ItemThe self-provision of micro-credit schemes by women’s group in Chókwè: processes, challenges and outcomes.(2015) Bambo, Mario Enoque.; Tshishonga, Ndwakhulu Stephen.The majority of poor people in Mozambique have been excluded from getting loans, even from traditional financial institutions since they do not have valuable assets or credit histories to enable them to be legible from those loans. As a means for facilitating alternative financing, a growing number of Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) in Mozambique have engaged in micro-credit projects in partnership with poor Community Based Groups (CBGs). This allows poor communities to meet some of their basic needs. This dissertation focused on the self-provision of micro-credits by the community grouping from the 4th Neighbourhood in Chókwè district as the selected case study. The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate the effectiveness of micro-credit schemes in alleviating poverty as incorporated with the principles of community development. The study found that the principles of community development are crucial in enhancing the self-provision of micro-credit schemes. The beneficiaries were empowered through small business training to better manage their micro-enterprises. They also participated in the decision-making process since the rules and modalities for the functioning of the micro-credit process and the group administrative structure were established by them. The available local resources enabled a comparative advantage to micro-enterprises process. Although the enterprises run by the beneficiaries are at the micro level, the study found that they are not disassociated with environmental problems. This includes cases such as the destruction of vegetation, erosion of the land and elimination of fish species. The internal and inter district business relations have been favourable to micro-enterprises since the trading partners have equal power relations. The study also found that although the beneficiaries of the micro-credit schemes engaged in the survivalist type of micro-enterprise, they generate an income that satisfies their basic needs in a sustainable manner. Nevertheless, those beneficiaries that ran established fledging micro-enterprises had upwards shift of their household socio-economic status when compared to others. This has resulted in their households to move to horizontal social mobility. ItemThe effects of the political violence of the 1980s and 1990s on the families of the political activists of Kwa-Makhutha, Kwa-Zulu Natal.(2016) Mlambo, Primrose Sibusisiwe.; Tshishonga, Ndwakhulu Stephen.The study sought to investigate the effects of political violence on the lives of the former activists and their families at Kwa-Makhutha Township in Kwa-Zulu Natal, in South Africa. Political violence in this study was an instrument used by activists as a defence mechanism to cope with the pain inflicted by the state or the political opposition. The aim of the study was to answer the research questions such as, what does political violence and political struggle mean to the former activists. What was the main reason for getting engaged in the struggle and political violence? At what cost did the former activists engage in political struggle or political violence? These questions were answered by employing research techniques that included individual face-to-face interviews and observation. The study was conducted from the 1st August 2014 to 31st March 2015. The sample of the study consisted of 45 interviewees, 35 males and 10 females, all above the age of 30. Key findings highlighted the negative social and economic effects of political violence on the livelihoods of members of the community. The key issues identified in the study were the lack of infrastructural development and the slow pace of service delivery. The study applied the Relative Depravation and Social Action theories that provided a comprehensive understanding of the reasons why the activists engaged in political violence. The study revealed that despite the government policies that address socio-economic development, people continue to live in abject poverty in previously disadvantaged communities such as Kwa-Makhutha. ItemAppraising the participation of Khula village communities in Isimangaliso Wetland Park tourism initiatives in South Africa.(2016) Moloi, Marole Nkosikhona.; Khalema, Ernest Nene.Tourism is one of South Africa’s major drivers of economic growth, which has been growing over the past decade. As such, South Africa remains focused on developing and expanding tourism etiquette to boost the industry in order to stir up and achieve development growth through it. This research explores the effectiveness of tourism in impacting development by looking one of the most impressive centers of tourism in the country, iSimangaliso Wetland Park. Since South Africa has adopted tourism as a developmental strategy, it tries to maximize on the industry to benefit local communities, and reach out to the poor people within those communities especially in rural areas. Therefore, the research utilizes the understanding of Pro-poor tourism (PPT) to bring out an understanding of how strategies in tourism can be considered for generating benefits for the poor in various communities. Others include, responsible tourism, eco-tourism, community-based tourism and sustainable tourism. Therefore, the South African tourism sector is actively taking an upfront approach to proactively pursue sustainable tourism measures that can quickly accrue much benefits to millions of local people ([mostly] in rural areas), particularly poor people living in and around Tourist Destination Areas (TDAs). However, these strategies may face some challenges in reaching their anticipated targeted goals. The research therefore, investigates the various positive and negative environmental and socio-economic impacts that lie behind tourism that have been imparted onto the surrounding communities/areas of iSimangaliso Wetland Park in South Africa. ItemThe participation of senior citizen in community development activities in uThukela District, KwaZulu-Natal.(2020) Sikhosana, Mbali Londiwe.; Ntini, Edmore.Senior citizens are often perceived by society as unproductive, alienated and ineffectual individuals. However, if opportunities are made for them, senior citizens can bring a positive change to their respective communities. This study examines what could be done to ensure the participation of senior citizens in community development activities, by exploring the roles they may play, factors in favour and against their participation and strategies for inviting and sustaining their participation in community development activities. A qualitative design and purposive sampling are used. The sample of 14 information-rich informants from the following categories: A councillor, a member of non-governmental organisation, senior citizens and ordinary community members. Interviewing is used as the primary method for data collection. The findings reveal that senior citizens should participate in community development activities, since they have availability of time, wide knowledge base and transferable skills. Furthermore, they can be more committed and they are trusted by the community. It reveals that senior citizen participation is deterred by unawareness, lack of specific supportive policy, age discrimination and physical barriers. Thirty roles are identified for senior citizen in community development activities. Strategies for inviting them to participate are: the use of policy, change of attitude, creating favourable conditions, use of media, avoiding discrimination and recognise senior citizens in their respective communities. Strategies for sustaining their participation emerged as follows: involve them in various committees, communities invite senior citizens and encouraging their participation and illuminating deterring factors. The study’s main recommendations is for increase efforts in municipalities, communities, community development organisations, government and families to involve senior citizens in effective and instrumental participation in community development activities. ItemWard committees as a mechanism for promoting community participation and service delivery: a case study of Ubuhlebezwe Local Municipality.(2020) Mdletshe, Fisokuhle.; Matse, Muzi Patrick.; Tshishonga, Ndwakhulu Stephen.The transformation of local government in a post-apartheid South Africa was seen as ensuring citizens' inclusion in the policy and decision-making process, especially the marginalized communities and groups, in previously excluded societies in a country (RA 1998). The study set out to obtain information on the ward committees as the mechanisms in promoting community participation and service delivery with a case study of Ubuhlebezwe Local Municipality. The study aimed to assess ward committees' effectiveness as a mechanism for promoting community participation and service delivery in Ubuhlebezwe Local Municipality. The study demonstrated that ward committees' effective operation is paramount for active community participation and strengthening communication between municipalities and local citizens. In assessing the understating and conceptualizations of public participation in Ubuhlebezwe Local Municipality. The focus of the study was on the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. The researcher collected primary data through observation and semi-structured interviews. The researcher observed the conduct of ward committee members in the meeting with Municipal officials in Ubuhlebezwe Local Municipality. The secondary data were collected from published research studies on ward committees, public participation and service delivery, and government publications and journal articles. From the findings gathered, it was evident that Ubuhlebezwe Local Municipality was not doing enough to strengthen the ward committee as a vehicle to advance participatory democracy and service delivery in local governance. The study was informed by the participants' responses and opinions (the ward committee members, ward councillors, and municipal officials, namely, the office of the Speaker, the Deputy Mayor). The study concluded with recommendations for strengthening ward committees and enhancing public participation. ItemOrphans and vulnerable children's perceptions of child poverty in Cator Manor, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.(2020) Ngobese, Nompumelelo.; Manyombe, Celestin Busare.Child poverty has proven to have a massively negative effect on children psychologically, physically, academically and spiritually. Although child poverty affects all children, however, orphans and vulnerable children are affected the most. To meet the needs of orphans and vulnerable children, the South African government has implemented many policies and programmes as interventions that oversee the well-being of children and strive to alleviate child poverty. This study was motivated by the fact that despite all these interventions provided for OVC that are poor, the number of OVC and children living in poverty continues to grow. There is still little knowledge on the extent to which OVC experience poverty in South Africa from children’s perceptions. Little is known about the effectiveness of interventions provided for OVC to improve their school performance in South Africa, specifically in KwaZulu-Natal. The aim of this study is to analyse child poverty from the perspective of orphans and vulnerable children of Cato Manor, KwaZulu-Natal. In order to achieve this goal, the researcher utilised mixed methods to collect the data. In the quantitative method, the researcher used a survey questionnaire, entailing closed-ended questions to collect numerical data. On the other hand, qualitative data focused on interviews, which includes open-ended questions. The study’s findings indicate that OVC are indeed the victims of poverty. The extent of poverty experienced by OVC includes lacking food security, access to proper education and lack of habitable conditions. The impact of child poverty on OVC is observed through the stigma and discrimination they experience that leads to isolation and dropping out of school. The study concludes that in order to meet the needs of OVC, the programmes and interventions that are provided need to be monitored and evaluated so that they can be effective. Furthermore, awareness programmes need to be implemented for children, teachers and the community to learn more about OVC in order to eradicate discrimination directed towards them. ItemOpportunities and challenges for female student entrepreneurship at University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.(2021) Ndaba, Noxolo, Nonjabulo.; Mtapuri, Oliver.This study investigates female student entrepreneurship at University of KwaZulu Natal by exploring the challenges and opportunities they encounter at this institution. The three objectives of the study were: to explore the opportunities available to female students through entrepreneurship; to explore the challenges faced by female entrepreneurs; and to make recommendations on how female students can be empowered. The study employed a qualitative research approach and the interpretive paradigm. The thematic analysis was used to analyze the findings. Ten semi-structured interviews with female student entrepreneurs, and observations were used as instruments to collect primary data, and secondary data through an organization called UKZN Inqubate. Purposive sampling was used to select the participants. The review of literature revealed that female student entrepreneurship remains one of the leaststudied significant economic phenomena. This lack of diversity in research topics often resulted from the assumption that entrepreneurship was the same all over the world. As a result, there is less focus placed on female student entrepreneurship, especially in higher institutions of learning, thus placing constraints on female student entrepreneurs to be provided with relevant support or assistance. This study sought to fill this gap. The study found out that female student entrepreneurs venture into entrepreneurship due to the financial difficulties. Furthermore, the findings show that female student entrepreneurs at UKZN, Howard College Campus have less support in this institution to improve and grow their businesses. This shows that female student entrepreneurs remain to be on the marginalised line, where support and assistance is difficult to find. These challenges of female student entrepreneurs at the Howard College Campus results to them giving up in their journey of entrepreneurship, and results to failures of their businesses. However, findings from the study shown that regardless of all the challenges, female student entrepreneurship at Howard College Campus has played a huge role in fighting against the triple burden (poverty, unemployment, and inequality) of women which keeps them at the marginalised line. There is indeed a call and need for the improvement support of female student entrepreneurship at Howard College Campus, not only for the benefit of the individual entrepreneurs, but also for the enhancement of the economy. ItemLocal economic development as an employment strategy in eMkhazeni rural area (ward 21), Ulundi Municipality.(2021) Masikane, Sphesihle.; Thsishonga, Ndwakhulu Stephen.This research study aims to evaluate the LED strategy as an employment strategy in eMkhazane rural area (Ward 21), Ulundi Municipality. In South Africa unemployment is a perpetual challenge, especially to those who reside in the former homelands. The escalation of poverty in South Africa is due to the legacy of apartheid and post-apartheid adoption of new liberal policies. The study revealed that the weakness of LED strategy lies in the municipality budget, lack of local skills and knowledge. The strength of Local Economic Development Strategy towards employment; public-private partnerships has been identified as a bridge to fill the gap between the LED and unemployment. The LED can be improved by encouraging public-private partnerships by means of inviting local government and stakeholders to bring about Local Economic Development. Partnering with private sectors has been recognised as a potential drive because the private sector can be able to hold big projects that can hold a larger capacity of public participation in projects to achieve an inclusive and successful LED strategy. ItemAn analysis of stakeholder participation in community housing in Payneville extension 1, Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality.(2020) Maluleke, Themba Orvall.; Thsishonga, Ndwakhulu Stephen.The aim of the study to an analyse stakeholder participation in community housing in Payneville Extension 1, Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality. In South Africa housing delivery is a human right that is considered as a one of the basic services essential for human dignity. During the apartheid era the black majority was excluded from housing delivery and other developments, hence the democratic government embarked on various initiatives as part of redress. This study revealed that community participation is not only essential in housing service delivery, but it is also a determining principle in ensuring quality houses upon which social cohesion and solidarity could be enhanced. It is therefore, crucial that it creates awareness among stakeholders on decisions made in the provision of their housing. study highlighted that when communities participate in a project, they make the stakeholders to be accountable of the housing project and the quality and standards of the houses to be delivered. also highlighted that there is a need to involve the community to a greater extent in decision making and development project in order to increase the degree of trust and avoid confrontations that often times led to the delays and costly incurrences of a project. Although their hindrances to community participation, the study revealed different strategies that could be used to overcome them through the promotion and enhancement community participation. In this instance participants wanted community participation to be the watchdog of the delivery of housing in the study area. ItemInterrogating the implementation of local economic development for poverty alleviation in Nkomazi Municipality, Mpumalanga.(2020) Makamo, Winile Pride.; Mtapuri, Oliver.; Mbatha, Zilungile Pearl.This study interrogates the implementation of Local Economic Development (LED) for poverty alleviation in Nkomazi Local Municipality in Mpumalanga Province of South Africa. Its aim was to examine the implementation of LED activities in the Nkomazi Municipal area, in line with three objectives which were to examine LED strategy, to explore the effectiveness of local economic development for poverty alleviation, and to make a recommendation on how Local Economic Development could be improved in Nkomazi Municipality. This study applied an interpretive paradigm and a qualitative research approach. Purposive sampling was used to select the participants. The data were collected using document analysis and semi-structured interviews. A total of seven participants were involved, including both males and females. The study found out that the Nkomazi Local Economic Development strategy was not compelling, and its essential components on poverty alleviation were only partial and led to constrained impact. The research findings revealed that the main reasons for LED Implementation project were to create jobs in order to alleviate poverty and unemployment. The secondary reasons include skills development, networking, cultural promotion, and municipal community development. The key recommendation is that partnerships with private stakeholders, businesses, and community organizations must be strengthened to address the problem of unemployment. This would open space for more stable job opportunities for the community. Local Economic Development is everybody’s business including the local population, local business, and government. This research concluded that the LED strategy established in the municipality has inadequate funding to implement LED and lacks skilled management, as well as knowledge about the processes and the procedure of LED. The municipalities have good policies that support the implementation and funding of local economic development, but there is still a gap in terms of enforcing those policies, which include fully implementing the stages of the World Bank economic model to yield effective and sustainable results. ItemLocal economic development as an employment strategy in eMkhazane rural area (ward 21), Ulundi Municipality.(2021) Masikane, Siphesihle.; Tshishonga, Ndwakhulu Stephen.This research study aims to evaluate the LED strategy as an employment strategy in eMkhazane rural area (Ward 21), Ulundi Municipality. In South Africa unemployment is a perpetual challenge, especially to those who reside in the former homelands. The escalation of poverty in South Africa is due to the legacy of apartheid and post-apartheid adoption of new liberal policies. The study revealed that the weakness of LED strategy lies in the municipality budget, lack of local skills and knowledge. The strength of Local Economic Development Strategy towards employment; public-private partnerships has been identified as a bridge to fill the gap between the LED and unemployment. The LED can be improved by encouraging public-private partnerships by means of inviting local government and stakeholders to bring about Local Economic Development. Partnering with private sectors has been recognised as a potential drive because the private sector can be able to hold big projects that can hold a larger capacity of public participation in projects to achieve an inclusive and successful LED strategy. ItemExamining career development approaches to address youth unemployment in Ixopo, KZN: community-informed perspectives.(2019) Dlamini, Lindokuhle Simphiwe.; Khalema, Ernest Nene.Youth unemployment in South Africa has significantly increased in the last few years. While youth unemployment rates have increased across all racial groups and geographical areas in the country, the black youth from rural areas seem to be carrying more burden of unemployment. Ixopo town in Kwa Zulu Natal province, which has a predominantly rural African population was selected for this study. The rural village was chosen because, like many rural areas in South Africa, it is facing enormous challenges of youth unemployment. The study aimed to examine the career development approaches and practices used to address youth unemployment in rural areas. A qualitative study was undertaken at the Ixopo community to examine the career development approaches and practices used. In collecting the data, semi-structured interviews, a focus group discussion and documentary sources used. A sample population of twenty-three (23) participated in the study through semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Semi-structured interviews administered to 4 local teachers, 2 community members, 2 community development workers,1 municipal official and 4 university students who originate from the community. A focus group discussion was held with ten (10) Grade 12 learners from the local high school — thematic data analysis employed to analyse the collected data. The findings show that the rate of youth unemployment is very high in rural areas. It is also evident that there is an increasing rate of unemployed youth which is not in education, employment or training (NEETs). Meanwhile, the rising number of young unemployed graduates is also becoming a massive concern to the rural communities and the country. The research concluded that some of the major causes for the high rural youth unemployment include: Low levels of education due to early exit from the schooling system; high levels of poverty resulting to high rates of school dropouts; unavailability of industries to employ in the rural communities; as well as the lack of adequate career development and guidance to prepare youth for future careers and employment. The study also found that learners in rural areas lack career ambition and inspiration because they often struggle to balance their severe socio-economic condition and studies. In terms of career development approaches and practices, it emerged that the schooling system is weak in the delivery of career development and guidance. The study revealed that teachers not equipped to deliver career guidance to learners; they lack sufficient training on career guidance and counselling, and there is a lack of resources and relevant updated information for them to the effective delivery of career guidance in the rural schools. The study also shows that the schools and the local municipalities are making an effort to provide career guidance services through annual career exhibitions, roadshows and other interventions. However, these do not seem to achieve the desired outcome because the responses often compete with socio-economic challenges like poverty, which distract the youth from focusing on their education and careers. Hence, the study also scrutinized the socio-economic, environmental and individual factors that affect the delivery of career development and guidance in rural areas. The study shows that the socio-environmental and individual factors have massive influence in the delivery of career development and future employability of rural youth. These factors include the influence of family; poverty; peers; career gender and stereotypes; lack of role models, lack of self -confidence and lack of access to information, communication and technology (ICT), among others. The effect of these influences is that they either limit or increase future employment prospects for rural youth. The recommendation from the study that, to alleviate and address rural youth unemployment, career development approaches for youth in rural communities should be tailor-made to accommodate their unique, disadvantaged socio-economic situations. ItemIdentifying causes of substance use disorder and finding systems of reintegrating patients from Newlands Park Rehabilitation Centre.(2019) Sibhayi, Simthembile Njabulo.; Xaba, Thokozani Timothy.In South Africa, individuals with substance use disorder (SUD) have very limited options in accessing rehabilitation centres and those who have access face a great challenge of maintaining sobriety post rehabilitation, and this has implication for community development. Historically, more emphasis has been put into the scientific aspect of understanding the effects of drugs on the physical being but seeing that the number of substance abusers is increasing, perhaps understanding the causes of SUD and finding their solutions is mandatory. The rehabilitation centres that are under state supervision spend big sums of hard-earned tax payer’s money in rehabilitating patients, however growing relapse rates which is detrimental to development indicates that something needs to be done to better reintegrate the patients back into society. Rehabilitation centres require a deeper inspection concerning the effectiveness of programmes preparing patients for post rehabilitation. This study looked at the nature of SUD in Newlands West and what contributes towards the high rate of relapsing patients from the nearby Newlands Park Rehabilitation Centre. To do this, and to determine the implications there of community development, this study employed a qualitative method and it draws information gathered through in-depth semi-structured interviews that were conducted at Newlands West and Newlands Park Centre from February to March 2018. The goal was to identify the main causes of relapsing patients from Newlands Park Centre and to find solutions that will help to successfully integrate them back into their communities. The study also employed a thematic analysis method where conclusions were drawn from the following themes: General Causes of Substance Use Disorder (SUD); Main Factors Contributing towards SUD; The Community’s Involvement in the Reintegration of Patients; and Overview of Community Participation and its value in SUD Alleviation Programmes. ItemHealth and socioeconomic analysis of waste picking activities in Durban.(2019) Sibanda, Phathiwe.; Oliver, Mtapuri.The main aim of this study was to unpack the health and socio-economic status of waste picking activities in Mayville, Cato Manor and Westville in Durban. It analysed the quality of life of waste pickers, their awareness of the risks associated with this kind of work and the extent of their uptake of health protective measures. A quantitative approach was adopted, and a questionnaire was used to gather data from 81 waste pickers. The findings revealed that unemployment was the main reason for taking up waste picking and that this was the respondents’ main source of income. It was also found that most of the respondents resided in shacks and had no access to running water. Most were unaware of the risks associated with this kind of work. Based on these findings, it is recommended that economic development be pursued to create employment opportunities and that delivery of basic services such as potable water be improved, especially in informal settlements. Awareness campaigns should be launched to educate waste pickers on handling waste and on the risks associated with this kind of work as well as the need to adopt protective health measures. Finally, the researcher ecommends that further research should be conducted on waste picking in Durban as there is a paucity of information on this activity in the city. ItemAddressing xenophobic violence in UMlazi suburb: perceptions of a migrant family.(2018) Magwaza, Sphelelisiwe.; Ntini, Edmore.Xenophobic violence is a recurring phenomenon in South Africa, due to the numbers of asylum seekers, immigrants and refugees entering the country. As some black South Africans, believe that African immigrants compete with them for limited opportunities provided for them within the current social stratification. As a means of excluding African immigrants, black South Africans have adopted the negative ideology of ―aMakwerekwere to describe and relate with African immigrants. In this dissertation, violence against black African immigrants is labeled as “Afrophobic and Nergrophobic”. The study adopts the Bio-cultural theory and Relative deprivation theory in order to understand the phenomenon. This study employed a qualitative research method were purposive sample of an African Migrant Family. The study draws on information gathered through in-depth semi-structured interviews carried out in UMlazi from February to March 2018. Research findings were examined through thematic content analysis. Results showed that South Africans are becoming more intolerant of foreigners, Poverty, and political unrest are driving factors for many immigrants coming to South Africa; Xenophobic violence is the attitude, physical and emotional violence perpetrated towards immigrants most especially black immigrants; Violence against foreign nationals operates through a level of physical and cultural appearance and poor black African immigrants living in informal settlements are the victims of these attacks and Negative representations of African immigrants have thus triggered xenophobic violence. ItemExperiences of students facing financial difficulties to access higher Education in the case of the University of KwaZulu-Natal.(2018) Shange, Nokukhanya Sharon.; Mtapuri, Oliver.Students from disadvantaged backgrounds experience difficulties when making a transition from their backgrounds into a challenging and diverse multi-cultural education institutions environment. Due to their disadvantaged backgrounds these students are faced with enormous financial challenges that have adverse impacts on their academic performance. They therefore need solid support structures to help them make adjustments to meet the demands of higher education. This study explored experiences of students facing financial difficulties to access Higher Education in the case of the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Using a qualitative approach in collecting data, the study tried to find out the experiences of students and effects of financial problems on academic performance. Economic, ecosystems and social justice framework provided the theoretical underpinning for the study. Economic theory helped the researcher to find out students’ experiences and how they cope. Ecosystems theory helped the researcher to look and understand interaction between individuals and society as a whole because financial difficulties to access Higher education is a social issue that affect individuals, families and societies. Social justice focuses on policy, national and institutional efforts in eliminating the identified financial problems faced by disadvantaged students at tertiary institutions. The tool that was used to collect data were semi-structured interviews which were orally questioning participants to express their views and beliefs of the impacts of financial difficulties in accessing higher education. This enabled the researcher to use an interpretivist paradigm which is qualitative in approach. Qualitative approach provided a descriptive and detailed data about the researched phenomenon. In-depth interviews were done with 15 participants at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (Howard, Westville and PMB campus). Results of the study show that due to financial problems, the students encounter problems such as inability to cope with the high standards of studying as well as difficulty in paying fees and accessing basic needs. Data gathered from the interviews insinuates that financial problems have adverse effects on students’ academic performance, but contrary to the study’s assumptions, and review of secondary data, no correlation could be found between financial need and poor academic performance or outright failure. ItemAn investigation into housing delivery in Cato Manor’s formal and informal settlements.(2018) Majozi, Nduduzo Syfrid.; Mottiar, Shauna.;It is argued that service delivery of housing can have either positive or negative implications on people’s personal and social livelihoods. Therefore, informed by the Urban Resilience Theory, this study investigates the service delivery of housing in Cato Manor’s formal and informal settlements. In doing so, this study aims to explore how varied housing systems in Cato Manor function under different economic, environmental or socio-political conditions. The main method of data collection in the study are qualitative in-depth interviews with a sample of 11 participants from Cato Crest communities. The study analyses varying housing challenges as experienced by participants including issues of types of housing systems, access to housing, key role players in housing provision, factors affecting the provision of housing and the impact of housing systems on personal and social relations. The main findings are consistent with what has been found by previous researchers on housing service delivery in South Africa. The following challenges remain: shack-landlordism; politicization of housing delivery; the quality of housing and lack of basic services. This study concludes that governments housing policies are stringent and inflexible to accommodate distinctive social needs of families within the outlined communities. The researcher presents the case study of Cato Manor as an example of how current housing systems have broken existing social bonds and alienated neighbors from one another through forced relocations and caused social tensions and violence by failing to consider the first-come, first-served principles. Thus, the study recommends depoliticization and restructuring of current housing policies in order to deliver housing schemes and programmes that are considerate of the socio-economic context of intended beneficiaries. ItemFactors influencing intimate partner violence among women in Clermont : an exploratory study.(2017) Hleoheng, Mantsali Eunicia.; Thabethe, Nompumelelo Cynthia.Like many other countries in the world, South Africa still grapples with women’s subordination in society, which leaves them vulnerable to various forms of abuse. Available literature suggests that while policy and legislative frameworks exist to eliminate intimate partner violence (IPV) in the private and public spheres, women continue to experience abuse in their private lives. Strategies and interventions adopted at a global and national level to address the problem have been too limited in addressing IPV in a systemic manner. Based on this premise, a study located in the critical paradigm was conducted to explore the socio-economic factors that make women encounter abuse in their intimate relationships in Clermont – a township situated within eThekwini metro in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. The study employed a qualitative research design. Data collection method included in-depth individual interviews. A non-probability purposive sampling method was adopted to select seven individual interview participants. All participants attend counseling sessions at the shelter for abused women in Clermont. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis. The poststructuralist feminist approach, which identifies the intersectionality of race, gender, class and ethnicity was used as the theoretical framework to guide the study. Guided by the poststructuralist feminist framework, emerging findings demonstrate that the intersectionality of gender, race, class and ethnicity leave women from poor socio-economic backgrounds more susceptible to IPV. Hence, IPV unfolds in a specific context whereby layers of disadvantage keep women in a deprivation trap, resulting in a vicious cycle of poverty. This observation reiterates that women’s everyday realities are context specific. Against this backdrop, the findings suggest that women’s lived experiences influence how they construct the factors that perpetuate IPV in intimate relationships. Furthermore, it was established that, in most instances, emotional and physical abuse of women is interlinked. Again, a patriarchal system perpetuated oppression of women. Ultimately, emerging findings demonstrate that structural inequalities and socialization of women in Clermont contribute to individual and societal tolerance of IPV, thus perpetuating the subordination of women. Shelters for abused women provide protection; however, they fail to address the structural and systemic nature of IPV. Therefore, women who experience IPV lack long-term support that is offered in a transformative and sustainable manner. To promote the emancipation of women, it is recommended that changes need to occur at three levels: 1) at a personal level - women need to take responsibility for their own liberation through decision-making and unlearning destructive social constructs on what it means to be a normal woman; 2) at a community level - different role players and different institutions (shelters for abused women, police stations, courts and health care centres) should collaborate with communities to address the systemic nature of IPV; 3) through policy reforms, the government should tackle structural inequalities that leave women susceptible to IPV. This would mean developing policies that promote the empowerment of women to understand their human rights and address financial dependence on men, thus eliminating the scourge of IPV. ItemExploring cultural barriers to the transfer of HIV prevention knowledge from the older to the younger generation in South Africa.(2016) Ngenda, Jacques Mugeyo.; Shangase, Zifikile Phindile Cleverance.HIV and AIDS risk behaviour remains a critical health concern for younger generation in South Africa. Sexual debut is the key factor in the vulnerability of younger generation to HIV infection. A study conducted in South Africa revealed that there is emerging evidence to suggest that a small proportion of younger generation have stated having sex before the age of 15 years. It was also highlighted that their older generation are not willing to openly discuss issues related to HIV and sex, which could enhance younger generations’ ability to make responsible decisions in order to minimize high-risk behaviour. Central to this study was to explore cultural barriers that affect the transfer of HIV prevention knowledge from older to younger generation, and suggest ways through which the transfer of HIV prevention knowledge from older to younger generation can be improved. This study made use of a qualitative research approach, and data was collected from 12 participants through the use in-depth interviews. The findings from the study indicated that a large majority of older generation are prevented from talking to younger generation about sex and related topics due to cultural barriers. It was revealed that talking about sex remains a taboo. In addition one of the areas that were repeatedly identified by many participants was that a large percentage of older generation does not seem to be aware on how to approach the younger generation and discusses HIV and AIDS. This implies that the message has not reached young generation. Recommendations for further study on the subject under investigation were provided. The study suggested that with the identified barriers and recommendations at their disposal HIV and AIDS campaigners will improve the lives of younger generation. This study draws the conclusion that more awareness campaigns with regard to culture barriers, sex and HIV are needed. ItemInner city informal traders as key social agents in governing security : an exploration of policing arrangements in Warwick Triangle.(2014) Mngomezulu, Eugene Sakhile.; Marks, Monique.; Ballard, Richard James.This dissertation explores the way in which ordinary citizens in Durban take responsibility for security. The study focused on an organisation, Traders Against Crime (TAC) that was formed in 1996 by informal traders in Warwick Triangle in response to multiple safety challenges in the precinct where they trade. It examined the role played by this non-state security formation in generating safety in the Warwick Triangle precinct in the city of Durban. Drawing on the nodal policing mapping framework developed by Benoit Dupont, this dissertation maps out how this security ‘node’ fits within the broader network of nodal security actors in the Warwick Triangle area, and how the relationships between these actors change as a result of context, resources and power relations. The dissertation demonstrates that the TAC has been a central node in the governance of security in the Warwick Triangle area. Indeed, at times, it has been the primary actor, rather than the state police. The dissertation therefore interrogates the mentalities and technologies used by the TAC in its quest to govern security. While there is little doubt that the TAC generated a greater sense of safety in the area, the ways in which they did so were not always considered ‘legitimate’ or even ‘lawful’ by other actors, such as the public police. Despite this, the nodal relationships between the TAC and the public police are complex and somewhat ‘liquid’. The relationships between the various nodal actors can be characterised as both co-operative and competitive, as the various groupings trade-off and exhibit their ‘capitals’ and capacities. While the TAC provides a ‘bottom-up’ policing service, their effectiveness and sustainability is dependent on the response and support of state bodies such as local government and the public police which are neither guaranteed nor consistent. Furthermore, the sustainability of organisations such as the TAC is dependent on the commitment of volunteers, most of whom are struggling to make a living in the informal economy.