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Masters Degrees (Housing)

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    Women-owned home base enterprises and poverty alleviation: a case of Umlazi B township.
    (2024) Hlongwa, Nokuphiwa Charity.; Adebayo, Pauline Wambui.
    Dwellings can provide shelter, amenities and an income through spaces used to create wealth, and act as collateral for borrowing. Therefore, housing is an asset that can unlock wealth if the owner utilizes it thus. In South Africa, historically, black women in townships were placed at the back of acquiring homeownership. However, this has changed, and black women in townships are now also homeowners and can explore different avenues of generating income through their housing. For women who were previously disadvantaged, the inclusion into urban policies for housing tenure, such as through the Extend Discount Benefit Scheme (EDBS), have opened the opportunity to potentially realise economic prosperity for themselves through home-based enterprises (HBEs). Women experience myriad barriers when it comes to income generation, beyond those faced by men. The belief that women's work is not part of the monetary mainstream prevails. The study aimed to assess black women-owned HBEs from the beginning of their entrepreneurship, the challenges they have faced and continue to be impacted by, and the extent to which they are achieving income generation and poverty alleviation. It employed a qualitative methodology, where a sample of women who run HBEs was sourced through purposive and snowball sampling, to select the participants to partake in the study. This type of sampling allowed for the researcher's discretion to be used to choose variables or set out the criteria based on the study's aim and objectives. The researcher used semi-structured interviews to conduct interviews with women identified in this way, as well as two other key informants, in order to explore the extent to which HBEs were fulfilling the policy objective of poverty alleviation and wealth creation. A covert obse rvation was also used to gather discernible information required to understand women owned HBEs in the study area better. Data was analysed and interpreted in a thematic manner, with themes predetermined from an understanding of the issues pertinent to women owned HBEs, as well as sub-themes that emerged from the data. The researcher found that women owners of HBEs’ perception was that their poverty has reduced through the operation HBEs, because they are able to feed their families and meet some basic needs. Nevertheless, the absence of business data on the women’s operations and the generalised terms with which they discuss their businesses with no real detailing means it cannot be established whether the businesses have alleviated poverty. Indeed, the size of the businesses and informality of the operations suggest a survivalist character rather than a wealth creating one. To this extent, it was concluded, the policy goal of poverty alleviation and income generation may not have been v achieved, despite these women becoming homeowners. However, the results of the research have also identified gaps and room for improvement for the government’s role in supporting women owned HBEs, which are used as a basis for recommendations.
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    The impact of land assembly for social housing development on spatial restructuring: case study of the Aloe Ridge social housing project in Msunduzi Municipality.
    (2023) Nyadzani, Fulufhelo.; Chipungu, Lovemore.
    Determined to untangle the spatial conundrum orchestrated by the Apartheid government, the African National Congress (ANC) led a myriad of government instituted programmes to address the spatial inequality that continued to subjugate low-income class communities and left them in intolerable living conditions within urban centres. The Social Housing Programme was envisioned as one of the promising measures with which to address the lack of low-cost rental stock. This programme was furthermore viewed as a facilitator of spatial restructuring by enabling the marginalised and spatially deprived communities’ access to prime housing locations and afford tenants access to commercial and social opportunities. Discourse on the effectiveness of the Social Housing Programme in tackling spatial restructuring within urban centres has amassed over the last ten years, however, propelled by the limited impact that social housing projects have had as a social mobility tool to uplift the poor. The research sought to analyse the factors impeding the ability of the Social Housing Programme to fulfil one of the core mandates of the state; to reverse the spatial imbalances engineered during the Colonial and Apartheid periods. The research utilised a mega social housing project, the ‘Aloe Ridge Social Housing’ project located in Pietermaritzburg, to assess the limitations of the Social Housing Programme. The research utilised the Right to the City concept, Location and Smart Growth theories as the foundation for the provision of adequate housing to comprehend the intricate systems of locational choice of the housing projects and to map potential solutions to address the urban centres’ inefficiencies. The study approached data collection and analysis by employing a mixed-method approach. It utilised respondents from the Aloe Ridge Social Housing project and key informants from the public sector responsible for housing and planning to measure the outcome of the project. The outcome of the data collect ion noted the positive attributes of social housing in the provision of suitable housing to the low-income community, however, the spatial analysis indicated minimal integration with the main commercial nodes, while the land market and grant limitations hindered the acquisition of suitable land for housing. The study recognised the importance of supporting inclusionary housing to improve housing access, while advocating for the review of restructuring guidelines, subsidy readjustment and introduction of incentives and penalties to stimulate the land assembly process.
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    An analysis of housing provision among refugees in Edmonton city - Canada.
    (2023) Alalade, Oluwagbemi Adejare.; Chipungu, Lovemore.
    The global influx of refugees and asylum seekers has significantly impacted cities and towns, leading to increased pressure on housing resources, host communities, and governments. This study addresses the complex issue of housing provision among refugees, focusing on Edmonton City, Canada. Recognizing the critical role of housing in successful refugee integration, this research investigates the challenges faced by refugees in securing adequate and affordable housing and explores potential solutions. Using the spatial assimilation theory with a mixed-methods approach, combining quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews, this study delves into the multifaceted dimensions of housing provision. The quantitative analysis, based on surveys conducted with refugees in Edmonton City, highlights the pressing concerns of affordability, accessibility, and adequacy. Qualitative insights from interviews with key stakeholders, including government officials and housing service providers, shed light on existing policies and initiatives aimed at addressing refugees' housing needs. The findings reveal significant challenges faced by refugees, including financial constraints, language barriers, discrimination, and inadequate living conditions, all of which hinder their successful integration into Canadian society. In response, this study advocates for a comprehensive strategy that includes increasing the availability of affordable housing designated for refugees. It emphasizes the necessity of enhanced support services to aid refugees in their housing search and settlement processes. Moreover, fostering collaboration between government agencies, housing providers, and community organizations is essential for effective coordination and resource allocation. Furthermore, this research underscores the importance of awareness campaigns and antidiscrimination measures within the housing market. By creating an inclusive environment, refugees can find suitable housing, promoting their overall well-being and integration. The study's recommendations provide actionable insights for policymakers, housing providers, and community organizations, offering tailored solutions that consider refugees' unique cultural, linguistic, and socio-economic backgrounds. In conclusion, this research contributes valuable insights to the academic discourse on refugee integration, emphasizing the pivotal role of housing in facilitating successful resettlement and community integration, using the Spatial Assimilation theory. The insights provided serve as a foundation for stakeholders, guiding their efforts toward creating inclusive, affordable, and sustainable housing solutions for refugees, not only in Edmonton City but also in other communities across Canada.
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    Exploring “breaking new ground” as a job creation mechanism for women in low-income housing construction: a case study of Kingsburgh West housing project in the Ethekwini Municipality.
    (2022) Xuma, Anathi.; Myeni, Sithembiso Lindelihle.
    This study explored women’s participation in the construction industry, as well as their access to economic freedom in the same context. The study also sought to examine injustices and gender inequalities in the construction industry from the perspective of the Marxist, radical and liberal theorists. This researcher adopted a qualitative research strategy to assess the views of respondents in relation to the “Breaking New Ground” policy as a tool to create jobs for women in low-income housing. The researcher collected the data by conducting in-depth interviews with women-owned construction companies, government officials, employees, and independent organisations. The researcher used one of the low-income housing projects in Durban in the eThekwini Municipality as a case study for this research to established if the “Breaking New Ground” policy enabled the delivery of housing, and whether it is a suitable job creation strategy. The researcher achieved this by asking participants about the challenges they were encountering in the construction industry. This study also examined policies and regulations in place that drive the economic transformation of women in the construction industry in South Africa. Despite having more policies and regulations, the findings of the study revealed that the construction industry is still a male-dominated space. Furthermore, the findings exposed economic injustices and gender inequalities, which pose more challenges for women in the construction industry. The study, in this regard, recommends that the implementation of these policies and regulations be monitored as women in the construction industry are vulnerable and are often victims of patriarchy and gender inequality. This becomes a mandate for all stakeholders involved to improve monitoring guidelines to ensure the proper implementation of these policies. To this end, the study also recommends that the government make funding available for the training of emerging women contractors in management and tendering processes – as all work in South Africa is secured through the tendering process. Government must, in this regard, enter into agreements with financial institutions in South African to assist emerging women contractors with funding to their projects with low interest rates. It is, thus, the researcher’s view that establishing these recommendations will ensure the longterm sustainability of more women contractors in the construction industry.
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    Exploring the effects of land invasion on government in the upgrading of informal settlements in Cato Manor, Durban.
    (2022) Mthembu, Sthembiso. ; Myeni, Sithembiso Lindelihle.
    This study aimed to explore the effects of land invasion on informal dwellers before and during the in-situ upgrading of the informal settlements in Cato Manor, in Durban. The mushrooming of informal settlements, and the increasing cases of land invasion in metropolitan cities can be attributed to the struggle over the use and control of the urban spaces, as well as a shortage of houses. Informal dwellers and land invaders occupy the urban space to reproduce themselves, even though they are excluded from the formal wage labour, and the formal housing markets. This move has seen individuals collectively acting to defend their access to the urban space, thus countering state-led dispossessions. These dispossessions are some of the crucial aspects of the increasing incidents of land invasion and informal settlements that sparked collective action by individuals to defend their access to the urban spaces from state-led dispossession. This study was guided by three theoretical frameworks – (i) the theory of Quiet Encroachment of the ordinary life, (ii) the Marxist theory, and (iii) the Structuralism theory. These theories pull together the various separate paradigms and perspectives into an integrated theoretical framework to guide the study. This study adopted social constructivism as a central research paradigm. How land invasion is perceived is largely dependent on local and social interpretations and perceptions. As a theory, social constructivism offers a counter-argument to a common perception that social problems arise as undesirable disorders that threaten social and cultural harmony. Social constructionism is based on the fundamentals of knowledge as a central influence in the construction of perceptions on an individual and their position and status in society. Thus, this study was empirical in nature, where the data were collected and analysed. However, it also integrated conceptual research – as the literature reviewed was referred to throughout the study. The study also employed thematic data analysis, which involves organising the data in relative themes and having it coded. The selected study area is occupied by informal settlers where land invasion appears to be common. The researcher had anticipated that informal settlements protests would hinder the collection of the data. The findings of this study suggest that land invaders perceive land invasions as a way of securing shelter and accessing land. However, government is strongly opposed to this. It was also evident that acts of land invasion are carried out largely by the people from the same settlement, owing to general population growth and settlements expansion. Thus, one would be justified to conclude that the effects of land invasion on informal settlements upgrading is a perspective of Governments, whereas beneficiaries of land invasions also note the effects of the Upgrading Projects as a stimulant. This study proposes three recommendations which are: Collaborative Response, Inclusive Housing Settlements, and Planning for Settlements Growth.
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    Understanding the FEDUP group savings scheme model for self-help housing. a case study of Namibia Stop 8 housing project in Inanda, KwaZulu Natal.
    (2017) Qumbisa, Nolwazi Mandosi Robertious.; Adebayo, Pauline Wambui.
    The post-apartheid South African government is faced with a severe housing backlog due to the apartheid regime which created inequalities through segregation policies. Consequently, due to a number of factors the current government has been struggling to address the high housing demand. The Federation of the Urban Poor (FEDUP) group savings scheme model for self-help housing appears to be complementing the government’s efforts in the provision of housing. The model operates under the Enhanced People’s Housing Process (EPHP) policy, previously known as the People’s Housing Process (PHP), which was adopted by the government after engagements with Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO’s) which included FEDUP and uTshani Fund, to encourage more community participation for housing development. The aim of this study is to understand the FEDUP group savings scheme model for self-help housing. The research was conducted using the qualitative approach for data collection, analysis and presentation. The study used the case study of Namibia Stop 8 housing project to understand the model and assess its potential for replicability elsewhere. The findings of the study indicate that group savings schemes are able to deliver good quality housing products, encourage more community involvement during housing projects, including participation in decision-making. The success of the model relies mainly on good cooperation between the key stakeholders of the project. The findings have suggested that the FEDUP group savings scheme model can be replicated elsewhere. These findings, in relation to the enabling approach, autonomous approach and social capital theory suggest that the culture of poverty theory can be negated through the use of the model as communities are given the opportunity to contribute to the delivery of their own homes with support from organisations such as FEDUP, thereby breaking the poverty cycle. Using group savings schemes, communities can work together to better their living conditions and improve their housing conditions. The conclusion of the study is that the FEDUP group savings scheme model as means of self-help housing assists to enhance the current unsustainable government system of low-cost housing provision, through community participation in the housing development process and production of an arguably better housing product.
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    Assessing the participation of youth in the delivery of low cost housing: a case study of uMlazi sections B and G.
    (2016) Phohlo, Xolani Emmanuel.; Myeni, Wonderboy Vincent.
    South Africa is experiencing a high rate of youth unemployment (24%) compared to its counter parts. This is due to a variety of reasons like the legacy of the apartheid inequality, poor education, poverty and slow economic growth. The majority of the unemployed are mainly young people between the ages of 18 to 35. Worse, some of the unemployed youth are graduates who find it difficult to secure employment opportunities with the qualifications that they have obtained. One of the objectives of the housing policy is to use the delivery of low cost housing as one of mechanisms to create job opportunities more especially for the youth. The key question of the study looked at the impact of the participation of youth in the delivery of low cost housing at uMlazi sections B and G. The study used qualitative method of data collection. The study found that young people of uMlazi sections B and G did participate in the delivery of low cost housing. The study recommends that the South African government should review the current preferential policies to include youth as a specific target for employment and encourage employment agencies in other sectors outside built environment to implement this provision. The study concluded that the government has played a significant role in ensuring the involvement of youth in service delivery; but the study also calls for more commitment from the side of local government and political will especially on eThekwini municipality to continue ensuring the increase on the number of young people that take part in the delivery of housing.
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    The influence of culture on the acceptability of community residential units (CRU): a case study of uMlazi T-section, Durban KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2016) Msimang, Noxolo Mary-Anne.; Chipungu, Lovemore; Adebayo, Pauline Wambui.
    The development of housing in the context of culture has been an issue that has not received much attention and/or considered within the South African context. The post-1994 era saw a transferring of culture and cultural practices within the built environment of hostels living and lifestyle through urbanisation. During the apartheid era, black people were exposed to two types of housing typology; one which allowed them to practice their culture freely, and the other which limited them in all aspects. Housing in rural areas allowed for black people to practice their culture freely through its house-form layout, whereas housing in urban areas presented limitations and restricted all forms of cultural practices. The study aims at establishing and assessing whether CRUs are responsive to cultural needs, norms and practices. Information was gathered through qualitative and quantitative methods in forming a relationship between housing and culture. Qualitative information was gathered through human behavioural and development theories such as the Durkheimian and Modernists theories that were used in conceptualising the study whilst creating a link and relationship, and government documents. Quantitative information was gathered through household surveys which were conducted in the community of Wema and a focus group discussion was held in Unit 17 and interviews were conducted with the superintendents representing the eThekwini Municipality. This research revealed that post-1994 housing especially the CRUs do not take into cognisance households’ cultural values. This is reflected in the nature of housing which is not free-standing while certain facilities within and outside the units are shared thereby depriving households of privacy. However, the study also established that there are people who value the ease and convenience of single living and temporary housing depending on economy and their family’s financial need. The study recommended that the government should incorporate an environment that is supportive of culture and family living. It also noted that there is need for development of housing on short-tenure basis for people for people who do not want to settle with their families permanently in urban areas and those who are only seeking employment opportunities.
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    Comparing the use of housing as a financial and economic asset in rdp and bng housing projects: a case study of Dumisani Makhaye village, Umhlathuze municipality.
    (2017) Jali, Mbusi Conrad.; Adebayo, Pauline Wambui.
    The provision of low-income housing in post-apartheid South Africa has been one of the tools of reversing the effects of discriminatory apartheid planning and policies. The immense demand for low-income housing by those who were denied such by the apartheid government, coupled with the financial constraints of meeting said demand, shaped how housing would be provided post-apartheid. The provision of core/starter low-income housing units that would be improved by beneficiary households through the incremental process to make them ‘adequate’, depending on beneficiary household’s needs and circumstances, was the method of housing delivery adopted by the post-apartheid government. The incremental process of achieving adequate housing therefore had intrinsic expectations that low-income housing beneficiaries would use their houses as assets to access finance or start home-based businesses in order to facilitate the process. As an asset, housing could also be used as a tool to address the poverty and low income of its recipients. Starter houses provided in the Housing White Paper (HWP) policy era were termed RDP houses. Failure of the HWP as the first post-apartheid housing policy to explicitly emphasize and facilitate the use of RDP starter houses as assets by beneficiaries in order to achieve adequate housing contributed greatly to their constrained ability to perform as financial and economic assets. The second post-apartheid housing policy introduced in 2004, which was the Breaking New Ground (BNG) whose low-income housing units were termed BNG houses, is explicit and emphasizes facilitation of the performance of low-income housing as a financial and economic asset in its era, while retrospectively enabling the same performance of RDP housing that failed to perform as such in the HWP era. This study was undertaken to determine whether low-income housing has performed more as a financial and economic asset in the BNG era than it did in the HWP era, as envisaged by the BNG housing policy. Data gathered through interviews, a household survey and observations was thematically analysed to present comparative findings, in which it was determined that some of BNG housing attributes like its size and design have enabled it to perform ‘better’ as an asset than RDP housing. However, despite the demonstrable ‘better’ performance of BNG housing, it has not performed as such to the fullest extent possible, as envisaged by BNGhousing policy. This is despite the state’s attempts to encourage such use by beneficiary households through operating small businesses and/or its use as security for a loan, among other things. Reasons for the sluggish performance of RDP and BNG housing as a financial and economic asset range from lack of knowledge by beneficiary households about how to use low-income housing to access finance or start small home-based businesses, to the packaging of low-income housing projects that did not inspire the performance of housing as an asset. The research concludes that the packaging of housing projects needed to conceptualize how housing units would be attractive to lenders and /or how they can be used to generate household income, among other things. It is also recommended that there should be partnership between sectors, the financial and business sectors for example, and the municipalities to ensure low-income housing’s performance as an asset can be improved.
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    Exploring post-implementation administrative challenges, which are experienced in social housing developments in South Africa: cases of Valley View and Port-View housing projects, Durban.
    (2017) Mhlongo, Siphosenkosi Lungelo.; Myeni, Wonderboy Vincent.
    The study had a primary goal of establishing the reasons behind the continued post implementation administrative challenges facing Social Housing developments in South Africa. The study used the eThekwini Municipality as the study area, specifically focusing on the Port-View and Valley-View social housing developments, which are managed by SOHCO. The problems to be identified in this dissertation are the various administrative challenges faced by Social Housing Institutions, which include the lack of affordability, financial and operational management. Therefore, the administrative challenges which arise, tend to complicate matters further and prevent SHIs from fulfilling their role in providing adequate maintenance and management of Social Housing Developments. This results in the loss of income for the Social Housing Company and a sense of non-governability with regard to these projects. From a conceptual and theoretical point of view, the study had a specific focus on the administrative challenges of Social Housing. Therefore, the Privatization Theory assumed the role of providing principles, which informed the study. Furthermore, the Administrative Management Theory gave the study a perception of how institutions (SHIs’) should and can be structured, in order to make provision for adequate management of resources, tenants and the social housing developments at large. The theory strives to develop a balance between the structure of the administration and the mission of a particular organization, in this case, SOHCO. The study adopted a qualitative method of data collection; this enabled the researcher to gather information through face-to-face interviews and the use of the questionnaire surveys from the purposive sampling method, using primary data collection. Upon collecting data, the study uncovered that the social housing sector stands riddled with administrative faults. Such are the challenges that result from financial constraints. From an institutional point of view, the financial struggles faced by SHIs’, lead to the compromising of housing standards, maintenance and renewal of social housing developments. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that both the tenants and the SHIs’ saw the management of social housing schemes from different perspectives. From a tenant’sperspective, there are many challenges that they face, due to the management of the SHI. These include the level of safety within, as well as outside of the developments, and the lack of accessibility for young tenants. The maintenance of social housing developments and units is a vital element for the satisfaction of tenants. However, regardless of ‘proper’ or ‘poor’ maintenance, the defaulting and boycotting of payments continued. From the findings, the study recognised the issues of social housing: on how tenants understood social housing and what was required from them in order to ensure satisfactory living in Social Housing complexes. Furthermore, it saw that the administrative challenges were a consequence of poor administrative approaches. The study concluded that administrative challenges, in the post-implementation stages, have dire and disastrous impacts on the social housing sector and recommended that suitable approaches be established and potentially considered for implementation, as ways of changing and improving the Social Housing environment. Amendments to the Social Housing Policy, institutional amendments to rental collection and enhancing maintenance options, were amongst a few recommendations listed by the researcher.
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    Assessing the support given by the SEDA Construction Incubator programme to emerging contractors involved in housing within the eThekwini Municipality, KwaZulu-Natal.
    (2018) Noor, Mohamed Saidi.; Adebayo, Pauline Wambui.
    This study assessed the support offered by the SEDA Construction Incubator (SCI) programme to emerging contractors involved in housing construction. Emerging contractors are black-owned small and medium construction enterprises. The housing process excluded such contractors during the apartheid era. This exclusion created a pool of underdeveloped black-owned companies. It is for this reason that the promotion of emerging contractors is a central theme of the current government’s housing policy. The South African government appoints these contractors, through a tender system, for the construction and maintenance of state-subsidised housing. However, these emerging contractors often fail to grow beyond basic levels of business operations. The SCI programme has been developed as a response to the challenges emerging contractors face. This study analysed the way support has been given to emerging contractors. The study analysed the discourse around the challenges hindering small and medium contractors in South African and internationally. It also looked at mentorship and training support programmes implemented locally. The study thereafter used qualitative research instruments to examine and analyse the challenges that contractors in SCI programme encounter and the extent to which the SCI programme’s support assisted contractors to mitigate their challenges. The study’s findings revealed that contractors’ main challenges were in respect of obtaining new construction projects and accessing finance. The challenge of winning projects compounded the challenge of accessing finance. Also, contractors did not maximise the benefits of the theoretical or mentorship support by the SCI programme because these forms of support were structured to assist contractors after they had won projects and begun the physical construction of the housing project. In addition to this, the findings revealed a difference between the support that the programme provided and the expectations of the emerging contractors, which resulted in contractors expecting project opportunities from the SCI programme. Many of these emerging contractors expected the SCI programme to offer them construction projects that they would implement while they were members of the programme but the programme only went as far as its mandate, which was to support contractors to win projects rather than arrange projects. The researcher recommends that the implementers of the SCI programme consult with potential SCI contractors prior to them entering the programme, to carefully set out the roles of all the stakeholders involved within the duration of the incubation. This would ensure that the expectations of contractors are managed. In addition to this, the researcher recommends that the SCI programme extends its mandate to support contractors to win projects. The researcher suggests that the SCI programme should also provide a platform to emerging contractors that will enable potential clients to interact with, negotiate and do business with these contractors.
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    Unpacking the strategies for upgrading housing used by women informal settlement dwellers in Namibia stop 8 settlement, eThekwini municipality.
    (2023) Ngubane, Mvelo Anele.; Adebayo, Pauline.
    During the Apartheid era, women were not granted equal opportunities compared to men regarding access to land or housing. To address this state-orchestrated disparity, the South African Constitution of 1996 and The White Paper on Housing of 1994 and new policies that built from it emphasised sensitivity with respect to gender, race and religion. The Enhanced People’s Housing Process is one approach used by the government to ensure involvement of prospective homeowners from constructing their own homes through housing delivery processes. However, the involvement of women is still unclear in most of these policies and programmes, deepening the historical discrimination of women which continues despite the post-apartheid dispensation. In this analysis, a case study of Namibia Stop 8 informal settlement to examine the strategies used by women to upgrade their informal dwellings and determine the effectiveness of methods in delivering adequate housing. This qualitative study employed literature reviews, interviews, focus groups and observation methodologies to elicit data to properly investigate the key question. The findings of the study revealed that the women of Namibia Stop 8 contended with several housing access problems by pooling resources together i.e., group savings, mutual building, beyond engagement with the authorities. Moreover, women were empowered by demonstrating agency in formulate solutions to their housing problem. Recommendations from this study include local municipalities programs introduce skills development and training for beneficiaries, equipping them before the implementation of housing projects. This will strengthen communities and social capital and in turn mainstream mutual building and group savings as a key strategy not only for women household heads but the growing population with an unmet need for adequate housing in informal settlements in South Africa and sub-Saharan Africa.
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    Assessing the limitations in the implementation of the enhanced people's housing process (EPHP): the case study of the Vulindlela area in Msunduzi.
    (2021) Moseya, Nondumiso Lethukuthula.; Loggia, Claudia.
    The apartheid system in South Africa created imbalances and this resulted in Black communities facing significant housing issues. The post-apartheid government in South Africa was then responsible for correcting such imbalances. Thus, the Enhanced People’s Housing Programme (EPHP), which was introduced in 1998, was a product of the post-apartheid government meant to ensure that all South Africans had their own houses, including those groups previously disadvantaged by the apartheid system. This programme involves different stakeholders, including provincial and local authorities, non-governmental organisations, community-based organisations, religious bodies, and others. However, the programme has been marred by challenges thus hindering the timeous delivery of housing to the people. Thus, this research aims at assessing the limitations of the implementation of the EPHP in Vulindlela. The study adopted a purposive sampling strategy to select the participants. The qualitative approach was use to collect data through interviews conducted with a sample of 30 participants (20 beneficiaries and 10 stakeholders selected from the Municipality and Vulindlela Development Association (VDA)). The Greater Vulindlela Township located in Pietermaritzburg, Msunduzi Municipality, was selected as the study site for the present study. The study found that limited financial support was one of the significant factors limiting the successful implementation of EPHP in Vulindlela. Other limitations included political patronage, little communication about the programme, and limited community participation. The findings indicate the need to educate communities on the implementation of EPHP and the roles of relevant stakeholders. Furthermore, incentivising community participation improved community participation in the EPHP project.
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    Analysing the effects of informal land markets on self-help housing in eThekwini Municipality: a case study of uMzinyathi.
    (2021) Mhlongo, Nandi Kelly.; Myeni, Sithembiso Lindelihle.
    The main aim of the study is to analyse the influence of vernacular land markets on self-help housing and its implications on dweller control using uMzinyathi in eThekwini Municipality as a case study. This study assesses the traditional institutions and practices of the impacts of the customary land tenure on self-help housing in eThekwini Municipality. The study analyses the factors that drive the development of vernacular land markets at uMzinyathi. More specifically, the study examines the process and procedures for local recognition of the transaction of land for housing in uMzinyathi; and identify actors and policies that shape the vernacular land markets in eThekwini Municipality. Overall, the study was to dissect the impact of vernacular land markets on self-build housing in uMzinyathi and its suggestions on dweller control. The study has used the theory of neo-institutionalism where views from historical institutionalism and rational choice institutionalism helped to gain insights into the influence of vernacular land markets on self-help housing in South Africa and its implications on dweller control. The study adopts a qualitative research approach which helps with instruments suited to assess practices and impacts of the customary land tenure on self-help housing in eThekwini Municipality. Semi-structured interviews conducted with stakeholder directly involved in vernacular land markets and self-build housing. Moreover, secondary data from government sources and municipal policies were used in order to triangulate both secondary and primary sources of data. The study findings reveal that admission to land in most sub-Saharan Africa nations is proceeding to be dictated by indigenous frameworks of land residency that developed after some time under both provincial and nearby impacts. This study found that the nature of people experiencing the freedom to build is found within communal areas. Overall, the study recommends that bottlenecks affecting “freedom to build” and “dweller control” should be removed considering that there are patterns of good quality of self-help housing development taking place in peri-urban spaces.
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    An assessment of the socio-economic impact of informal settlements on suburban properties in Clare Estate in eThekwini Municipality.
    (2021) Dlamini, Xolisani Alphonse.; Ntlhe, Daphne.
    Informal settlements have become a prominent feature in metropolitan cities and small and medium cities of developing countries. These settlements result from an increasing urban population and are characterised mainly by substandard housing and inadequate essential services. In South African cities, informal settlements have been developed in and around suburban areas, which has been a cause of conflicts for many years. The residents in suburban areas claim that informal settlements negatively impact the value of properties in the suburbs. A qualitative research approach was employed to assess the socio-economic impact of informal settlements on suburban properties in Clare Estate in eThekwini Municipality. The data was collected through secondary interviews, observations and secondary data analysis. The secondary data was obtained from books, governments’ reports, media publications, journals, government policies and legislations and other many internet data sources. The combination of these methods of collecting data was used to discover different perspectives on the research topic. Purposive sampling was employed to select 30 participants: 20 from Clare Estate suburb and ten from Kennedy road informal settlement. The data was collected over one and a half months. The findings of this study disclosed that Kennedy Road informal settlement hurts both social and economic facets of the Clare Estate suburb. Residents in the suburb believe that the informal settlement next to the Clare Estate suburb decreases the value of properties in the Estate. That is because homebuyers do not want to invest in properties next to the informal settlement. They want to avoid perceived devaluation of their properties from being near such a settlement. The study concluded that informal settlements are a great challenge of the urban environment that negatively impacts suburban areas on the value of properties. This is influenced by ruralurban migration, urbanisation, and racial segregation that is rooted in the legacy of the apartheid system. It further suggested that the government develop free government housing and low-cost flats in Kennedy Road Informal Settlement to accommodate informal settlers close to Clare Estate and create order and control over informal settlers.
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    Assessing the impact of basic service provision on the use of informal dwellings for income generation, a case study of Cato Crest informal settlement, Durban.
    (2020) Mabaso, Lulama Noluthando.; Loggia, Claudia.
    The existing South African housing backlog confronting the residents is daunting. With the current investigations displaying that the backlog is not depleting or not reaching levels anticipated by the democratic government, the stakeholders of the low-income housing sector are facing an immense challenge. Wilkinson (2014) states that the housing backlog is currently estimated at 2.1 million and is increasing at a rate of 178.000 units per year”. Informal settlements are a major challenge for housing practitioners and planners in developing countries. Failure to address residents’ needs may result in political and social unrest (Barry and Ruther, 2005:1). According to Misselhorn (2008), informal settlement dwellers in South Africa confront challenges such as poor infrastructure, limited access to basic services and insecure tenure. According to Mashabela (1990:23), informal settlements in South Africa date back to the early 1980s.One of the reasons for the mushrooming of informal settlements was the establishment of Black municipalities that took control of townships from the previous administration Boards. These municipalities did not have the financial capacity to provide housing. This study used qualitative research method to collect data. The theoretical framework for this study was based on the modernization theory, the basic needs approach, and the housing asset triangle. Interviews were conducted with an eThekwini municipal project manager and questionnaires were conducted from the case study. This study involved the use of both primary and secondary data to obtain a thorough assessment of basic services provision and income generating activities in the Cato Crest area. This research highlights that access to the provision of basic services in the community of Cato Crest is still a challenge, and the community is hoping for solutions that will fasten the delivery of these services. Various recommendations have been made in terms of creating livelihood strategy workshops to help the community by allowing them to start a platform for their income” generating activities and get assistance from the other community members as well as the municipality.
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    Assessing mixed-income housing as a mechanism for social integration: a case study of the Durban Point area.
    (2019) Msweli, Noluthando Mandisa.; Loggia, Claudia.; Ojo-Aromokudu, Judith Tinuke.
    South Africa has a history of socio-spatial segregation which has been a major problem when it comes to addressing urban issues and housing delivery. Twenty years into democracy, it has been evident that there has been a huge backlog in the delivery of housing. Moreover, the rolledout policies have not addressed issues but rather perpetuated the legacy of Apartheid namely social, racial and economic segregation. However, the South African government, throughout the years, has been working tirelessly to rectify these past injustices. For these reasons, the mixed income approach has become popular in urban transformation interventions in South Africa. Such an approach aims to bridge the gap of socio-spatial, and economic integration by bringing people of different races and social classes into one environment whilst also providing affordable housing for citizens. This dissertation sought to formulate an argument that assesses and challenges the notion that social integration can be established and sustained through the mixing of incomes into one environment through the mixed-income approach. The significance of the study is to contribute to the understanding of the policy of mixed-income housing and its correlation to fostering social integration. It seeks to provide an assessment of whether the assumptions, that mixing of incomes into one neighbourhood, results in positive social patterns and integration amongst people in South Africa. This will be evident in the relations created including the level of interactions amongst the residents of Point. The dissertation provides a snapshot of the impact of the mixed-income ideology as well as the state of integration in the Durban Point Area and future prospects. To obtain the findings, the researcher used a mixed-method approach which involved qualitative and quantitative research; however, the bulk of the information was obtained from the qualitative research. The study made use of primary and secondary data collection methods. The secondary data includes statistics, online publications, books, and newspaper articles whilst the primary data includes interviews, focus groups and observations. After engaging the mentioned methodological approaches, the findings have shown that there is little to no integration fostered in the Durban Point as it is evident that little to no interactions occur in the area. The approach of mixed-income housing in the Durban Point area is further perpetuating social isolation which is the opposite of the envisioned outcome of this approach. According to the eThekwini Municipality, once the area is fully developed, then interactions will naturally occur. With the adoption of this neo-liberal approach, the municipality, unfortunately, has failed to take into consideration various factors that will continue hindering the establishment of integration in such areas such as inequality, race, social backgrounds, unemployment as well as historical aspects. Therefore, the researcher concludes it is important that the South African government needs to focus on making these adopted Western approaches more tailor-made to fit the South African context, for them to achieve the intended outcomes.
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    Evaluating the social impact of in-situ upgrading housing development in creating sustainable human settlements: the case study of Inanda, eThekwini Municipality.
    (2019) Ngcobo, Ntando Cedrick.; Myeni, Wonderboy Vincent.; Loggia, Claudia.
    This study seeks to evaluate the social impact of in-situ upgrading in creating sustainable human settlements. ―The overarching aim of this research is to evaluate the impact of in-situ upgrading as a tool to improve social cohesion in creating sustainable human settlements. This study will be conducted at Inanda White City area. The motivation of the study derives from one objective of the Breaking New Ground policy that speaks about combating crime, promoting social cohesion and improving the quality of life for the poor to ensure sustainable human settlements. The objectives of the study were to determine whether in-situ upgrading has an impact on social capital and social cohesion in the community of Inanda. To determine the role of in-situ upgrading in human capital to ensure sustainable human settlements, among others discussed below.The research methodology that was used is qualitative method. However, it was used to interpret community experiences and produce a better understanding of the social factors. The population size of the study was 372 housing units. Therefore, 37 households were interviewed during data collection which counts for 10% of the total population. The main purpose of the sampling was to draw conclusions about the whole population of White City. Purposive sampling was used to develop the sample of the research under discussion. The adopted theoretical frameworks were Social Capital theory and Theory of Citizen Participation coupled with concepts relevant to the study. The study evaluates then analyses the related international and South African contexts, as well as assessing some precedent studies in in-situ upgrading housing provision practices internationally and local for useful lessons. On the basis of findings, the study found that an effectively implemented program of in-situ upgrading housing development can result in positive social impact by strengthening the existing social ties and promotes social cohesion. Therefor the study recommends that, municipalities together with the ward counselors need to consider the importance of social cohesion amongst community members during the planning and implementation of the housing development project. The study opens a new prospect of thinking about future informal settlements upgrading programs that will respond to the growing issues of informal settlements in the urban areas and gives a path on how to ensure social cohesion in order to create sustainable human settlements.
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    Assessing the benefits and challenges of informal backyard rental housing: a case study of Murchison, Port Shepstone.
    (2019) Khumalo, Zinhle.; Loggia, Claudia.; Myeni, Wonderboy Vincent.
    Established in the 1980s, the informal backyard rental sector has grown at a rapid rate, providing shelter for households wanting to access economic opportunities in the cities. The housing backlog increases every year and issues such as migration to urban areas as well as affordability issues for the low and middle-income households has them resorting to informal settlements and informal backyard rental sector to access housing. The local municipalities then face the dilemma of a high backlog with the challenge of a shortage of resources, expensive land and basic services to deliver the housing to households. The aim of the study was to assess the benefits and challenges that are experienced by the tenants and landlords within the informal backyard rental housing sector, it was conducted in the Murchison community under the Ray Nkonyeni Municipality within KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The objectives include examining the benefits and challenges experienced by the landlords and tenants, to understand the reason behind the proliferation of the informal backyard rental housing sector and to understand the rules and agreements between the landlord and tenant within the sector. A qualitative research methodology was utilized to understand both parties’ experiences within the sector, neoliberalism and the sustainable livelihood approach theories were utilized to analyze the study. The study assesses the policy framework and provides some recommendations that may help the informal backyard rental sector which include having pro-active settlement layouts as well as the support of the microfinance sector so that landlords can be able to access finances to build more informal backyard rental housing. Suggestions of how to help alleviate the challenges experienced and increase the benefits of both the tenant and landlord within the study are proposed. The main findings indicate that the tenant and landlord benefit from the relationship through monetary exchange in the form of rentals for shelter. The tenants experience the most benefits including, access to services, proximity to transport, access to job opportunities and safety. The challenges experienced within the study show that some tenants do not pay rentals on time and do not follow the rules that are set by the landlord which creates a strained relationship between the tenant and landlord.
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    Assessing the use of housing as a source of income in a rural settlement in KwaZulu-Natal, case of Gingindlovu.
    (2020) Gumbi, Bongiwe Felicia.; Myeni, Wonderboy Vincent.
    Poverty and unemployment, particularly in developing countries, has led to low-income households resorting to different alternatives to make a living. This study assessed the use of housing as a source of income in a rural settlement, namely, Gingindlovu in the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Province, South Africa. The aim of the study was to assess whether residents of Gingindlovu extensions 5 and 6 use their state-subsidised houses as a source for income generation. The study’s objectives included understanding the use of Breaking New Ground (BNG) houses as an income source in a rural low-income settlement and the challenges experienced by residents in using their BNG houses to generate income. The Sustainable Livelihoods Approach and the Basic Human Needs Approach provided the theoretical framework. In terms of methodology, the study adopted qualitative and quantitative research approach which included an interview, observation and questionnaires as tools for data collection. Findings revealed the women comprised the majority of the housing beneficiaries who participated in the study. Beneficiaries who used their houses to generate income did so in a number of ways including running spaza/tuck-shops, a hair salon and doing mechanical repairs. Income generated assisted in meeting basic needs. Challenges faced included strong competition among the businesses and a limited market. Beneficiaries who had not established income-generating activities were keen to do so but lacked start-up capital and were hesitant to make use of loans. Recommendations included the need for government to establish financing mechanisms to enable housing beneficiaries to start income-generating activities from their homes and incorporate these mechanisms into new housing projects. Consideration should also be given to providing space in the houses for such activities and incorporating this into the design of the houses. In conclusion, the study emphasises that while the provision of BNG houses has not taken low-income households out of poverty it has, however, contributed to poverty alleviation in those households.