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Masters Degrees (Public Governance)

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    Rural communities and water governance: understanding participatory processes for catchment management in the upper Umzimvubu catchment.
    (2021) Mbele, Siyasanga.; Mubangizi, Betty Claire.
    Catchment areas play an essential role in water provisioning since catchment areas are the river's source. The management of the catchments is fundamental for good water quality and sustained availability. In the water governance sector, the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach best expresses catchment management ideals. The IWRM was adopted in 1992 in Ireland, Dublin, during the “International Conference on Water and the Environment (ICWE)”. It encompasses Integrated River Basin Management as its sub-set, which entails public participation in catchment areas. There is a history of inequality among South African citizens due to colonialism, the apartheid regime, and subsequent neglect of rural areas, all of which have affected the water sector. Nonetheless, many programs were reformed after the first democratic elections in 1994 to correct apartheid-era disparities, particularly the necessity for public engagement. The new National Water Act (Act 36 of 1998) and the Water Services Act (Act 108 of 1997) were such legislations, and they were promulgated to replace apartheid legislation. In addition, the "National Water Resource Strategy (NWRS)" formed in 2004 provided a structure to ensure that water resources are used, conserved, developed, safeguarded, controlled, and managed in an effective, sustainable, and equitable manner (RSA DWS 2013:13). Despite these developments, water resources remain threatened by various factors in South Africa, and these require exploring. This study took place in the rural areas of the upper of Umzimvubu catchment (Tertiary catchment T31) at KwaSibi Administrative Area (A/A) under Alfred Nzo District Municipality (ANDM) as its Water Service Authority (WSA). It is within the boundary of Matatiele Local Municipality (MLM) in the province of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The upper Umzimvubu catchment is under threat and degradation. Noteworthy is that the water quality degradation and quantity shortages are major water issues that ANDM experiences. The water shortage is primarily due to poor catchment management practices, a combination of different factors, including natural, socioeconomic, institutional, and political factors. The natural factors relate to the alien plant invasion in the catchment areas, which causes poor water quality and quantity and soil erosion that increases sediment load. Beyond the mentioned factors, governance plays an important part in managing catchments and the sustenance of good water quality and availability. Good governance, specifically, emphasises new spaces, new actors and new networks. Therefore, this study focused on understanding participatory water governance strategies and processes in upper Umzimvubu catchment (Tertiary catchment T31) management for water conservation within ANDM. This study used two research paradigms, namely the constructivist and the interpretivist, and the research design used was the case study. The primary data of this research study was obtained using four datasets, namely the participants, official documents and sources (including websites), and personal observations to triangulate and complement each other in data analysis. The findings show that there are existing participatory water governance strategies in South Africa and local strategies for water resources management. These include statutory and nonstatutory strategies to decentralise water resources management. They are required by the post-apartheid South Africa's National Water Law, which was passed in 1998 to foster participatory governance. The findings also reveal that the provisions that are made by the National Water Act (Act 36 of 1998) are not yet fully achieved at KwaSibi A/A, since there is no existing and effective statutory body in this area. The findings also showed that current South African legislation has decentralised power and separated mandates from national to local government and contain the participatory processes for cooperative governance. However, the findings show that there are also challenges encountered by local government and community people when it comes to implementing laws and policies, including lack of funding, community protests against local government, and illegal water connections that degrade water resources. The findings also revealed that the community still lacks intense community participation in this study area; they feel neglected in water governance and their traditional water governance practices are not taken into consideration. The findings further revealed that the local people do understand catchment management and degradation. However, they feel less involvement by local government in water governance related issues. In addition, they feel like their indigenous administrative knowledge is not considered in catchment management. Lastly, the findings show that intergovernmental processes are informed by Intergovernmental Relations (IGR) framework, and there is also collaboration in different administrative levels and different government departments. However, this collaboration is not constant, as there are challenges encountered as different government departments have competing mandates. In this regard, good water governance in rural communities remains a concern. Therefore, recommendations include the need to finalise the establishment of the CMA in all nine existing WMAs. A shift in thinking is needed on the part of the government to improve public participation, especially in rural communities. The study also recommends strong consideration of local people to own the public participation process. The community should feel extensively involved in developing strategies for water resources management. In creating rules and procedures, indigenous practices should be considered. Further, rather than a blanket approach, implementation of the IWRM approach should be determined by the local context.
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    Assessing the benefits of empowering rural women through local economic development initiatives in Port St. Johns Municipality.
    (2018) Fodo, Sinazo Ayabulela.; Nyawo, Jabulani Christopher.
    South Africa is viewed as one of the developing countries in Africa. Regardless of the advancements recorded, the local impact of the broad development is as yet needing. This may be because of the inheritances of the apartheid regime. Amid the apartheid period, development was isolated. The White people profited more from development at the disservice of the Black populace in South Africa. Gender inequality was at its most noteworthy pervasiveness. Women occupied the least societal position when contrasted with men. In any case, post 1994 the democratic government executed expanded desires for the citizens as it guaranteed the public of the delivery of services for the improvement of their lives. Hence, while attempting to decrease racial and exceptional incongruities through advancing the improvement of the already hindered territories, there was a presentation of Local Economic Development (LED). LED has been seen as an initiative that is able to address local socio-economic challenges and to promote local growth and development. Critically in this way, developmental institutions were commanded in addition to other things to develop the strengthening of empowerment of women on the agenda of all their developmental projects and introduce innovative ways to promote gender equality. Women empowerment implies giving women the opportunity or capacity to experience life the way they want. It enables them to identify their skills, knowledge and capacities to settle on their own choices. It is a dynamic and development process for women which incorporates awareness, achievement and completion of skills. This is to state that women empowerment on LED will improve the status of women through literacy, education, training and creating awareness. In this manner, women empowerment on LED will ensure that women are equipped to make choices that will improve their standard of living. However, the issue of development in South Africa is that, it is just specific to urban regions. Put in another path, in spite of incredible strands appreciated in growing South Africa, imbalance and underdevelopment is as yet overflowing. Rural women are as yet looked with challenges that may hinder their development. A number of rural women lack awareness and knowledge, are exposed to inequality, are unemployed and exposed to poverty. The point of this investigation was to basically break down the benefits of empowering rural women through developing LED activities. The objectives of the study were to: (a) assess the benefits of empowering women through LED initiatives in the rural settings of Port St Johns municipality; (b) assess the major LED projects run by the municipality that are beneficial to women; (c) assess the capacity at which the municipality is able to empower women through training and development for effective participation in local economic development initiatives in Port St Johns municipality; and (e) evaluate the challenges associated with the implementation of local economic development initiatives in Port St Johns municipality. The study is qualitative in nature, thus the researcher employed qualitative techniques to gather data. The researcher employed a thematic analysis as a mechanism to analyse data collected from the participants.The researcher also utilized the purposive sampling method and aimed at interviewing twenty participants consisting of one municipal manager, one LED manager, one Ward Councillor, one traditional leader, four small businesses owned by rural women and twelve rural women of Port St Johns municipality in Swazini Administrative Area. However, due to certain circumstances the researcher managed to interview sixteen participants, consisting of one municipal manager, one LED manager, one ward committee, one traditional leader, two small businesses owned by rural women and ten rural women of Port St Johns municipality in Swazini Administrative Area. The researcher assembled that within Swazini administrative area women continue to be exposed to poverty, a number of women are unemployed, no real economic activities exists within the area, LED initiatives are promptly accessible, women lack financial support to run existing projects, lack of information, lack of responsiveness to LED initiatives, lack of proper infrastructure, lack of intergovernmental support, no training and development initiatives exist within the area and women have moved from rural areas to find greener pasture. The researcher suggests that , the Port St Johns municipality must introduce training and development workshops, form partnerships with other stakeholders, introduce mentors for existing projects, initiate projects that target women that will alleviate poverty and unemployment, disseminate information on LED, the municipality must converse with the traditional leader and Ward Councillor and find common grounds on how to boost the economy of the area and the municipality must seek intergovernmental intervention and encourage the participation of women in LED initiatives.
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    Knowledge, attitude and practice of community policing forums within the eThekwini Municipality.
    (2015) Nyuswa, Sabelo.; Mubangizi, Betty Claire.
    Abstract available in PDF file.
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    Government housing subsidy : exploring the administration processes in the dispensation of title deeds in Kwa-Mashu.
    (2017) Magagula, Mbongeni Emmanuel.; Mubangizi, Betty Claire.
    The low-cost housing scheme was an initiative of the new government soon after the first democratic election in 1994. Since then the demand for low-cost housing is ever escalating and the government has never managed to get rid of the backlogs. Along with this problem is also another issue, the delays in the processing of title deeds for the beneficiaries of these low-cost houses. Findings of this study suggest that many beneficiaries of the low-cost housing scheme do not possess this important document: the title deed. This study investigated this issue, the causes of the delays in the processing of title deeds by the relevant officials. The main objective of the study was to establish why many beneficiaries do not have title deeds and what the repercussions for such a situation are. To achieve this, questionnaires were distributed to officials responsible for the processing of title deeds, as well as to the community members who have benefited from the scheme but have not yet received title deeds. The findings of the study revealed that although it should take between a few weeks and three months to process title deeds, it was clear that some community members have not yet received title deeds even though they were allocated these houses more than 16 years ago. The relevant authorities pointed to a number of issues as causing the delays in the processing of title deeds. These include the fact that the beneficiaries submit wrong documentation for processing, delays in the establishment of township registers, incorrect drawing up of deeds and delays on the part of municipalities in releasing figures required for rates clearance certificate. On the other hand, the community members who participated indicated that some officials deliberately delay the process with a view to fulfilling personal interests through fraudulent activities. Further, it was revealed that the absence of title deeds makes the beneficiaries live in fear of being evicted from the properties that they have been allocated because they do not have the legal document to claim ownership of the property. Given these findings the study recommends that government should make efforts to deal with backlogs in the processing of title deeds and one way of doing this is to invest in the skills and knowledge of the administrative authorities as they seem to be inadequately resourced in this regard.
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    Evaluating the impact of monitoring and evaluation on performance in the KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board.
    (2017) Lekoba, Mpho Nana.; Nzimakwe, Thokozani Ian.
    The objective of the study was to determine the impact of monitoring and evaluation on improving public sector performance and enhancing accountability, good governance, efficiency and effectiveness, with a focus on the KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board public entity. Further, the study was aimed at analysing the challenges of establishing the monitoring and evaluation system in the KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board. The study also assessed the extent to which employees understand the important role of monitoring and evaluation in the KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board. A quantitative research approach was adopted and quantitative data collection techniques employed, which included the administering of questionnaires. The respondents comprised of staff of the KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board. The study targeted 20 participants and all questionnaires were returned, indicating a response rate of 100 per cent. A simple random technique was used to select executive management, middle management, supervisors and staff of KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board. Quantitative data was analysed using correlation and percentages. The findings revealed that there are high levels of agreement and show that respondents have an understanding of what the monitoring and evaluation is and what they need to do so that positive impact is achieved, which can improve performance and enhance accountability, good governance, efficiency and effectiveness within the KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board. It was concluded that monitoring and evaluation enhances accountability, management decision, organisational learning and promotes good governance. The study recommended that monitoring and evaluation should not only be structured to insignificant compliance; but should also support and enhance evidence-based decision making. Monitoring and evaluation must be properly institutionalised, resourced, funded and properly located so as to mediate policy processes, planning and service delivery. This will better inform the implementation strategy of monitoring and evaluation in the organisation.
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    Assessment of CRDP in empowering women at uMhlontlo Local Municipality in the Eastern Cape Province.
    (2017) Msutwana, Nomakatini.; Nyawo, Jabulani Christopher.
    Most rural areas of South Africa are characterised by abject poverty, low levels of literacy amongst adult women, under-utilisation of natural resources, compromised access to socio-economic infrastructure, non-availability of clean water for agricultural development and services, and a high dependency on social grants and unresolved land restitution and tenure issues as in the view by (Hart & Jacobs, 2012). A closer look at the Eastern Cape Province shows that the rural areas are characterised by gross under-development in specific areas in all respects. These areas include the former homeland areas, which are being characterised by huge infrastructure backlog, high poverty levels, food insecurity, economic and skills shortages. In 2009, the South African government undertook an initiative to resolve the challenges facing rural areas, thereby establishing a programme called the Comprehensive Rural Development Programme (CRDP). Obadire, et al. (2014) postulates that the Department of Rural Development and Agrarian Reform (DRDAR) have introduced this programme in an attempt to fight poverty, hunger, unemployment and lack of development in rural areas. In the view of DRDAR (2013), the programme has a vision of creating vibrant, equitable and sustainable rural livelihoods. This study is premised on the pathetic status of women, which has its origins from the apartheid past. Black African women have been discriminated and disadvantaged on cultural, business and political perspectives, and the poverty levels amongst women are higher than that of male-headed households. However, even though rural women have evolved to contribute in socio-economic roles to support their families; the development processes have been seen as inadequate (Osita-Njoku and Princewill, 2015:258). StatsSA (2014) stipulates that there is an increase in female-headed households in South Africa. This brings out a compelling reason for coming up with a study of this nature. The main aim of this study was to assess the influence of the CRDP in empowering women in the development site of the Umhlontlo local municipality. To achieve this aim, the research objectives have been created: firstly, to assess how the women of the rural municipality area have been developed through literacy and empowerment programmes, and how well the transformation has impacted their lives. Secondly, to assess the influence of the remedial programmes of the government in addressing the issues of discrimination and subordination against women. Lastly, to investigate the effects of development programmes in the fight against poverty and towards the development of the local economy. This study utilised a qualitative research approach. This is because the nature of the study required deeper understanding, illuminating and examining the participant’s experiences, ideas and attitudes in an etymological form. A non-probability technique, purposive sampling, and face-to-face interview as well as the focus groups were used in this study. The findings of the study revealed that rural women within the jurisdiction of the Umhlontlo Local Municipality benefited from the CRDP, and the government should continue implementing programmes of such a nature within the rural areas. The empowerment of women has resulted in improved living standards for their dependants and the community in general. It is clear from the findings that through the CRDP, the residents of the uMhlontlo local municipality, have obtained many benefits. In order to ensure that programmes such as the CRDP succeed and supported, it is recommended that the government create a good relationship with key, local, economic development stakeholders.
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    An assessment of the monitoring and evaluation mechanisms for water service delivery : a case study of Ugu District Municipality.
    (2017) Hlongwane, Ronelle Tania.; Reddy, Purshottama Sivanarain.; Sayeed, Cheryl Mohamed.
    This study provides an assessment of the role of monitoring and evaluation mechanisms at Ugu District Municipality in relation to the delivery of water services. Ugu District Municipality is located in KwaZulu-Natal’s lower south coast. A case study was used to measure the effectiveness of these mechanisms and their role in facilitating the monitoring and evaluation of water service delivery at Ugu District Municipality. A synopsis of local government restructuring and transformation at Ugu District Municipality is presented, with some reference on recent developments relating to restructuring and transformation in South Africa. The literature and policy framework for water service provision by municipalities provides an overview of literature on water service provision as well as a theoretical basis on which the study is based. The status of water services at Ugu District Municipality is outlined and emphasis is placed the pivotal role of partnerships between municipalities and the public, private sector, community and non-governmental organisations (CBOs and NGOs), this has been viewed as a fundamental route to be considered by municipalities in their efforts to resolve infrastructure backlogs and shortages. This study analyses the legal framework for water services provision to promote life and personal hygiene as well as the different legislation that paved way for the amendments and the smooth transition of the delivery of water services to poor, rural households to a peripheral issue into the South African Department of Water Affairs. The study highlights the need for water and sanitation services to be carried out in a manner aligned to the broader objectives of water resources management and instils the principles of cooperative governance which focus mainly on capacity building in all government spheres. It outlines the framework for oversight which includes monitoring, support and the role of the Department of Water and Sanitation if there is non-performance by provincial and local governments. The research design applicable to this study was exploratory in nature. A mixed methodology approach was employed and involved both quantitative and qualitative data collection. Interviews and surveys were the primary data collection instruments. Data analysis was guided by the application of thematic or content analysis. This enabled the researcher to obtain broader insight into the existing challenges that the municipality experiences with regards to water service delivery, and more insight into how alternatives could be introduced to promote more efficient water service delivery for the residents of Ugu District. Some of the challenges identified were that Ugu District Municipality is currently facing a financial crisis, ailing infrastructure and community perceptions that politicians and officials are not accountable to the residents for service delivery, such as water. These challenges present major implications for the municipality’s ability and responsibility to ensure that its mandate of water service delivery aligns with the prescripts of the South African Constitution, including those of the National Development Plan (NDP). The engagements between the researcher and the officials of Ugu District municipality revealed that monitoring and evaluation systems at the municipality are in existence however; to a large extent these mechanisms are not adequately implemented. This results in their ineffectiveness for the facilitation of water service delivery. The key challenge faced by Ugu District Municipality is ensuring that the delivery of water services is enhanced, particularly in rural areas. The key recommendations of the study suggest that the Ugu District Municipality needs to prioritize challenges related to improving monitoring and evaluation, staffing, ailing infrastructure and customer services on the agenda of its Integrated Development Plan (IDP). It is further recommended that Department of Water Affairs should play a supportive role by providing suitable interventions and strategies to monitor whether projects are being executed as planned.
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    Public administration processes towards self-determination : a case of Ndwedwe rural women and the Zibambele project.
    (2017) Thusi, Vusumuzi Eugene.; Ruffin, Fayth Anese.; Mutinta, Given Chigaya.
    The Zibambele programme is a KwaZulu-Natal poverty alleviation project initiated by the Department of Transport (DoT) with its recruitment pool dominated by rural women who are female-heads of households. The project creates job opportunities for people living in poverty, and encourages rural women who participate as contractors to strive to conquer their circumstances by empowering themselves. The purpose of the study is to ascertain the contribution of this project towards self-determination of rural women. The study assesses the public administration processes applied by the DoT for the successful implementation of the project to meet the needs of the society. Ndwedwe Local Municipality was identified as the place to conduct the research since it forms part of the deep rural areas in KwaZulu-Natal province affected by poverty where more than fifty per cent of households are female-headed. Most contractors are aged 51 years and above with no formal education. A case study research design was used in the study as it allows for multiple research methods for data collection. A mixed research method was conducive for the study as it is composed of both qualitative and quantitative research methods. A focus group discussion of nine contractors was conducted as part of the qualitative method at the DoT Depot. Through the quantitative research method seven hundred survey questionnaires were sent to 700 contractors and 473 surveys were returned to the researcher. Data collected through the qualitative method were analysed using thematic analysis, while data collected through quantitative research method were analysed using SPSS and descriptive analysis producing tables and graphs. Findings demonstrate the public administration processes used to implement the Zibambele project. Findings further show that contractors can now receive monthly salary although this is not enough to meet their basic needs. Therefore, they are encouraged to form savings clubs to save money for accumulating for their future needs. Recommendations from the study include, amongst others, a decentralization of the Zibambele officers from a district level to allow local municipalities to exercise full control and monitoring towards supervisors.
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    Adherence to performance management system framework by the Solid Waste Management Division within the Umdoni Municipality.
    (2018) Mkhize, Sibusiso Wycliff.; Nzimakwe, Thokozani Ian.
    Municipalities are obliged by the Constitution to provide services in an efficient, effective and accountable manner. However, Local Government in South Africa has been characterised by inefficiency and marred by public service delivery protests. This study argues that Performance Management System (PMS) is one practice of management which significantly improves service delivery in public organisations. The study explored the origin and evolution of management and the models of Public Administration. It is guided by four theories namely: the Scientific Management Theory, Systems Theory, Institutional Theory and the Rational Choice theory. The concept of Adherence was critical to the study, thus the researcher constructed the Adherence Model, illustrating the activities and organisational practices which lead to adherence. The main aim of the study was to assess the adherence of PMS at the Solid Waste Management Division at Umdoni Municipality. This was achieved by examining the perceptions of the management and operational staff of the Solid Waste Management Division at Umdoni Municipality. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, a questionnaire was employed to determine the degree of adherence of PMS by assessing the extent to which the Umdoni Municipality applied the principles of PMS. Rooted from the quantitative research design, closed-ended survey questionnaires were distributed to 115 participants. The results of the study indicated that there was a lack of comprehensiveness in the implementation of the PMS principles in the Umdoni Municipality. The findings also showed that the adherence of PMS was appropriately practised by the middle and top management staff, while the PMS principles were inconsistently imposed on the lower hierarchical staff, such as the Umdoni Solid Waste Management Division Staff.
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    The effectiveness of public service delivery : evidence from the uBuhlebezwe Local Municipality waste management system.
    (2017) Tenza, Ndabezitha Selby.; Okeke-Uzodike, Obianuju Ebele.
    The global campaign around the sustainability of the environment has resulted in much emphasis being placed on actions that can save people and the environment. Waste management is vital in this era of sustainability and is of utmost importance to ensure a livable environment for the flora and fauna. The need to create a livable environment has continuously resulted in service delivery protests in South Africa. At the municipal level, there are increasing media reports of service delivery protests over the provision of basic utilities. Against this backdrop, the study examined the effectiveness of the service delivery at the local government level, with specific reference to refuse waste management. The focus area of the study was the uBuhlebezwe Local Municipality (BLM). The aim and objective of the study was to review the waste management practices at the BLM, highlighting the shortcomings/challenges and the discrepancies between policy implementation and management practices. The data for the study was collected through one-on-one interviews and focus group discussions. The face-to-face interviews and focus group discussions were used to elicit information from the municipal officials and community members respectively, to address the research questions and objectives. A total number of five municipal officials were interviewed, while a total number of 45 households were involved in the focus group discussions. In gathering information, the researcher compiled an interview guide: a set of questions that guided the interviews. Content analysis, which involved the use of coding, themes, and clusters, was used for the interpretation and analysis of the data; and the findings from the primary data were supported by the findings from the secondary data. The findings of the study indicated some degree of inefficiency in the municipal refuse management logistics system, which sometimes resulted in illegal dumping. The illegal dumping occurred as a result of the inability of the municipality to purchase a dumping site, due to financial constraints. The study also revealed the unreliability of the transport system in the municipality as a result of the frequent breakdown of the municipal vehicles. The lack of an efficient community participatory platform was also determined, and found to result in service delivery protests. The study recommends the need for educational awareness regarding health hazards, and a ‘reduce/reuse/recycle’ approach to refuse waste.
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    An investigation of the implementation of training and development in the KwaZulu-Natal Office of the Premier.
    (2017) Mthembu, Nelisiwe Generose.; Nzimakwe, Thokozani Ian.
    The objective of the study was to establish how training and development programme is implemented in the KwaZulu-Natal Office of the Premier. The availability of highly skilled public servants in South Africa remains a challenge. In the 21st century the knowledge of society is characterised by innovations in the public service delivery. Employee performance and service delivery requires the development of public sector human capital among public servants that will be capable of delivering and advancing the needs of communities in a sustainable manner. It cannot be overemphasised that the nature of service delivery has recently changed, thus the need for capable public servants. The KwaZulu-Natal Office of the Premier is dedicated in ensuring that all their employees are trained in line with the Skills Development Act and the department is spending a huge amount of money on employees’ tuition fees every year. Training and development of employees can change the attitudes and behaviour which can impact positively on their performance. Despite the training and development of employees, the department is experiencing high labour turnover, absenteeism and a number of labour cases. As such, this study sought to establish how training and development is implemented in the KwaZulu-Natal Office of the Premier and what challenges the Office of the Premier is facing during the implementation in order to ensure improvement of employee growth and organisational productivity. The study adopted a mixed method approach. Quantitative approach involved a survey questionnaire of administrative officials whilst qualitative approach involved interviews with Assistant Directors who are direct supervisors of the administrative officials. The study revealed that there was no training and development policy. It further revealed that for the department to conduct training, they are dependent on the Employee Development Plan of each employee. The main challenge that was raised was that employee training needs were disregarded and as a result, employees had to attend courses that were readily available at that time. The study recommended that a policy, in line with the Human Resource Strategy be developed and implemented to address employees’ needs and enhance organisational productivity.
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    Project co-ordinator's perceptions to the implementation of land restitution in KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2017) Mjamekwana, Pinkie Colleen.; Ruffin, Fayth Anese.
    In 1994 the South African democratic government introduced the Land Reform Programme (LRP), which was aimed at redressing the imbalances of the colonial and apartheid past. The LRP is designed to provide equitable redress to persons and communities that were involuntarily dispossessed of land rights after 19 June 1913, as a result of past racially discriminatory laws and practices. Of the four pillars of the LRP, land restitution is seldom a matter of empirical inquiry. The purpose of this research, inter alia, is to explore the implementation of land claims processing at the KwaZulu-Natal Regional Land Claims Commission (RLCC) from the perspective of project co-ordinators who are front-line researchers and preparers of claim settlement packages for review by the RLCC. The study further inquired into the factors that facilitate or hinder these processes, how the RLCC can assist project co-ordinators to meet target dates, and explored the perceptions of project co-ordinators on the presidentially declared re-opening of the lodgement period for land claims. This qualitative research design entails a case study strategy, is theoretically driven by Lipsky’s (1980) theory of street-level bureaucracy, and is underpinned by the philosophical worldview of social constructivism. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and focus groups of project co-ordinators, along with documentary evidence. The findings show the complexity of land claims processing implementation, the challenges of meeting target dates, and the opportunities that the RLCC could use to assist project co-ordinators who are liaisons between constitutional imperatives and the citizenry. Whilst the re-opening of lodgement of claims advances land restitution, it also contributes to protracted land claim processing delays in light of budgetary constraints and an ineffective performance management system that demotivates project co-ordinators. Recommendations are made as to how implementation processes can be improved, including the reinstatement of the legally mandated autonomy of the National Commission on the Restitution of Land Rights.
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    A qualitative analysis of South African television food advertisements in light of childhood obesity concerns.
    (2016) Maikoo, Mishaal.; Ellis, Deborah Ann.
    Childhood obesity rates have been increasing internationally. One of the contributing factors towards this increase is food advertisements that children are exposed to which persuades them to either buy or request the product. Research in South Africa looking at themes and tactics in food advertisements has not been performed, therefore this study aimed to provide insights on the themes and tactics used in unhealthy television food advertisements in South Africa by performing a deductive thematic analysis on a sample of unhealthy food advertisements shown on free-to-air channels in South Africa. This was performed by compiling themes and tactics found in Western literature on advertising, and specifically advertising influencing children, and then analysing whether these were evident in unhealthy food adverts flighted on South African television channels during prime viewing times. The objectives of this study aimed to look at the extent of unhealthy food advertisements that children might be exposed to and the nature of the themes and tactics used in these unhealthy food advertisements. If themes and tactics from the developed world are used in South Africa, this research can be used as a possible justification for the implementation of regulation for food advertisements in South Africa. This study followed the mixed methods research design, through the use of a deductive thematic analysis of a sample of television food advertisements and a quantitative measure of the extent of ‘unhealthy’ food advertisements shown on South African television. Television was recorded for ten days during prime time hours, as according to Van Vuuren (2006:90), this was the peak television viewing time for children. Television was recorded on two of the most viewed South African free channels, SABC 1 and ETV (Bizcommunity, 2012:para1). The research was conducted in August to avoid advertising for any specific holiday. It was found that South African food advertisements do in fact use the themes and tactics that have been found to be effective in influencing children internationally. Findings show that marketers frequently use the theme humour in food advertising. The most commonly used tactic was emotional appeals, specifically the appeal of ‘fun/happiness’. Both of these tactics appeal to the mood or state of the consumer and try to change the mood of the consumer to a positive one through the use of the product. Overall, it was determined that marketers use themes and tactics that have been found to be effective globally when advertising products to children. Limitations of the study, and recommendations to policy makers are provided. Limitations largely related to limitations with the deductive approach to thematic analysis and limited available literature. It was finally recommended that policy makers look at statutory legislation or government-driven self-regulation of food advertising.
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    An exploration of public administration processes in alleviating poverty through child support grants: the case of Mthonjaneni Local Municipality.
    (2015) Nxumalo, Jennifer Zanele.; Mubangizi, Betty Claire.
    Poverty remains one of the key challenges for most South Africans and government continues to devise interventions, such as the Child Support Grant, that can address poverty at household level. This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of public administration processes in alleviating household poverty through the CSG intervention in Mthonjaneni Local Municipality. Three public administration theories and principles including POSDCORB, New Public Management and the Batho Pele principles were applied simultaneously in this study. The findings derived from in-depth interviews, a focus group discussion and observations reveal that SASSA has devised a new strategy to improve the administration process of the social security grants, the Improved Grant Application Programme. The findings show that the new strategy has increased productivity by decreasing the time taken to process each application, and all processes are coordinated and well-controlled. The findings also reveal that there are several challenges faced by the South African Social Security Agency in Mthonjaneni Local Municipality including inadequate infrastructure, uninformed clients, and the failure of administrators to implement the Batho Pele principles, thus undermining the quality of service delivery as well as the effectiveness of the Improved Grant Application Programme. The findings also reveal that the administration processes only focus on the short term development of children, disregarding the long term development for the children whose grants lapse after the age of 18 years. Therefore, the current public administration processes are effective in alleviating household poverty only while the child is in the system, because more deserving children have access to the CSG. However, much needs to be done to improve the current processes and to also focus on what happens to the children after the grant lapses. The study thus recommends that SASSA administrators receive more training on how to uphold the Batho Pele principles. In addition, outreach programmes should be conducted in order to inform the community about the requirements for and benefits from the Child Support Grant. The study also recommends that SASSA together with the Department of Social development must devise developmental programmes for children while they are still in the system, to ensure that when the grant lapses when they turn 18 that they have received the necessary support and skills to escape poverty.
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    Job-related factors impacting motivation of office workers at eThekwini Municipality's Water and Sanitation Unit.
    (2016) Singh, Rajiv.; Subban, Mogesperie.
    Perceptions of the public sector world-wide, and especially in South Africa remains that it is bureaucratic, lazy and corrupt. A highly motivated workforce that is committed to effective and efficient service delivery is a key requirement to address the service delivery backlogs within the country at large. The eThekwini Water and Sanitation unit has been acclaimed the world-over for innovation and service delivery. In light thereof, this study seeks to identify the factors that motivate workers within the public sector, using the eThekwini Water and Sanitation unit as a case study. The literature identified many factors that drive worker motivation ranging from extrinsic to intrinsic factors. Utilising the rationale of Public Choice and Self-Determination Theories, the study seeks to identify the extent to which various motivational factors exist within the environment and the relative importance of those factors to workers. Job involvement is used as a key indicator of levels of worker motivation in this study. A mixed methods approach was used to survey 100 respondents using questionnaires and interviews based on Post-Positivism and Constructivist worldviews. The study identified that the unit has a relatively highly motivated workforce with most motivational factors extant. The study identified some key constraints and challenges to be addressed in order to further improve levels of motivation within the organisation. It recommended a review of the rewards system within the organisation and further research to establish the exact causes of the low levels of confidence in the leadership. The study concludes that these specific interventions would serve to significantly enhance the already high levels of motivation of workers.
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    An assessment of revenue management of water and sanitation : a case of Harry Gwala District Municipality.
    (2016) Nkabane, Nobuhle Pamela.; Nzimakwe, Thokozani Ian.
    Rural municipalities in South Africa are beset by poor revenue collection and management and the Harry Gwala District Municipality is no exception. In this regard, public finance is a decisive and overriding factor in determining the financial viability of municipalities. Failure to collect revenues properly compromises the quality of service delivery including the provision of water and sanitation. In general, financial viability of urban and rural municipalities differs respectively. This claim is based on the fact that some municipalities are self-sufficient while others remain dependent on national revenue for survival and the revenue base in most rural municipalities, including the Harry Gwala District Municipality, is weak and unsustainable rendering service delivery ineffective and unsatisfactory. Arguably, the transition to democracy has instilled a culture of non-payment and a culture of entitlement even though households are able to pay for service charges. However, 22 years later the government is still providing free services to such individuals. The study intended to assess the revenue management of water and sanitation in the Harry Gwala District Municipality. The study explored the communication challenges being experienced by this municipality in the provision of metered services in water and sanitation service delivery. The study assessed the challenges relating to the billing system and to the management of the revenue collection for water and sanitation in the Harry Gwala District Municipality. Data collection methods were interviews as the primary data collection strategy. The researcher interviewed 4 focus groups. The instrument that was used was interview guides. Based on the empirical data collected and analysed, the study was able to determine the financial standpoint for the municipality along with the recommendations. The study recommends how best the local authorities or Water Services Authorities can improve water and sanitation revenue inflows to ensure availability and sustainability of revenue sources in order to operate, maintain and refurbish the existing infrastructure.
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    Assessing the state of public participation and service delivery : the case of Maphumulo Municipality.
    (2016) Mdlalose, Mukelani.; Taylor, Derek.; Ruffin, Fayth Anese.
    Public participation and consultation remains an integral tool used by the state to communicate and interact with citizens on the ground, especially about services and programmes to be provided to communities. The precepts of this concept are housed in the Constitution of South Africa (Act No 108 of 1996), as well as the Municipal Systems Act (No 32 of 2000) and Municipal Structures Act (No. 117 of 1998). In particular, Chapter Five of the Municipal Systems Act requires municipalities to approve Integrated Development Plans (IDPs) every 5 years and also explains how the municipality should conduct public participation as part of community consultation process of IDP approval. The study was undertaken following a number of violent public protests in the Maphumulo Local Municipality. Communities were complaining about a number of service delivery issues. The intention of this study was to explore the underlying reasons for these service delivery protests, by investigating the level of public participation and community consultation. The majority of grievances raised by communities during protests were not listed in the approved municipal IDP. Other grievances were related to duties of the District Municipality and Provincial and National government. These challenges raised by communities showed that public participation strategies are not working efficiently. It emerged during the study that, although service delivery backlog remains a challenge within the municipality, communication breakdown between citizens and government is the major underlying cause of service delivery protests. When relevant officials do not provide feedback to communities, citizens become disgruntled and voice their anger through violent public protests. The study adopted a qualitative approach and interviews were used as the primary tool to collect data. From these, it emerged that communication breakdown and poor public participation strategies used by the municipality are indeed the major causes of community dissatisfaction. After analysis, recommendations from the research findings were made. These include, amongst others, compiling a consolidated IDP plan for all three spheres of government in the Municipality and establishment of mobile offices by government departments to visit all wards. In addition, more regular community meetings and the quarterly use of a community survey would increase contact and input from communities. The study concluded by suggesting areas for further investigation which would assist in creating a more accurate picture of the problems leading to public dissatisfaction and protest, as well as sustainable solutions to these issues.
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    Public sector knowledge management in a knowledge economy: the case of eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality.
    (2015) Msomi, Lungelo.; Ruffin, Fayth Anese.
    In the 21st century, which has been labelled the information age, knowledge is predominantly seen as one of the most, if not the most, important asset in organisations. Knowledge should therefore be managed carefully. However, knowledge management (KM) is a relatively new managerial practice, particularly in South Africa. Although there is evidence of KM being introduced and implemented in the South African public sector, there is scant empirical evidence of progress and benefits. This mixed method research design employed a case study strategy with eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality as the case and six municipal units/departments as units of analysis. The study is driven by a theoretical framework that encompasses KM constructs of codification strategy and personalisation strategy on the one hand with personal motivation and organizational structure as factors that affect knowledge transfer on the other hand. Probability and purposive sampling techniques were used to engage study respondents and ethical protocols were followed. Sources of evidence include surveys, interviews, observation and documentary evidence. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS and qualitative data through a combination of content, thematic and matrix analysis. The municipality is innovatively shifting from the rationalist conception of knowledge transfer as objective and universal to the post-rationalist approach (McFarlane 2006). The latter conceives knowledge and learning as partial, social, produced through practices, and both spatially and materially relational. Findings show that the municipality emphasises formal and informal social learning as an important medium for knowledge creation and sharing. However, KM in eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality is somewhat disjointed and not yet holistically embedded. Nevertheless, findings reveal statistically significant relationships between knowledge creation and sharing as dependent variables and organisational structure and characteristics as independent variables. Together, interaction of these and other variables demonstrate KM practices implemented in the municipality. Findings may be transferable to other similarly situated municipalities but not necessarily generalizable. Through triangulation of data, findings further shed light on KM and organisational structure opportunities of which municipalities can take advantage. Study results and recommendations contribute to the body of knowledge on public sector KM as both a managerial practice and an emerging academic discipline.
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    Performance management systems in meeting services delivery targets : a case study of Maphumulo Municipality.
    (2016) Mahlaba, Mnqobi Blessing.; Taylor, Derek.; Ruffin, Fayth Anese.
    Delivery of services to communities appears to be the leading cause of protests around South Africa, with communities turning to protest action to vent their anger at the lack of services they experience. This heightened demand for an increase in delivery of basic services to the community has forced government to develop new systems to address the community’s concerns. Constitutionally, the responsibility for delivery of services lies with the local government. This has resulted in a great deal of pressure on this sphere of government. The introduction of performance management in the public sector but more especially in local government has sought to bring about efficient and effective systems which ensure that service delivery is improved. This study was undertaken in Maphumulo Local Municipality, a rural municipality in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa and aimed to ascertain the effectiveness of PMS (Public Management System) in the delivery of services this specific municipality. The study adopted a qualitative, case study design. Research was undertaken with participants from Maphumulo Municipality who were purposively selected because of their high degree and working knowledge of the subject matter. In-depth interviews were used as the primary means of collecting data from the participants and content analysis was performed on the interview transcriptions. The analysis confirmed the hypothesis of the study, that the Performance Management System in use in the Maphumulo Municipality is ineffective in addressing their service delivery needs. It also resulted in the emergence of a number of themes around possible causes of the inadequate functioning of PMS in the municipality which include, amongst others, high vacancy rates – especially at management level, poor communication between the community and the municipality, lack of support from provincial and national spheres of government and other human resource management challenges. If the challenges that emerged from the study are addressed, it is expected that this will improve the functioning of performance management and ultimately the delivery of services within the municipality.
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    Management of adverse events in primary health care clinics in uMgungundlovu health district : nurses’ perspective.
    (2015) Khoza, Thembeka Maureen.; Nzimakwe, Thokozani Ian.; Zondi, Wellington Bonginkosi.
    The study was conducted in Pietermaritzburg within uMgungundlovu Health District. The main aim of the study was to explore the reasons why nurses fail to implement the available laid down procedures of dealing with adverse events. This was to be achieved by firstly investigating the reasons for poor adverse events, secondly, by investigating whether the available reporting tools are being used, thirdly by identifying the nature of the current management system in place, fourthly by investigating whether the environment within which nurses operate is conducive to effective adverse events management, and lastly by investigating the quality of the existing management plan for dealing with adverse events. The quantitative research approach was used and the research instrument employed was a structured questionnaire comprising forty questions arranged in a Liekert Scale format. The sample size was 213 participants out of a total population of 461. The study found that as much as nurses are orientated on the policy of adverse events management, there is no ongoing training on the management of adverse events. Furthermore the study found that staff is not included in the planning on the management of adverse events and the adverse events management committees are not fully representative of all categories of staff. The findings showed that there is lack of reporting on adverse events and further that the reporting tools are not primary health care orientated. The findings further revealed that there is poor data and information management. The findings also revealed that as much as there is complains mechanism that is in place, the clinics fail to involve the community through the clinic committees on matters of adverse events management Findings also revealed a lack of supervision and oversight role. The staff performance management is not aligned to managing adverse events. Another element is the fact that there is no improvement plan in plan following audits of quality care. The staff members are not even involved to discuss audit results. The study recommends that user-friendly tools that are relevant to primary health care activities be developed to ensure proper reporting. The study further recommends that adverse events should be incorporated in the nurse training programs, especially the Primary Health Care program as well as the in-service training programs. The study also recommends the training of the clinic managers to equip them with skills to be able to conduct monitoring and evaluation, coordination of programs and how to do strategic planning. The study further recommends that the staff performance management on adverse events be not limited to the focal person, but should be part of all healthcare workers. The study also recommends that the International Patient Safety day should be celebrated on a yearly basis and that this should be a key responsibility area of the district quality manager.