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Masters Degrees (Policy and Development Studies)

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    The role of civil society in responding to the coronavirus pandemic in South Africa: a case study of Gift of the Givers foundation.
    (2023) Moloi, Nolwazi Bridget.; Rieker, Mark Ivan.
    The study analyses the Role of Civil Society in responding to the COVID-19 Pandemic in South Africa through a case study of the Gift of the Givers Foundation. This was to understand better the contribution of Civil Society during such crises. The findings demonstrate the journey of the Gift of the Givers Foundation in tackling social hardships during COVID-19 and their earlier anticipation of the extent of the virus and the allocation of resources to the neediest community. The case study of the Gift of the Givers Foundation is a symbolic of the often overlooked incorporation of the socio-cultural context in support of local communities around Pietermaritzburg, which was found to create additional support for households. This study had a total of eight (8) staff members from the organization who were purposively sampled. The findings were generated through telephone interviews and online survey questionnaires. The research questions were kept semi-structured to allow for a free reflection of day-to-day operations, challenges and limitations during the pandemic. The Gift of the Givers staff responded to sixteen (16) research questions, and four (4) themes were generated following a thorough qualitative thematic analysis. A conceptual framework was developed to analyse the data. This study seeks to assess the impact of the Gift of the Givers Foundation in solving the challenges presented by the Covid-19 pandemic. It explores how the Gift of the Givers foundation responded to the COVID-19 pandemic. The study findings show that various factors impacted the strategic management at the Gift of the Givers Foundation during the coronavirus pandemic, issues that appeared to have been a major force that influenced push and pull factors in the way the management of this institution responded to the pandemic. This is because the use of planning in day-to-day operations was seen as part of the adaptation and a solution in continuing to operate during that period of coronavirus pandemic. The study recommendations aim at pointing out some of the gaps identified in the study, in relation to strategic planning and its impact on the operations of the Gift of the Givers Foundation, in relation to coronavirus dynamics. It also provides propositions on how such gaps need to be addressed.
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    Intergovernmental relations and cooperative governance: a case study of the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Health.
    (2023) Fynn, Akona.; Johnson, Belinda.
    This study explored and evaluated the effectiveness of intergovernmental relations and cooperative governance in enhancing service delivery using the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Health. The research used selected concepts from theories of intergovernmental relations and cooperative governance to construct a conceptual framework. The information derived from the literature review and case study was then analysed according to the concepts in the analytical framework. The research found that the KZN Department of Health has adopted measures to tackle resource constraints, such as establishing alliances with communities, NGOs, and sectoral collaborations. "Operation Sukuma Sakhe" is implemented to facilitate the coordination of service delivery among stakeholders. The revival of district health councils is underway, with the provincial department actively involving municipalities through COGTA. The primary objective of extra-IGR is to enhance societal well-being and foster optimal health. Nevertheless, inadequate synchronisation of policy implementation throughout government spheres results in substandard care and restricted devolution of authority. The 1996 Constitution advocates for equitable involvement, but the National Health Department frequently regards itself as the dominant authority, leading to fragmented planning, budgeting, implementation, and subpar performance. The IGR Framework Act 13 of 2005 delineates each government level's specific functions and obligations; however, resource constraints may hinder adherence. Inadequate collaboration among governmental entities can result in substandard service provision and the breakdown of social order. The purpose of a consultation is to synchronise efforts and prevent avoidable conflicts and unproductive expenses. The findings indicate that the existing procedures for intergovernmental relations are ineffective. The areas that require attention include the distribution of responsibilities between districts and provinces, the appropriate delegation of authority between these two spheres, and the assurance of proper allocation of resources.
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    An implementation analysis of the special covid-19 social relief of distress (SRD) grant in KwaZulu-Natal (2020-2022).
    (2023) Nkabinde, Mthobisi Mduduzi.; Manicom, Desiree Pushpeganday.
    The implementation of policy or programme is a crucial step in public policymaking despite its complexity. Implementation can be regarded as policy in action or how policy is carried out. Moreover, the quality of its implementation determines the effectiveness and success of any policy. Essentially, there is a policy gap when policy expectations and perceived outcomes differ during the implementation process. The study, therefore, seeks to investigate the SRD programme implementation issues, including accessibility, the application process, payment processes, and the distributional impact faced by the Department of Social Development in delivering SRD grants in KwaZuluNatal. The study also focuses on beneficiaries’ experiences in accessing the relief fund and the experiences of implementing agents (Department of Social Development and SASSA) in delivering SRD grants in KwaZulu-Natal between May 2020-December 2022. A desktop qualitative approach to research is used to collect data in this study. Moreover, the study uses content analysis as a data collection method. The sample for this study is a selection of primary documents, including the Social Relief of Distress, Social Assistance Act (No 13 of 2004) and the South African Social Security Agency Act (No 9 of 2004). Moreover, secondary studies related to the topic and research questions will be selected, such as reports, online news articles, and academic journals. The study found that the emergence of the Coronavirus disease (Covid-19) in South Africa in 2019, its corresponding impacts simultaneously posed a global health and socio-economic crisis. To curb the spread of Covid-19, South Africa implemented a five-tier lockdown strategy, with level 5 being the most drastic in terms of restrictions. The Covid-19 crisis and regulations restricting social mobility and interaction have led most governments worldwide to expand their social protection systems to provide relief to vulnerable individuals and household members. Notably, digital technology has become integral to many social security systems worldwide. The implementation of the SRD grant in South Africa faced numerous challenges, resulting in some beneficiaries being excluded. Issues included a lack of digital access and literacy, inefficiencies in cash payments by the Post Office, and difficulties for rural and peri-urban residents. Government databases with outdated information also caused some applications to be rejected without a chance for appeal. Those receiving bank deposits experienced withdrawal vi | Page fees and inconsistent payment schedules. Additionally, poor service delivery, bribery, and corruption were reported at Post office branches where grants were collected. It was established that public policy programs fail if there is a lack of direction and unclear goals. A consequence of these limitations is that most adopted policies include vague language and ambiguous, contradictory, or unfeasible policy goals. Furthermore, the goals of the newly gazetted regulations of the SRD grant are unrealistic, as hundreds of thousands of people receiving the grant were disqualified. The evidence further suggests how SASSA failed to update its outdated, limited databases and inadequate verification systems leading to an influx of applications from public servants.
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    The implementation of tertiary education language policy: a case study of the language policy of the University of Kwazulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg Campus.
    (2023) Madondo, Samukelisiwe Hlengiwe.; Manicom, Desiree Pushpeganday.
    Indigenous African languages have been marginalized for many years, and as a way to redress language inequalities and imbalances, mother tongue language use has been introduced in institutions of higher learning in South Africa. The South African Constitution promotes the use of all twelve official South African languages and Chapter 1 Section 6 of the Constitution guides the language policy implementation. In this regard, South Africa is a multilingual country and all languages should have equal status. However, currently South African languages do not enjoy equal status with English. Universities have therefore introduced multilingual modes of instruction to improve teaching and learning, as well as throughput rates. This study aimed at understanding the attitudes and perceptions of the University of KwaZulu-Natal staff and students on the university’s language policy in relation to teaching and learning on the Pietermaritzburg campus and to analyze the implementation of the policy. The study used a qualitative research approach, which consisted of a case study. In-depth interviews were used to collect the primary data from the key informants who comprised of the director of the language board, the dean and head of the School of Arts, three lecturers teaching IsiZulu 101 non-mother tongue, five tutors of IsiZulu 101 non-mother tongue and fifteen students registered for IsiZulu 101 non-mother tongue. The students were divided into three focus groups, each consisting of five students. The study used thematic analysis to analyze the data. Initial findings from the study revealed that students felt that they do not need to study IsiZulu; instead, they mentioned that it should be a personal choice because most of them believe that they will not be using IsiZulu once they have completed their undergraduate degree as they are not all from the province of KwaZulu-Natal. It was also found that not all lecturers were receptive to the implementation of the policy within the university. However, the continuous work that is being done by the University Language and Planning Development Office shows that there are new developments and systems that are continuously being put into place to further improve the implementation of the language policy.
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    Policy coordination in intergovernmental relations in South Africa: a case study of higher education institutions.
    (2022) Khanyile, Gabi Sylvia.; Rieker, Mark Ivan.
    The study looks at the intergovernmental ties between South African Higher Education Institutions and the government before and after 1994, up to the year 2020. Before 1994, the Apartheid government neglected and isolated the theory and practice of interstate relations. The Republic of South Africa's Constitution was approved in 1996, and it provided for the development of the Intergovernmental Relations Framework. The transition to democracy has resulted in substantial changes in the restructuring of intergovernmental relations and the redistribution of responsibilities across the three levels of government. The Intergovernmental Relations Framework of 2005 provided for the development of national, provincial, and municipal intergovernmental relations structures that foster cooperation among the three spheres of government. The Republic of South Africa's 1996 Constitution established government systems that encouraged collaboration and intergovernmental partnerships. But notably, these systems contain challenges that limit the achievement of objectives that must be met. After 1994, the South African government designed and implemented higher education policies that promote transformational aspects such as access, development, accountability, and quality. However, the higher education sector is still changing, and its institutions' effectiveness is not at the level it should be. Some institutions have failed to completely eradicate and dismantle the debilitating apartheid structures which impact negatively higher education institutions. Notably, these institutions must be able to lead in addressing regional economic difficulties; hence it is recommended that adequate policies and programs must be actively adopted to address the problems of institutional change and to improve both access and success.
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    An implementation analysis of the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 with specific focus on child justice courts in South Africa.
    (2022) Chikukla, Hope Mhango.; Manicom, Desiree Pushpeganday.
    Children committing crime is a major issue throughout the world, as a result, societies came to agreement that children in conflict with the law must be respected in line with the signed treaties through formulating a child justice system that handles cases of child offenders. In South Africa, the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 was introduced to protect the rights of child offenders as stated in the Constitution. After examining the official figures from annual reports on the implementation of the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008, it indicated that from the total number of children arrested, some children did not go through the child justice courts. The study aimed at investigating the implementation of the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 to see whether child justice courts are operating in accordance with the Act and attempts to find out the roles and experiences of street-level bureaucrats and children in conflict with the law to uncover any other issues related to the implementation of the Act in the courts. Regarding research design, the study employed a qualitative secondary analysis of primary and secondary data, making it desktop research. The researcher collected and analyzed existing documents, legislations, previous research studies and reports involving issues around implementation of the Act and the use of child justice courts in South Africa as its case study. After analyzing the data given and linking up with the theories of the study, the research established that despite the existence of the Act, barriers related to the implementation of the Act included lack of capacity building, lack of commitment and lack of an integrated management system due the lack of co-operation between stakeholders. The findings revealed challenges faced by the implementers were lack of resources and working in a stress loaded working environment where the demand for services is high. The findings also revealed that the child offenders have access to legal representation but find challenges in getting to know information about their court trials, lengthy period of trial and detention in prison, and in receiving restorative programs. Due to the inadequate resources and structures available, there still need for adjustments to be made in the provision of child justice and this can work if the government adjusts its policies and putting more efficiency in implementing the Child Justice Act whereby child rights will be recognized and promoted.
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    Civil society and social grants: a case study of civil society organisations and the child support grant during the COVID-19 lockdown in South Africa.
    (2023) Mchunu, Nicollette Sindiswa.; Manicom, Desiree Pushpeganday.
    The COVID-19 lockdown regulations promulgated by the Disaster Management Act, 2002 (No.57 of 2002) Amendment of Regulations issued in terms of Section 27 (2) has led to a dramatic loss of income and presents an extraordinary challenge to the livelihoods of the vulnerable. The level 5 lockdown was implemented to prevent the virus from spreading through the regulations, which included the closure of businesses and schools, restrictions on travel and transportation, and orders to remain at home, causing overwhelming economic and social disruptions mostly affecting children and caregivers as beneficiaries of the Child Support Grant (CSG). The study seeks to explore the impact of the COVID-19 level 5 lockdown regulations on CSG beneficiaries and the role played by Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) on the CSG during the lockdown. The study adopted an interpretative approach whilst using a qualitative methodology to explore the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown regulations on CSG beneficiaries, and the role played by CSOs in the CSG programme. The study is a desktop research; therefore, non-probability purposive sampling and theoretical sampling for documents was used to select relevant primary and secondary studies with sufficient data to address the research questions. The study uses a qualitative content analysis data collection method to collect data from books, journals, government legislation, newspaper articles, reports from government departments and Non-Governmental Organisation (NGOs), and relevant websites to provide in-depth descriptions of the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on CSG beneficiaries and CSOs' advocacy role in the CSG programme. Therefore, qualitative content analysis is used to analyze and organise data extracted from primary and secondary sources into themes related to the conceptual framework and the research questions of this study. The implementation of the CSG programme, as the focus of the study, was analyzed within the conceptual framework of public policy implementation which comprises numerous actors’ involvement. Additionally, the study uses the conceptual framework of civil society, which involves policy advocacy to understand the involvement of CSOs, the advocacy role and strategies of CSOs in the CSG. The findings of this study portray that CSOs influence the implementation of the CSG programme, and play both advocacy and watchdog roles. Furthermore, invented spaces of participation through virtual platforms such as media campaigns, evidence-based research, online petitions, lobbying through litigation, and submissions were utilised by CSOs to pressure the government to top up the CSG and for the public to contribute to the design of the social assistance policy response during level 5 lockdown. The CSOs proposed the CSG top-up of R500 per recipient. However, government implemented the CSG top-up or R500 per caregiver from June to October. Whilst CSOs contributed to the social assistance policy response during lockdown, they experienced challenges such as lack of advocacy capacity, lack of public awareness of online petitions, the digital divide, and lack of data and lack of communication between respective stakeholders and the public in executing advocacy activities.
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    The implementation of tertiary education language policy: a case study of the language policy of the University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg campus.
    (2023) Madondo, Samukelisiwe Hlengiwe.; Manicom, Desiree Pushpeganday.
    Indigenous African languages have been marginalized for many years, and as a way to redress language inequalities and imbalances, mother tongue language use has been introduced in institutions of higher learning in South Africa. The South African Constitution promotes the use of all twelve official South African languages and Chapter 1 Section 6 of the Constitution guides the language policy implementation. In this regard, South Africa is a multilingual country and all languages should have equal status. However, currently South African languages do not enjoy equal status with English. Universities have therefore introduced multilingual modes of instruction to improve teaching and learning, as well as throughput rates. This study aimed at understanding the attitudes and perceptions of the University of KwaZulu-Natal staff and students on the university’s language policy in relation to teaching and learning on the Pietermaritzburg campus and to analyze the implementation of the policy. The study used a qualitative research approach, which consisted of a case study. In-depth interviews were used to collect the primary data from the key informants who comprised of the director of the language board, the dean and head of the School of Arts, three lecturers teaching IsiZulu 101 non-mother tongue, five tutors of IsiZulu 101 non-mother tongue and fifteen students registered for IsiZulu 101 non-mother tongue. The students were divided into three focus groups, each consisting of five students. The study used thematic analysis to analyze the data. Initial findings from the study revealed that students felt that they do not need to study IsiZulu; instead, they mentioned that it should be a personal choice because most of them believe that they will not be using IsiZulu once they have completed their undergraduate degree as they are not all from the province of KwaZulu-Natal. It was also found that not all lecturers were receptive to the implementation of the policy within the university. However, the continuous work that is being done by the University Language and Planning Development Office shows that there are new developments and systems that are continuously being put into place to further improve the implementation of the language policy.
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    An implementation analysis of the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 with specific focus on child justice courts in South Africa.
    (2022) Chikukula, Hope Mhango.; Manicom, Desiree Pushpeganday.
    Children committing crime is a major issue throughout the world, as a result, societies came to agreement that children in conflict with the law must be respected in line with the signed treaties through formulating a child justice system that handles cases of child offenders. In South Africa, the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 was introduced to protect the rights of child offenders as stated in the Constitution. After examining the official figures from annual reports on the implementation of the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008, it indicated that from the total number of children arrested, some children did not go through the child justice courts. The study aimed at investigating the implementation of the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 to see whether child justice courts are operating in accordance with the Act and attempts to find out the roles and experiences of street-level bureaucrats and children in conflict with the law to uncover any other issues related to the implementation of the Act in the courts. Regarding research design, the study employed a qualitative secondary analysis of primary and secondary data, making it desktop research. The researcher collected and analyzed existing documents, legislations, previous research studies and reports involving issues around implementation of the Act and the use of child justice courts in South Africa as its case study. After analyzing the data given and linking up with the theories of the study, the research established that despite the existence of the Act, barriers related to the implementation of the Act included lack of capacity building, lack of commitment and lack of an integrated management system due the lack of co-operation between stakeholders. The findings revealed challenges faced by the implementers were lack of resources and working in a stress loaded working environment where the demand for services is high. The findings also revealed that the child offenders have access to legal representation but find challenges in getting to know information about their court trials, lengthy period of trial and detention in prison, and in receiving restorative programs. Due to the inadequate resources and structures available, there still need for adjustments to be made in the provision of child justice and this can work if the government adjusts its policies and putting more efficiency in implementing the Child Justice Act whereby child rights will be recognized and promoted.
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    Public participation, service delivery and development: a case study of Dr. Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma local municipality.
    (2022) Mpabanga, Mphuthumi Bartholomew.; Rieker, Mark Ivan.
    Prior to 1994, the apartheid government had legislation and policies that where discriminatory and racially and oppressive to the black majority of the population of South Africa. After the 1994 democratic breakthrough, the democratic government devised strategies and plans to redress the atrocities of the apartheid system of government, hence the state engaged in a transitional stage. The main responsibility of the state in a transitional phase of reconstruction and development is service delivery so that all citizens can fulfil their basic needs and there is a suitable environment for economic growth. This is implemented by talking to and consolidating participatory democracy. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa clearly stipulates that public are to be encouraged to participate in policy-making, and that transparency must be developed by supplying the public with sufficient timely, accessible and accurate information. The local government should be responsible for the social and economic development of communities. As a result, provision has been made for the government to nurture a new culture of developmental local government. For improved service delivery, the local government sphere has the responsibility to facilitate sustained accountability and confidence in the government by interacting with citizenry in a participatory manner. The research design used in this research was a case study of Dr Nkosazana Dlamini- Zuma (Dr NDZ) local municipality, where the researcher interviewed the residents of Ward 08 and municipal officials to establish an understanding of public participation, service delivery and development. It was found that although there are mechanisms of public participation such as an integrated development planning outreach programme and ward committee meetings in place in Dr NDZ local municipality, there was a gap when it came to the coordination and mobilization for these programmes. The lack of information for the community members about service delivery and development left them disgruntled and confused. As a result, they have resorted to other ways of attracting the attention of the government.
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    The role of public participation in reviewing land redistribution policy in South Africa.
    (2021) Zondi, Ntobeko Panuel.; Manicom, Desiree Pushpeganday.
    The post-apartheid South African democratic Constitution of 1996 provides for extensive participation of the public in the legislative and policy-making processes. Involving the citizens in policy decision-making processes deepens democracy, promotes active citizenship and good governance. During the apartheid regime, the then government passed racial, discriminatory legislation and gave supremacy to the white population. The Apartheid system of government formulated land legislations and policies which prohibited black people from owning land in areas occupied by the white community. After 1994, the ANC-led government adopted legislation and policies that were non-racial, non-sexist and non-discriminatory. Among them was the land policy with its objective to redistribute land equitably to all South Africans. However, even after over 25 years of democracy, land redistribution in South Africa has progressed slowly. In February 2018, parliament made a call to review section 25 of the Constitution on land redistribution to allow land expropriation without compensation in the interest of the public, where it called for extensive participation of the public. Therefore, this study examined the role of public participation in reviewing land redistribution policy in South Africa. This was a purely qualitative approach that utilized desktop research and thematic content analysis to analyze the data collected. This study finds that the parliament of South Africa used public hearings, written and oral submissions as mechanisms to engage the public on whether section 25 of the Constitution on land redistribution should be reviewed or not to allow for expropriation of land without compensation in the interests of the public. The study finds that parliament received more than 700 000 written submissions made by the public. One issue that this study investigated was that about 65% of written submissions are not supporting the changing of section 25 of the Constitution. In comparison, 34% agreed on the amendment of the constitution, 1% was undecided on whether section 25 of the Constitution should be reviewed or not. This study recommended that if the majority of the public is opposing review of section 25 of the Constitution on land redistribution to allow mechanisms to expropriate land without compensation in the interest of the public, then the parliament must investigate what exactly is the impediment to slow progress of land redistribution in South Africa. This study further recommends that parliament draft, amend, and pass the land expropriation and land redistribution bill. It also recommended a review of the white paper on land redistribution policy since it shows slow progress to date.
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    Digital Literacy among Grade 12 Learners at Centocow High School at Harry Gwala District, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.
    (2021) Gamede, Thandeka Precious.; Olasina, Gbolahan.
    Digital literacy practices involve social networking, web pages, and include visual elements and communication within chat rooms. However, there are several contextspecific barriers to the acquisition of digital literacy. The research was prompted by observing that grade 12 learners at the rural Centocow High School at Harry Gwala District are not digitally literate. As expected, availability, affordability, accessibility, and sustained use of digital tools are limited. Centocow High School is one of several public secondary schools in the rural Harry Gwala District and is classified under quantile two as a no-fee institution. Hence, learners in the school do not successfully utilise digital devices as their peers in other South African, global cities and environments. The study adopted Beetham and Sharpe’s (2010) digital literacy model. The model underpinned the study and helped add breadth and texture to understanding students’ digital competency issues in a rural school setting. The study used quantitative and qualitative approaches to address the research questions. The research used a survey method to gather the required data as it is less costly and time-consuming when using the total population (Matiwane, 2017). The current study adopted random sampling to collect quantitative data and purposive sampling for qualitative data. Eighty-two learners were randomly nominated to participate in the quantitative section of the research, and 10 learners were interviewed purposively for the qualitative section of the study. The findings revealed that most grade 12 learners at Centocow high school access digital tools at home. The results indicated that 62 (76%) of the respondents admitted that digital tools are useful to them for school-related reasons. 20 (24%) of the respondents indicated that digital tools are useful for research and personal reasons. None of the respondents indicated that digital tools are not useful to them. In addition, 49% access digital tools at home, whereas 28% access digital tools at the library. They were followed by 17 (21%) who indicated that they access digital tools at internet cafes. Two per cent of respondents access digital tools in other places. The main conclusions informed the design of intervention strategies for the digital literacy competence of learners. This was a purely qualitative approach that utilized desktop research and thematic content analysis to analyze the data collected. This study finds that the parliament of South Africa used public hearings, written and oral submissions as mechanisms to engage the public on whether section 25 of the Constitution on land redistribution should be reviewed or not to allow for expropriation of land without compensation in the interests of the public. The study finds that parliament received more than 700 000 written submissions made by the public. One issue that this study investigated was that about 65% of written submissions are not supporting the changing of section 25 of the Constitution. In comparison, 34% agreed on the amendment of the constitution, 1% was undecided on whether section 25 of the Constitution should be reviewed or not. This study recommended that if the majority of the public is opposing review of section 25 of the Constitution on land redistribution to allow mechanisms to expropriate land without compensation in the interest of the public, then the parliament must investigate what exactly is the impediment to slow progress of land redistribution in South Africa. This study further recommends that parliament draft, amend, and pass the land expropriation and land redistribution bill. It also recommended a review of the white paper on land redistribution policy since it shows slow progress to date.
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    The role of a Facebook group in facilitating public participation, civic engagement and social capital: a case study of Willowfontain community in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2021) Buthelezi, Amanda Lady-Fair.; Rieker, Mark Ivan.
    Prior to democratization in 1994, South Africa was governed by laws and policies that limited public participation in policy processes and structures. However, the shift from apartheid to democracy in 1994 remained one of the most significant turning points in South African history. The introduction of participatory governance and democracy sought to establish and strengthen public participation amongst all races but especially disadvantaged communities, to participate in governance processes and structures to democratically empower all citizens to voice their opinions on issues affecting their livelihoods. However, post 1994 formal spaces for community participation have not produced the intended results amongst marginalized communities where service delivery remains significantly low. The introduction of social media networks such as Facebook in 2004 created a platform whereby people can engage with one another and post their views and matters that affect them with the hope that their matters can be resolved. The study examines the role of Facebook, specifically one Facebook community group in facilitating public participation, civic engagement, and social capital in the Willowfontein community located in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu - Natal. The study sought to answer the following questions: 1. What is the role of the Facebook community group in the Willowfontein community? 2. Does the Willowfontein community Facebook group facilitate or constrain public participation, civic engagement and social capital? 3. What are the challenges faced by the Willowfontein Facebook group administrator? 4. How does the Willowfontein ward representative (councillor) engage with Willowfontein Facebook group members? This study adopted a mixed method approach which involves both qualitative and quantitative methods. The study also used the case study approach. The semi-structured interviews were employed with the key informants comprising one ward councilor from the Willowfontein community and one Facebook administrator from the Willowfontein community. The study also used an online survey questionnaire for the 32 online participants from the Willowfontein Facebook community group. The study analyzed the qualitative data gathered from the semi –structured interviews according to themes. The themes were derived from the literature review and the conceptual framework. The study also analyzed the quantitative data gathered from the survey questionnaires using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 6) and descriptive statistics. This study further analyzed the content of the posts that were shared in the Willowfontein Facebook Community Group between the years of 2017 and 2019. The posts were analysed according to themes of similar ideas that the researcher identified from the posts that were shared in the group. The study found that the Willowfontein Facebook group facilitates public participation, civic engagement, and social capital. However, this is to a limited extent as there are community members that don’t have smart phones to participate online. The study revealed that the older generation struggles with the new online platform and that hinders their online participation. Further, the study revealed that the Ward councilor is not part of the online group, and this could be limiting public participation. Moreover, the study revealed the challenges that the group administrator encounters such as members that spread fabricated news about others, group members who are insulting other group members and cause chaos and members who run scams on the group to scam other group members their money.
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    A Policy analysis of the implementation of affirmative action and employment equity : a case study of the University of KwaZulu-Natal (2004-2008).
    (2008) Marais, Marie-Anna Kathleen Norah.; Stanton, Anne Sylvie.
    This study examines public policy and policy implementation with specific reference to affirmative action and employment equity. It shows that the translation of affirmative action into public policy can be controversial, complex, and multifaceted. Public policy is examined in general to provide a better understanding of why and how policy such as affirmative action emerges, how it is drafted, the extent to which the policy is implemented and how and why it is needs to be monitored and evaluated. It examines the effect of the political system known as apartheid that was enforced in 1948 by the National Party that totally divided black and white South Africans. The apartheid policies and laws denied and restricted opportunities to Africans, Indians and Coloureds (commonly referred to as black people). Blatant racial discrimination resulted in widespread inequality within South Africa's population. In 1994, when the first democratically elected government came into power in South Africa, legislation was passed to repeal the apartheid laws. One of these laws was the Employment Equity Act (Act 55 of 1998). The study shows that South Africa's past discriminatory education policies continue to complicate the implementation of employment equity policy and that tertiary institutions are seriously affected by it.
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    Analysis of hazardous waste management policy and its implementation in South Africa
    (2005) Maseko, Zandile Faithful.; Stanton, Anne Sylvie.
    The primary aim of the research study was to investigate the regulation and implementation of Hazardous Waste Management policy in South Africa, with particular focus in policy implementation problems in the South Durban Basin of the eThekwini Municipality. The South Durban Basin is a geographical area in the eThekwini Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal where communities live in close proximity to one of South Africa's busiest intense industrial base. The findings revealed that communities in the South Durban Basin face harmful public and environmental health impacts which have been proven to be caused by polluted air as a result of weak hazardous waste management policy implementation. The study demonstrates that the implementation of hazardous waste management policy in the South Durban Basin is characterized by policy gaps, lack of enforcement capacity and resources of local government to effectively implement the policy. The lack of capacity and resources has made compliance on environmental regulations insignificant. Current compliance on hazardous waste management and environmental policy regulations is happening on a purely voluntary and self­-regulatory basis and it proven to be ineffective. The study also showed that to realise efficacy in the management of hazardous waste management, a combination of both top-down and bottom-up approaches to policy implementation is crucial. The reason being that a top-down national framework ensures consistency in a national policy framework while the bottom-­up approach promotes elements of community participation and empowerment as is evident in the South Durban communities. A key finding of the study is the significance of community activity and pressure in the making and implementation of hazardous waste management policy. It illustrates the significance of networks in the policymaking and implementation process. The involvement and partnerships formed by different environmental justice organizations availed operational capacity and resources to engage the eThekwini Municipality to take action on issues of hazardous air pollution. The challenge remains for the eThekwini Municipality to find methods to attain economic development and simultaneously protect its citizens and the environment. This raises a question, whether sustainable development can be a reality where there is lack of capacity and resources to actualize it. Does economic development have to be achieved at the expense of the general public and the environment?
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    A Policy analysis of the implementation and regulation of waste management policies in the Msunduzi Municipality.
    (2002) Makhanye, Tshepo Given.; Stanton, Anne Sylvie.
    This dissertation examines the extent to which the current local government structures are capacitated, in terms of the personnel and resources, in monitoring and ensuring compliance with environmental standards. Consequently, this dissertation is divided into three parts. The first part is the theoretical perspective, it defines and elaborates on some of the characteristics of public policy. It explains the distinction, and conceptual relationship, between public policy and policy implementation The second part is the practical portfolio, this part looks at some of the development oflocal government in the Msunduzi Municipality to date, the Msunduzi Municipality's ability with regard to policy implementation, monitoring, and compliance. It also explores the views of some of the organizations representing a wider spectrum of business and industry interests in and around theMsunduzi Municipal area. The views of non-governmental organizations as well as organized labour unions are also considered in the discussion. Part Three is the final analysis, it argues that the major challenge facing effective environmental governance for under-resourced state institution is to marry the objectives of development and the creation of economic wealth without destroying the country's environmental resources.
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    An implementation analysis of the Immigration Act 13 0F 2002 (Study permit): A case study of foreign African postgraduate PhD students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg campus.
    (2019) Ntinzi, Lwazikazi.; Manicom, Desiree Pushpeganday.
    Post-apartheid South Africa has experienced a sharp increase in all categories of migration. South Africa has become the destination for migrants such as asylum seekers, traders, entrepreneur as well as students. Migrants moving from one country to the other to pursue a career have become a worldwide phenomenon. There has been an increase in the number of foreign (the term “international” is also used in the literature and in this study the terms are used interchangeably) students crossing borders to study in higher education institutions. Even though foreign students could choose the more developed countries to pursue their studies, developing countries such as India and South Africa are attracting these students. The majority of foreign students who choose South Africa as their destination country are usually students from neighboring African countries such as Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Congo, Kenya, Swaziland and Lesotho. There is also a small contingent from Europe and North America. This study aimed to investigate the experiences of foreign African postgraduate (PhD) students coming to study in South Africa particularly at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), Pietermaritzburg (PMB) Campus. It also sought to analyse the policies which enable foreign students to study in South Africa, the challenges they face when applying for, and renewing, their study permits as well as the experiences of government and university administrators in administering foreign students’ applications. The study sought to answer the following questions: 1. What are the reasons for foreign African postgraduate (PhD) students coming to study in South Africa? 2. What are the application processes and policies for foreign African postgraduate students to study in South Africa? 3. What are the systems and structures at UKZN PMB for foreign African postgraduate students to facilitate their studies? 4. What are the challenges that UKZN PMB foreign African postgraduate students face in accessing study permits? 5. What are the experiences of UKZN administrators in dealing with foreign African postgraduate student applications? The study used a qualitative research approach, namely, a case study. In-depth interviews were used to collect primary data from key informants comprising two assistant directors from the Department of Home Affairs, two UKZN administrators (with one being from the International Office), and 14 foreign African postgraduate (PhD) students. The latter were interviewed via two focus groups, with seven students per group. The study used thematic analysis to analyse the data. The themes were derived from the literature review and theoretical framework and were as follows: Conceptions of the Immigration Act 13 of 2002, policy implementation and programme delivery; managers and administrators’ experiences in relation to assisting foreign African postgraduate students; and, thirdly, the experiences of foreign African postgraduate students themselves. The study found that when the Department of Home Affairs implemented the above legislation it encountered various challenges including the submission of fraudulent documentation by foreign students. It also revealed that the street level bureaucrats, as policy actors, clearly understood the roles that they have to play in providing services to the beneficiaries of this legislation. Findings showed that foreign African students choose to study in South Africa as it is one of the countries closer to their country of origin and is well-known to have the best higher education institutions on the African continent. It was also found that foreign students are attracted by academic programmes available in South Africa which they do not have access to in their country of origin. This study revealed that most foreign African students experience numerous difficulties when applying for a study permit in their home country and also renewing them in South Africa. These challenges include standing for long hours in queues at the different embassies. Foreign African students also faced challenges of being denied a visa because they did not produce all the documents required as well as the experience of xenophobic attacks in the host country.
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    An implementation analysis of sectoral determination seven (SD7) of the Basic Conditions of Employment Act 75 of [1997] (BCEA): a case study of domestic workers in uMsunduzi Municipality.
    (2017) Mabaso, Zamatungwa.; Manicom, Desiree Pushpeganday.
    This study examines the issues related to the implementation of Sectoral Determination 7 (SD7). The study investigates domestic workers’ experiences of their working conditions, in order to establish the extent to which SD7 is effective in affording them labour rights, and improving their working conditions. SD7 was promulgated in 2002 by the Minister of Labour in order to regulate domestic work in the country. The promulgation of SD7 came about as a result of the shortfalls of the existing legislation such as sections 23(1) and (2) of the Constitution and the Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995, as well as the Basic Conditions of Employment Act 75 of 1997 being insufficient to respond to the challenges of exploitation, oppression and abuse which shape the domestic worker sector, not only in South Africa, but globally. Over the years it became apparent that there needed to be an intervention to combat the oppression and exploitation faced by domestic workers globally. Hence, in 2011 the ILO ratified Convention No. 189 which set the international standards for the regulation of domestic work internationally. Further, Recommendation 201 was passed by the ILO which aims to stipulate the guidelines for the strengthening of policies on domestic work and national law. Despite national and international policies on the regulation of domestic work being passed, previous studies have shown that these policies have not resulted in the working conditions of domestic workers improving, and them being empowered with labour rights like their counterparts in other labour sectors. This study uses implementation theory, and the implementation of regulatory policy in particular, as well as power and street-level bureaucracy to analyze the implementation challenges of SD7 of the BCEA 75 of 1997. The study used qualitative data analysis and content thematic analysis to analyze the data. The main themes which emerged from the findings were: conceptualizations of SD7, access to provisions of SD7 and the challenges experienced with the implementation of SD7. The findings of the study supported the argument that domestic workers are unable to access these rights as a result of the power imbalance between them and their employers. Further, the study found that the policy design of SD7 does not take into consideration the intricacies of the domestic worker sector, therefore SD7, for the most part, has not improved the working conditions of domestic workers. Moreover, a poor monitoring system on the part of DoL does nothing to deter non-compliance by employers.
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    Public participation in the formulation of public policy: the case of the Lesotho National Decentralisation Policy in Maseru district.
    (2017) Khiba, Manukuebe Bernice.; Manicom, Desiree Pushpeganday.
    This study analyses public participation in the formulation of public policy. The concept public participation has gained great attention over the decades with development scholars emphasising that it is an inevitable need for democratic governance. Generally public participation can be taken to mean that the citizens directly or through the associations and organisations that represent them take part in the processes of decision making together with their government. It is attributed to building effective, efficient, responsive, transparent, and accountable governance. Public policy is defined as whatever pronouncement that government makes regarding a problem affecting the wider society. Public policy formulation refers to the process whereby different actors or role players come together to deliberate and exchange views on how a public problem can be addressed. These role players come from within and outside government. Actors from government have a legal mandate to formulate policy because of their legal duty to serve the public. Role players from outside government represent public interests; they bring diversity of expertise and experience to advise on possible alternative solutions to the prevailing problem. Theory of participatory democracy which supports the idea of public participation in governance issues, including policy formulation has been adopted for this study. The main emphasis of this theory is that the people should have a chance to decide on the issues that affect them. Policies affect the people hence they must participate in their formulation. Mechanisms and processes of public participation, advantages, challenges, and criticisms linked to public participation in the formulation of public policy were explored. Various legislation guiding public participation were outlined; from international agreements, African legislation, SADC legislation and domestic legislation from the country where the study took place. The study used a qualitative research approach gathering primary data using in depth interviews and focus group discussions. Data was analysed by identifying major themes; democracy and good governance, empowerment, ownership and support, policy relevance and responsiveness and the mechanisms for public participation. The findings of this study revealed that both the government officials and the public recognise the importance of public participation in policy formulation. However, there were shortcomings especially in the way that the public was engaged to participate. The mechanisms used to involve them did not offer them genuine chances to influence the policy decisions.
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    Agenda setting analysis of hydraulic fracturing in South Africa : an application of Kingdon's agenda setting theory.
    (2016) Koetlisi, Nthabiseng Gertrude.; Rieker, Mark Ivan.
    This dissertation unpacks the agenda setting process of energy as a policy issue from 2008 to 2015. It explores how and why hydraulic fracturing emerged and developed as a policy alternative in this regard. The agenda setting theory of John Kingdon is applied to guide this analysis. Agenda setting examines how problems gain the attention of government so that policy alternatives can be examined and identified. Kingdon explained this process through three analytical streams: the problem stream, the policy stream, and the political stream, and discussed how their convergence can result in a policy window wherein an issue comes to the attention of policy makers and policy alternatives can be developed and decisions can be taken. A qualitative research methodology was employed to explore all the events and the participation of different actors which led to the identification of hydraulic fracturing as a policy alternative. Data was collected through documentary analysis and was analysed using qualitative thematic analysis. The findings of this study have reflected the agenda setting theory of John Kingdon. As Kingdon has argued, when the three streams are coupled together, it is an appropriate time to address the problem and for a policy change. This is applicable in this study: the energy problem was recognised, and a suitable policy solution was attached to problem, accompanied with a change in the political stream. The window opens when the three streams are coupled together. The window opened in 2008 when the energy problem became intense, during the period when the country experienced load shedding. This was when the energy problem was considered a crisis that demanded attention. Policy entrepreneurs advocating for hydraulic fracturing saw the window of opportunity and pushed for their proposals to government decision makers. A change in the political stream was also experienced. Important government decision makers like the President and other administrators were interested in solving the energy crisis and were in support of hydraulic fracturing. They considered hydraulic fracturing as a feasible solution to the energy crisis.