery in southern Africa or continentally, are seldom the focus of empirical study. The core work of churches is pastoral care. Literature searches reflect that pastoral care characterised by congregational governance lacked healthcare management strategies and stakeholder inclusivity in church-led management of local healthcare. With this point of departure, the current cross-national study of four mission hospitals explored challenges and opportunities for church-led hospitals to perform healthcare management functions in collaboration with government and communities. Driven by the transformative worldview, this qualitative study used multi-grounded theory and case study strategies in tandem with a design of meta-conceptual framework in stakeholder-congregational style. Two Malawian mission hospitals in Ekwendeni and Embangweni led by the Church of Central Africa Presbyterian (CCAP), and two Zambian mission hospitals in Mbereshi and Mwandi led by the United Church of Zambia (UCZ), provided units of analysis for the intra-country and international study. Combined study participants included 38 interview informants and 144 focus group participants across 13 focus groups comprising a range of diverse stakeholders. Data sets were analysed through a combination of content, thematic and matrix approaches. Findings revealed the need for secular management training to be integrated with pastoral care approaches; that hospital workers perceive themselves minimised from inclusivity in management decision-making, and that members of civil society believe themselves marginalised from participation in operation and management of healthcare delivery. Recommendations for systems strengthening are made such as reformation of formal mission hospital management and administration structures to allow wide stakeholder participation. Further, local people should be empowered with capacity and skills to participate in preventive and curative interventions to make meaning from ‘community-based’ healthcare. The study contributes a conceptual model towards this end. Re-visiting collaborative arrangements between church, mission partners and government with stakeholder inclusivity and community voices in mind would help reconstruct the meaning of faith-based community participatory healthcare in this era of a globally networked society, and for southern Africa countries in particular.