Masters Degrees (Development Studies)

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    Digital transformation and its effects on socioeconomic outcomes in South Africa: a micro-analysis of digital transformation on economic and social welfare.
    (2021) Rushambwa, Tawonga.; Vermaak, Kerry.
    Digital Transformation is the present era’s wave of technological transformation, pervasive and fast-paced with the promise of unparalleled human development and progression. Various studies have presented opportunities in sustainability, increased income, increased opportunities for entrepreneurship, social inclusion and equalization. However, challenges have also been noted including technology-induced job displacement and its potential to displace the incomes of people. This study is an attempt to map the societal conditions under which digital transformation can be instrumental in generating net social and economic welfare. Using a mixed-methods approach, the study investigates socioeconomic dynamics of individuals and households, termed the physical divide, juxtaposed against the digital transformation processes. In one of the major findings of the study, it was concluded that where digital transformation occurs under broadly under-skilled labour force, and poorly resourced social institutions and arrangements, digital transformation will more likely exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities leading to net welfare loss. The study also established the existence of a physical and digital divide of long duration in South Africa, with the inequalities likely to engender losses in welfare due to fast-paced change under digital transformation. The study also established that socioeconomic characteristics, skills and job competencies differ sharply across population groupings and continue based on access to developmental opportunities, assets, facilities and services which must be resolved for successful digital transformation.
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    Assessing the effectiveness of public participation in improving the local community development prospects in Ndwedwe Local Municipality.
    (2022) Ngubane, Lucky S’bongiseni.; Khambule, Isaac Bheki.
    Evidence suggests that public participation is among the most crucial factors in fostering both equitable and sustainable local economic development in the local government sphere. Public participation and its various mechanisms are a process of seeking and enhancing the engagement of those individuals and stakeholders potentially affected by or invested in a decision-making. Previous research has established that, in local government, the main purpose of public participation is to enhance transparency, encourage openness in government and build ownership of development decisions as well as programs and projects. Moreover, studies on local economic development in South Africa have shown the importance of public participation in enhancing and fostering local social and economic development. However, previous published have failed to expose how the implementation of certain public participation mechanism may have improved the livelihoods of local communities. This research examines the role of public participation mechanism in the context of local community development. Drawing on the case study of Ndwedwe Municipality, this study sought to assess the public participation mechanism and system implemented by the Ndwedwe municipality. It specifically evaluates the extent to which the current public participation mechanism and system are successful in fostering both economic and social development in Ndwedwe municipality. Data for this study were collected using semi-structured interviews. Ten (n=10) purposively sampled individuals were selected for the interviews. Data were presented and analysed using the thematic analysis approach. Findings show that the community is not fully involved in the issues that concerns them as development of their communities. This also means that there is limited public participation thereby making it less effective. It is highly recommended that the communication practices should be closely examined and appropriately adjusted to include different stakeholders. This means that there will be an introduction of new policies that emphasise the inclusion of all stakeholders previously excluded from decision-making.
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    Assessing the role of agricultural co-operatives in contributing to Local Economic Development (LED): a case of waterloo township.
    (2021) Mbokazi, Nqubenhle Mqobi.; Maharaj, Pranitha.
    The co-operative movement is one of the strategies adopted by the South African democratic government to address the triple challenge of poverty, inequality, and unemployment. To that extent, co-operatives have been widely recognised as catalysts for economic development and have been prominently featured in national, provincial, and local development strategies for inclusive growth. While there are many forms of co-operatives in South Africa, the majority focus on agriculture. Agricultural co-operatives have been widely promoted as a vehicle for smallholder farmers to directly participate in the mainstream economy of South Africa. Despite the optimism on the potential of co-operatives, research studies which documents their successes in South Africa suggest that their performance yields 'mixed results,' with insufficient statistical proof of their ability to generate substantial revenue or jobs. These co-operatives have been supported and established as part of the national, regional, and local economic development strategy. Despite this effort, evidence from previous research has suggested that the performance of co-operatives is below what is expected considering that they receive assistance from the government. This study uses a qualitative approach to interrogate the extent to which agricultural co-operatives contribute to Local Economic Development (LED) using Waterloo township as a case study. A total of 15 members from five different agricultural co-operatives based in Waterloo township were interviewed. Using purposive sampling, this study draws on findings collected from participants who are agricultural co-operatives members located in Waterloo township. The study findings emphasised lack of access to the market, insufficient resources, including other underlying internal and external factors as the main factors influencing the limited contribution of Waterloo agricultural co-operatives. In contrast, some other co-operatives were found to empower, utilise resources, sustain livelihoods and create job opportunities. Moreover, this study found that some agricultural co-operatives in Waterloo may support the livelihoods of its members; however, there is still a significant limitation in these cooperatives' contribution to local economic development initiatives. Subsequently, this suggests that the Waterloo township economy is less affected by these. This study has noted that although there are many existing active co-operatives in the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality area, their impact and contribution to LED initiatives remain largely unreported publicly. Therefore, very little is understood about co-operatives in townships and theirability to help smallholder farmers leverage existing resources and maintain livelihoods in a township setting. However, the study showed that despite many internal and external challenges encountered by agricultural co-operatives in South African townships, they still demonstrate a strong potential to significantly impact the local economy and assist local people in sustaining their livelihoods. Furthermore, this study argues that there is too much government interference in the cooperative development programme, which causes confusion among ordinary people. Thus, the study recommends that the development of co-operatives should be autonomous, and to enhance the economic contribution of smallholder farmers, there is a need to intensify educational support and lessen government involvement in initiating co-operatives projects.
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    How the old age pension grant contributes to the livelihoods of the poor: a case study of Qacha’s Nek.
    (2016) Sephelane, Nthatisi.; Mottiar, Shauna.
    This research studied the effectiveness of the old age pension grant, which has been initiated in developing countries to alleviate poverty and to improve the livelihoods of the elderly. The study’s focus is Qacha’s Nek, Lesotho. The study considered if and how the old age pension enhances the quality of life of senior citizens and what strategies they employ to survive on a daily basis and to counter poverty. The study was qualitative in nature and based on fifteen in-depth interviews with recipients of the old age pension grant. The main study findings were that although most of the study participants relied on the grant it was inadequate in that it does not cover all their basic needs nor does it impact on the challenges they face.
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    Understanding gender dynamics among informal sector shop-owners: a case study of spaza shops in Lindelani, Durban.
    (2016) Mkhwanazi, Smanga.; Mottiar, Shauna.
    Spaza shops contribute significantly to informal economic activity in South Africa. The spaza shop industry is known to generate enormous revenue while providing employment at the family and community level. However, spaza shop owners face a number of challenges ranging from lack of education, business knowledge and skills, financial assistance, transport challenges, facilities such as trading and storage space and security and safety threats. Furthermore, the magnitude of these challenges is compounded by gender dynamics. The aim of this study was to consider gender dynamics among spaza shop-owners through a case study of spaza shops in Lindelani, Durban. To uncover relevant information of gender and spaza shop industry, the study used qualitative methodology. The study found that female spaza shop owners face gender discrimination and gender stereotypes compared to male counterparts. The findings of this study are consistent with the literature and feminist perspectives arguing that female spaza shop owners are disadvantaged as compared to their male counterparts. The study found that female spaza shop owners lose considerable time performing household chores. Thus performing dual roles forces females to spend more time at home looking after their business and performing household chores, thus working long hours. Feminist literature argues that existing gender inequality stems from limited opportunities for females to participate in various aspects of the public sphere, such as education, political activity, and employment. Moreover, the study further found that crime stand to be the main concern for majority of spaza shop owners. Financial assistance, education, business knowledge and skills, transport challenges, facilities such as trading and storage space are among other challenges that spaza shop owners face in their day to day business. However, the severity of these challenges varies greatly with the gender of the spaza shop owner.
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    The child support grant and rural womens’ livelihoods a case study of Umsinga.
    (2016) Wiese, Makhosazana Noxolo.; Ballard, Richard James.
    There is a body of literature that locates social protection at the centre of poverty reduction. Other discourses see social welfare as creating dependency. In the literature, that links social protection to poverty reduction, social grants are seen as a means of addressing poverty and vulnerability, as they provide safety nets for the poor. The South African Child Support Grant is a well-known example of this as it contributes significantly to household income in a majority of households, especially those whose substantial source of income is made up of social grants. The grant is targeted at children who live in poor households and was introduced in 1998. This study uses the sustainable livelihoods approach (SLA) as a framework for exploring whether and how the child support grant can facilitate access to a wide range of livelihood options and opportunities in rural extended family homesteads. The thesis explores a wide range of literature on social protection starting from the earlier debates on welfare to current works on social protection as part of development policy globally and in the South African context. It also explores the concept of agency and of households. The study was conducted in Msinga, in the province of KwaZulu-Natal using interviews and a focus group discussion with some of the women who receive the grant. In exploring the main research question, the study found that women spent most of the grant money on consumable goods, but also invest some of it on acquiring productive assets. It also found that the grant has generally had positive outcomes for the livelihoods of the women who participated in the study.
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    Students, food, hunger and food security: a case study of Howard college, university of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.
    (2016) Mbangatha, Abongile.; Mtapuri, Oliver.
    Food (in) security is a global dilemma that requires multifaceted and sustainable solutions. This is because hunger is unique in every context and it requires an approach that will address the unique challenges of specific contexts – such as the students’ one. Food (in) security is often looked at on a macro scale (such as at a country scale), which leads to negligence of food (in) security issues that take place on a micro scale. The purpose of this study was to investigate issues of hunger and food security on a micro scale, particularly, at the University of KwaZulu–Natal, Howard College campus (UKZN-HC). There is very limited research on student hunger and food security among students. The food sovereignty framework is adopted as a theoretical foundation for this study, for its appropriateness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the manner in which university students access food, and the impact of various food security strategies that have been implemented at the university between 2006 -2015. This aim was achieved by employing in-depth interviews as a qualitative data collection method, which was appropriate to unpack the perceptions and insights of students about hunger and food security in their context, through their lived experiences. The findings suggest that a household’s economic status does matter because students from well-off families endure less hunger than students from poor households. Money is important as a game changer in access to food because those with money have a choice in terms of the quality and quantity of food they eat. National Student Financial Aid Scheme- NSFAS (which is a source of funding provided by the government) is an important player in ensuring food security among students, whose role cannot be ignored. Although feeding schemes do have an impact on hunger reduction amongst students, they are often stigmatising and generally not sustainable. The study also found power differentials in the determination of policy with the university authorities having more power in determining food policies at the University. The study also found out that addressing food security among students is very imperative, because food is a very critical element in enhancing the academic performance of students. As such, the university needs to direct its priorities towards ensuring food security among students, as this can help to enhance their performance; and when students perform well, the ranking of the university improves.
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    Indigenous vegetables and access to markets: a study of rural women farmers in Senanga, Zambia.
    (2016) Mukupa, Nancy Lwimba; Ngcoya, Mvuselelo.
    General agriculture, fishing and small business enterprises are the most prominent economic activities in Senanga, a district located on the Western part of Zambia (Central Statistics Office 2010). However, in the recent years, cultivation of indigenous vegetables by rural women has both increased and gradually become a source of livelihood in Senanga. It is from this backdrop that this dissertation employs the food sovereignty framework to examine the cultivation of indigenous vegetables and rural farmers’ access to markets in Senanga. It also draws on the food security literature, Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA) and the agro-ecological approach to analyse indigenous vegetable farming in developing countries. With the aid of data collection instruments such as participant observation, transect walk and in-depth interviews conducted with 11 female farmers, five traders and five agricultural officers, the study investigates the production of indigenous vegetables in Senanga. I also examine women’s access to local, national and international markets and how they maintain business relationships with these markets. The dissertation also evaluates the role of the public and private sector in indigenous vegetable farming. From the views and experiences of the research participants, socio-economic factors such as high unemployment rates, growing demand for indigenous vegetables and access to resources emerge as factors that motivate farmers in Senanga to engage in indigenous vegetable farming. This has helped farmers increase their households’ food security and income. It has also improved their access to social services and other agriculture inputs. On the other hand, gender bias and limited recognition of indigenous vegetables by public and private sector, socio-economic factors such as lack of agricultural skills and financial resources are identified as factors that hamper indigenous vegetable production and farmers’ access to markets in Senanga. Equally, the research findings show that gender stereotypes and sociocultural factors such as discriminatory gender roles, cultural rigidity, customary land laws and dependence syndrome also contribute to low production of indigenous vegetable in Senanga. In addition, the dissertation discusses strategies such as adequate provision of agricultural services and training in agro-ecological approaches to food production by government and NGOs, increased women’s participation in the formulation of agricultural policies if implemented might improve indigenous vegetable farming in Senanga.
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    An exploration of corporate governance and performance of a state-owned enterprise: case of Eskom.
    (2016) Magagula, Hendry Bhazamusi.; Mtapuri, Oliver.
    The objectives of the study were to determine elements of corporate governance that impact on performance at Eskom; to evaluate the corporate governance process at Eskom and to establish governance factors that limit performance at Eskom. The data collection instrument used was the self-administered questionnaire, which was targeted at the board of directors, the shareholder and the executive management of Eskom. In-depth interviews were also conducted targeting the executive management. The research applied both qualitative and quantitative methods. The estimations and data analysis were done using the IBM 22 SPSS statistical software. The main tests that were used in the current study are the frequency tables and the one-way ANOVA test. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire/ instrument was tested using the Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient. The quantitative data collected was organized and summarized using descriptive statistical methods such as averages, tables and percentages. In addition, qualitative data was interpreted and directly linked to the relevant research questions. The results obtained were compared with what theory says and some appropriate recommendations were made. The findings reveal that while the board of directors of Eskom accepts the recommendations made by the executive management, it, however, does not implement them. The Eskom shareholders were found to be lacking commitment in the governance processes and the overall running of the business of Eskom. The study also found out that both insider and outside ownership including direct ownership matter for economic performance. It also found out that greater transparency and disclosure leads to a widened investor base and flexible access to capital. The study recommends the revamping of the whole corporate governance process and the recalibration of the balance of power, improving the structure and size of its board of directors as well as to improving the timely disclosure of company information especially financial reports.
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    Perceptions of early childhood development (ECD) programmes amongst rural women: a case study of the Matshetshe ECD centre in uMzingwane district, Zimbabwe.
    (2016) Ngwenya, Dorcas.; Mottiar, Shauna.
    Early Childhood Development (ECD) programmes have an impact on the lives of the communities and societies which they serve. It has been noted that ECD programmes also have an impact on both the guardian and the child. As a result, governments, schools, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and communities are working together to ensure that these programmes enhance the development of the child. Hence, the amalgamation of ECD services that include education, nutrition, hygiene and parental guidance. Women are generally closest to the child and often play the largest care-giving role. Thus, comprehensive ECD programmes need to consider the needs of women caregivers in their planning and implementation. This study seeks to understand rural women’s perceptions of ECD programmes that have been introduced in the Zimbabwean formal school system, that is, ECD A and ECD B. In so doing, gender issues and the socio-economic impact of ECD programmes on women is investigated. The study adopts a qualitative research approach. The data was collected through in-depth interviews, participant observation and a Focus Group Discussion (FGD). The Matshetshe Primary School ECD centre, which is situated in a rural area in one of the marginalised provinces of Zimbabwe, that is, Matabeleland South Province was the case study. Findings of the study reveal that ECD programmes have an impact on the socio-economic lives of women and this shapes women’s perceptions of ECD. In addition, the findings revealed that stakeholder collaboration and the social and cultural context of the community shapes the success of ECD programmes. Therefore, the study recommends that needs assessment has to be done so that programme planners get to understand the socio-economic needs of the caregivers. Also, there is a need to conduct more awareness meetings with the communities about the ECD curriculum and the broader meaning of ECD.
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    Contraceptive use among young people: a case study of university students in Durban, South Africa.
    (2016) Lombo, Mandy.; Maharaj, Pranitha.
    There have been many studies conducted on the issue of contraceptive use among the youth. This is because the issue of contraceptive use among the youth is considered an important one, in the midst of high rates of unwanted/ unplanned pregnancies in the developing world. Unplanned pregnancies can have a negative impact on the studies of an individual. The rate of unplanned/ unwanted pregnancies is highest among young people. This category of individuals is most likely to be at a tertiary institute, this is why this study opted to try and understand the perceptions of the youth in the university context. This study also aimed at understanding how the interpersonal and social networks of these students impacted their contraceptive attitudes and use. This study draws on the theory of unsafe sexual behaviour to understand these interpersonal and social networks and if they have any impact on the decision of the participant in this study A qualitative approach was taken, in the form of 20 in-depth interviews with students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. The study found that interpersonal networks of an individual did influence their contraceptive decision-making. Many of the participants that were using a contraceptive admitted that if their friends had negative opinions about contraceptives then they too would most likely have a negative perception of contraceptives as well. This was because friends were identified as the main source of information on sexual matters in the absence of parental advice. The interpersonal and social relationships also had an influence on the type of contraceptive to be used. Therefore it must be taken into consideration that individuals do not exist in isolation to their interpersonal networks. It became clear that the issue of contraceptive use by students is multi-dimensional and thus the approach should also be multi-dimensional. Campaigns aimed at changing the sexual behaviour of youth should focus on encouraging society as a whole rather than isolating youth.
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    Coastal identities: exploring the construction of identities on the Durban beachfront.
    (2016) Mathenjwa, Mxolisi Nhlakanipho.; Ngcoya, Mvuselelo.
    This research project is part of a larger coastal governance project, titled Knowledge for Coastal Change, led by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). The main objective of that project is to “develop an innovative and radical model for (scientific) knowledge production at local (or municipal) levels in order to inform evidence-based decision making and management of South Africa’s coastal resources, build competence and contribute to the theoretical debate around the development of a democratic knowledge-society” (CGCG Report, 2013). My research is nested within and contributes to this larger body of work. The Durban coastline is one of the most attractive spaces in the city. Because of its cultural and socio-economic value to the city and province, this area is called the Golden Mile. But there are numerous questions about its governance and the role of identities in its governance: does it accommodate all the relevant users, stakeholders and those who rely on it intensively? The study is based on qualitative research methods and uses concepts such as “spatial fetishism” (Soja 1989), “space and place” (Keith and Pile 1993, Dixon and Durrheim 2004), “ritual of habitation” (Holmes 1999), “identity-construction spaces” (Kaya 2005) and “interactive governance theory” (Kooinman et, al 2008) to interrogate how identity formation informs people’s attachment to the Durban Beachfront (and vice versa)
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    Exploring ecological citizenship through the ‘lens’ of energy conservation practices: a case study of the university of KwaZulu-Natal residence students.
    (2016) Mathathu, Takunda Joseph.; Sutherland, Catherine Grace
    Energy is a critical aspect of contemporary society, almost everything that is used by people in households, workplaces and at schools requires energy to keep functioning. However, inefficient energy usage has negative impacts on the environment. The current energy and environmental crisis have been attributed to the over consumption of energy. As a result, there is a widely growing recognition that energy conservation practices can play a critical role in addressing the prevailing energy crisis. Conservation practices are influenced and supported by pro-environmental attitudes and behaviour. It is on this note that this study sought to explore the energy conservation knowledge, attitudes and behavior of students residing in the on-campus residences at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN). The study employed the mixed methods approach where the questionnaires were used to quantify students’ practices and the in-depth interviews explored their attitudes towards energy consumption. Students were randomly selected to complete the energy-questionnaires but purposive sampling was used to select key knowledgeable participants who had resided in the University residences for more than four years. The study was framed around Ecological Citizenship theory which examines the role that ordinary citizens can play in the mitigation of environmental issues. The literature and case studies reviewed, showed that ‘green campus’ initiatives within universities are playing an important but often overlooked role in reducing the carbon footprint. Nevertheless, data gathered from the study portrayed a negative and discourteous attitude towards energy usage by UKZN students. The study also revealed that students were willing to conserve energy if their efforts were rewarded with incentives, particularly a reduction in their residential fees. University fees play a crucial role in shaping students’ attitudes and behaviour such that most students felt that they were entitled to use electricity anyhow because they would had paid for it. Therefore, the study saw the need for the university to introduce environmental education so that students look beyond the monetary benefits associated with saving energy. The study noted that it is important for the university to provide energy-feedbacks to the students so that they become aware of the difference they can make when they conserve energy within the university.
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    Investigating marriage aspirations and attitudes towards premarital childbearing: a case study of unmarried female Zulu-speaking students at two Durban universities.
    (2016) Shangase, Thembalethu Miquel.; Maharaj, Pranitha.
    In South Africa, marriage rates among the Zulu speaking population have remained consistently lower than marriage rates among other ethnic groups. Moreover, the African Zulu speaking population group also experiences significantly higher rates of premarital childbearing. While the pattern of marriage decline coupled with an increased prevalence of premarital childbearing is also observed in developed countries, the variances between the minority and majority racial groups and the different age cohorts are not as glaring as within the South African context. International literature explaining the low and falling marriage rates suggest that women's increased access to education and employment has reduced the benefit of marriage for women, resulting in women choosing singleness or more loosely formed partnerships, such as cohabitation. This study explores the effect of education on South African Zulu speaking women’s attitudes towards marriage by investigating marriage aspirations and attitudes towards premarital childbearing of Zulu speaking female university students. The objectives of the study were to investigate how unmarried Zulu speaking females at university viewed marriage and its role in contemporary, post apartheid Zulu society, to ascertain if marriage was valued as a personal goal by unmarried Zulu speaking female university students and, lastly, to explore the perceptions of unmarried female Zulu speaking university students towards premarital childbearing ones. A case study approach was used, wherein 30 unmarried female Zulu speaking students from two universities in KwaZulu Natal, University of KwaZulu Natal and Durban University of Technology, were interviewed. The findings indicate an emergence of self reliant, confident and resilient women aware of and eager to take up the economic opportunities available to them; who, while acknowledging marriage as essential to establishing a stable family, believed it was not something they should rush into. They prioritised education, establishing their career, establishing their families at home, acquiring some financial resources, establishing themselves financially and developing themselves as individuals over early marriage. They also desired future partners with similar levels of aspiration, open mindedness and achievements. Interestingly, their desire for independence is not only driven by the opportunities available to them but is also somewhat prompted by a fear of abandonment and the consequences of this. In addition, for the women in the study, premarital childbearing, particularly among females of school going age and those at university, was not encouraged in the Zulu society but was largely a consequence of unplanned pregnancy. As such, it did not have a distinct influence on women’s marriageability; this was a choice highly dependent on the males. These findings lead to the conclusion that woman’s increased educational attainment results in the delay of marriage. Non marriage may, however, occur as a consequence of protracted partner searching and singleness as age relevant partners may no longer be available when the women are ready to marry. In a context where singleness and cohabitation were not preferred, protracted singleness increased the risk of premarital childbearing.
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    Are endogenous organisation development approaches relevant in enhancing the performance of automotive firms in south Africa? an examination of the experience of selected Durban-based firms.
    (2017) Mkhize, Asimbonge Hlengiwe.; Mtapuri, Oliver.
    Automotive manufacturing is one of the most important manufacturing sectors in South Africa and globally. This study sought to identify the different endogenous Organisational Development approaches that Durban-based automotive manufacturing firms developed to address exogenous and endogenous challenges. The study was conducted using the Qualitative Research approach, the study was exploratory and used an interpretivist paradigm to analyse the subjective data. In-depth interviews were conducted following the identification of 12 respondents using purposive sampling. These were individuals from automotive manufacturing organisation representatives, organisational development practitioners, organisational development agencies, academia and government agency representatives. The findings indicate that Durban-based organisational development firms have developed endogenous OD approaches to address internal challenges and to enhance their competitiveness. There has been a positive shift with the close relationship between government, academia and business enabling the development of instrumental policies. The use of OD approaches has had a positive outcome in organisational performance enhancement therefore making OD important in the future and as a policy feature. The landscape of the South African labour market requires organisations to adopt African Management principles. South African automotive manufacturing firms have survived external global pressures through the triple-helix model. This study recommends that to ensure continuous success, this partnership needs to be encouraged and maintained. The promotion of organisations to develop endogenous Organisational Development approaches has seen companies developing local solutions to current local challenges. The study concludes that these OD approaches have allowed the development of new cultures in organisations that encourage and engender innovation, learning and employee motivation. These are the features that organisations require to face any exogenous forces from an ever-changing global environment.
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    Interrogating the challenges of the Local Economic Development (LED) as aninstrument of poverty alleviation, in the case of eThekwini municipality, KwaZulu-Natal,South Africa.
    (2022) Khumalo, Musawenkosi Welington.; Khambule, Isaac
    Historically, rural-urban migration has remained a common factor in developing countries. This predicament is motivated by a mass movement of people from their places of origin searching for better opportunities. Therefore, this leads to massive urbanization and overcrowding in the city. In South Africa, the city of Durban is classified as a Metropolitan area and attracts the majority of people from different regions across the country. Studies show that rural-urban migration patterns often impact the service delivery of the receiving urban regions. Against the above background, this study aimed to investigate the impact of rural-urban migration on local government service delivery through the case study of eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality. The researcher adopted the exploratory research approach and conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with six municipal officials from three eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality departments. The three departments interviewed are: electricity, human settlements and health. The results revealed that the in-migration in the city of Durban has some impact, particularly on service delivery. This causes a strain in the city municipality because of limited resources and high demands of basic services. Contrary to popular beliefs, some of the rural migration in eThekwini is caused by the failure to distribute resources in an inclusive manner that promotes rural areas within the eThekwini region. Although the study respondents revealed that the city municipality is doing its best to respond to high demands of services, the responses fail to meet the rate of rural-urban migration from a budgetary point. It is recommended that more resources be allocated to metropolitan municipalities to respond effectively to the needs of residents and migrants. Furthermore, the government should prioritize developing previously disadvantaged areas to avoid urbanization in cities.
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    An investigation into the impact of rural-urban migration on local government service delivery: a case study of eThekwini municipality.
    (2022) Khumalo, Musawenkosi Welington.; Khambule, Isaac Bheki.
    Historically, rural-urban migration has remained a common factor in developing countries. This predicament is motivated by a mass movement of people from their places of origin searching for better opportunities. Therefore, this leads to massive urbanization and overcrowding in the city. In South Africa, the city of Durban is classified as a Metropolitan area and attracts the majority of people from different regions across the country. Studies show that rural-urban migration patterns often impact the service delivery of the receiving urban regions. Against the above background, this study aimed to investigate the impact of rural-urban migration on local government service delivery through the case study of eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality. The researcher adopted the exploratory research approach and conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with six municipal officials from three eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality departments. The three departments interviewed are: electricity, human settlements and health. The results revealed that the in-migration in the city of Durban has some impact, particularly on service delivery. This causes a strain in the city municipality because of limited resources and high demands of basic services. Contrary to popular beliefs, some of the rural migration in eThekwini is caused by the failure to distribute resources in an inclusive manner that promotes rural areas within the eThekwini region. Although the study respondents revealed that the city municipality is doing its best to respond to high demands of services, the responses fail to meet the rate of rural-urban migration from a budgetary point. It is recommended that more resources be allocated to metropolitan municipalities to respond effectively to the needs of residents and migrants. Furthermore, the government should prioritize developing previously disadvantaged areas to avoid urbanization in cities.
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    Exploring perceptions of social support among individuals with cancer in eThekwini, South Africa.
    (2022) Gwiza, Noliwe Vimbai.; Mottiar, Shauna.
    The study aimed to explore the perceptions of social support among individuals with cancer in eThekwini, South Africa. However, studies that qualitatively explore this area of study in South Africa are limited. Cancer remains a global public health problem, and it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, with most cancer deaths now reportedly occurring in low-and middle- income countries. This study draws on social support theory which suggests that social support is paramount when one is going through a stressful event as it acts as a stress-buffer. In-depth interviews were conducted with twelve cancer patients and two social workers at the Cancer Association of South Africa (CANSA) Mkhuhla Care Home in Durban, to gain an understanding about perceptions of social support among individuals with cancer. The study findings revealed that social support is a vital resource for individuals with cancer, and it promotes health well being. Participants expressed that cancer diagnosis was a life changing experience which did not only affected them psychologically but they also felt it was a burden on their relationships. Psychological factors such as anxiety, and depression were reported by most participants. Social support was found to come from a patient’s social network, mostly family, friends, neighbours, church, health professionals, and social media. The study highlighted that social support systems such as emotional support, informational, and tangible support play a crucial role in reducing the burden of cancer diagnosis among patients. The findings revealed that emotional, informational and tangible support were crucial in protecting patients from traumatic experiences caused by cancer diagnosis. The findings also revealed that lack of social support increases stress, and anxiety which negatively impact an individual diagnosed with cancer. The study found that cancer stigma still exists in society as some patients experienced them, and there is a lack of cancer awareness to educate people about the disease.
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    Corporate social responsibility in the case of Rio Tinto and rural community of KwaNdaya and Port Dunford.
    (2020) Gumede, Nomnotho Cebisile.; Ngcoya, Mvuselelo.
    In 2004 Richards Bay Minerals, a subdivision of Rio Tinto, the multibillion global mining company that specialises in titanium, iron ore, and zircon signed an agreement to expand mining in northern KwaZulu-Natal on the Zulti South Mineral Lease Area situated in the rural communities of KwaNdaya and Port Dunford. Residents of these two impoverished communities expected a new dawn through the company’s Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programmes. This study was conducted to explore CSR as a potential tool for socio-economic development in the KwaNdaya and Port Dunford. It used Primitive Accumulation, Accumulation by Dispossession and Parity of Participation theories as frameworks to understand why Corporate Social Responsibility continues to fail in achieving social justice. Qualitative methods were used to extract information from sustainable development reports and compare the findings based on knowledge, attitudes and opinions of the 18 participants who reside in the two host communities. The findings reveal that community members in KwaNdaya and Port Dunford are aware of what is happening around them, but lack knowledge on how to fight the hierarchal system which has made decisions on their behalf while they remain in chronic poverty. Development by Dispossession continues to loot South African communities by wearing a mask of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) to access mineral wealth in rural peripheries. There are endless promises about community development, and the findings show that these benefit Traditional Authority representatives. As a result, unfulfilled CSR promises remains the major cause of conflict and community unrest in mining host communities around South Africa.
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    Interrogating the challenges of the Local Economic Development (LED) as an instrument of poverty alleviation, in the case of eThekwini Municipality, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    (2021) Majola, Siyabonga.; Mtapuri, Oliver.
    The study focused in interrogating the challenges of the Local Economic Development as an instrument for poverty alleviation in eThekwini municipality. LED serves as an engine for economic development and contributes to economic growth in the local economy. The eThekwini municipality is the economic centre of its residents and the people as far as in Zimbabwe and Mozambique. However, the municipality is challenged to put in place effective LED programmes that could alleviate poverty. This is worsened by the failure of the local economy to attract investment and create employment opportunities. The study followed a qualitative research methodology wherein keywords were used to identify and select Integral Development Plans (IDPs) from the eThekwini municipality also, articles that already exist in the public domain were used as to give meaning to the study. Additionally, the study utilized the interpretive research approach to interpret data collected from the secondary sources. The study finds the eThekwini municipality to have well-structured LED programmes however, ineffective to address poverty issues. The failure of the LED programmes to address socioeconomic challenges in eThekwini municipality was discovered to be due to poor leadership, corruption, the lack of community integration to LED initiatives and political affiliations. Indepth understanding and support of the municipal leadership in championing municipality’s LED trajectory has been discovered to be important for the LED programs to achieve positive outcomes. Key recommendations of the study include the involvement of communities and other key stakeholders to the LED projects, rooting out of corruption in the municipality, training, capacity and development, and appointing credible personnel to govern the eThekwini municipality. Through such engagements, much needed financial investment could be attracted resulting to the eThekwini municipality becoming a financial zone in which the residents could benefit from. Additionally, the multiple effects could be the creation of employment opportunities which could be essential in the alleviation of poverty in the municipality. Furthermore, it could also, promote skills development and socio-economic driven developmental programs that intends to combat poverty. The LED initiatives in the eThekwini municipality could be effective through the involvement of key stakeholders to participate in the LED programs. One of the key recommendations of the study is appointing credible personnel to govern the eThekwini municipality. This could promote accountability, proper planning of LED projects and good governance. Additionally, would benefit the community. The oversight structures such as the Corporative Governance and Traditional Affairs could also, play a vital role by holding the municipality executives accountable and ensures that the community benefit from the LED initiatives. The study also, recommends that it rest upon the community to hold the municipality accountable.