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Voices of Eswatini general certificate of education geography teachers on teaching climate change.

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Date

2022

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Abstract

This dissertation presents a mixed methods research study (quantitative and qualitative) but mainly qualitative, of sixteen geography teachers who participated when this study sought their voices on the teaching of climate change in Eswatini. The study adopted a pragmatic paradigm and employed the educational design research (EDR) as its research design. The study was conducted with the main purpose of exploring teachers’ voices on the teaching of climate change in the Eswatini General Certificate of Secondary Education curriculum. To generate data, the reflective activity/questionnaire, artefacts inquiry, semi-structured interviews and a focus-group discussion were utilised for data generation. Purposive and convenience sampling methods were used in selecting four schools in each of the four districts of Eswatini and from each of the four schools, four teachers were requested to participate in this study. For data analysis, the study employed guided analysis to analyse generated data; and the thematic approach was used. Eight broad themes were used each with categories that were presented, analysed, and discussed in detail. Concerns of dependability, confirmability, credibility, and transferability were allayed in this study in order to ensure trustworthiness. Further to this, ethical issues were also considered in obtaining ethical clearance, gate-keeper’s permission, consent letters, and anonymity. The study was guided by three research questions namely: 1) What are geography teachers’ voices on the teaching of climate change in Eswatini? (descriptive) 2). How do the teachers’ voices influence the teaching of climate change in Eswatini? (operational) 3). Why are teachers’ voices the way they are on the teaching of climate change in Eswatini? (philosophical). The study’s objectives were: 1) to explore geography teachers’ voices on the teaching of climate change in Eswatini; 2) to understand how geography teachers’ voices influence the teaching of climate in Eswatini; and 3) to explore why the geography teachers’ voices are the way they are on the teaching of climate change in Eswatini. Subsequently, the research objectives and questions guided the study to review the relevant literature on teachers’ voices which were divided into: professional, societal, and personal voices. In an attempt to understand the voices that drive teachers’ voices the study utilised the currere model. The moments of the currere model were discussed in relation to selected curriculum themes and categories. The main findings indicated that teachers were predominantly summoned by either professional or societal voices when enacting climate change. It was affirmed that most teachers were torn in two by the tension that exists between these two giant voices (professional and societal voices) that dominate the curriculum enactment spaces. The literature and the findings in this study suggested that a neutral voice is needed to address the tension of the two major voices. The unbiased voice, it was discovered is the personal voice which results from the reflections which allow teachers to be able to combine the strength of the professional and societal. This would ensure the development of a unique personal voice to meet the needs of teachers. Thus, the model of teachers’ voices was born in this study as a theory that can be useful in teacher’s identities being considered in curriculum enactment spaces. In conclusion, it is in the best interests of this study that further research be carried out in all subjects and at all school levels in order to enrich the literature and bring consciousness in curriculum spaces. Teachers require a personal voice to drive the curriculum instead of being summoned by other voices that cause tension in the teaching and learning spaces. IQOQA Lolu cwaningo luzinze endleleni exubile (eyikhwantithethivu kanye nekwwalithethivu) kepha igxile kakhulu kwikhwalithethivu, lothisha bezifundo zomumo wamazwe abayishumi nesithupha, ababambe iqhaza ngenhloso yokuthola amazwi abo ngokufundiswa kokuguquguquka kwesimo seZulu eSwatini. Ucwaningo lusebenzise ipharadaymu yepragmatic kanye nohlaka lwe-educational design research (EDR). Ucwaningo luqalwe ngenhloso yokuhlonza amazwi oothisha ngokufundisa kwabo ngokuguquguquka kwesimo seZulu eSwatini ohlelweni lwemfundo lwesitifiketi sezemfundo esemazingeni aphezulu. Ukuqoqa ulwazi kusetshenziswe uhlelo lwemibuzo, izingxoxo ezisakuhleleka, kanye nezingxoxo zamaqoqo. Kusetshenziswe izindlela zesampula ezihlelekile nezenhloso ezikoleni ezikhethiwe ezine ezifundeni ezine zaseSwatini, othisha abane bacelwe ukuthi babambe iqhaza kulolu cwaningo. Ukucubungula imininingo yocwaningo kusetshenziswe ukucubungula okuhleliwe ukuhlaziya imininingo yocwaningo; kwasetshenziswa nezindikimba. Izindikimba ezilishumi nambili zicutshunguliwe, zethulwa kwase kuba nengxoxo ngazo. Ukukhathazeka ngokweyama, ukuqinisekiswa, ukwethembeka kanye nokudluliselwa kuye kwasuswa ngenhloso yokuqinisekisa ukwethembeka kwalolu cwaningo. Kanti ngokunjalo izimo zenqubo elungileyo zibhekiwe kwatholakala nencwadi yokwenkambiso elungileyo egunyaza ukwenza ucwaningo, imvume yomengameli wendawo okwenzelwa kuyo ucwaningo, imvume yababambiqhaza, kanye nokungakhombi muntu. Ucwaningo lulawulwe imibuzo yocwaningo emithathu okuyile: 1) Athini amazwi othisha begeography ngokufundiswa kokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu Eswatini? 2) Amazwi othisha aba nomthelela kanjani ekufundisweni kokuguquguka kwesimo sezulu Eswatini? 3) Kungani othisha becabanga ngale ndlela ngokufundiswa kokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu Eswatini? Izinjongo zocwaningo kwaba yilezi: 1) Ukuhlonza amazwi othisha ngokufundiswa kokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu Eswatini. 2) Ukuqonda amazwi othisha abafundisa ngokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu Eswatini 3) Ukuthola ukuthi kungani amazwi othisha abafundisa ngokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu engale ndlela ayiyo Eswatini. Emuva kwaloko, izinjongo zocwaningo nemibuzo kuhole ucwaningo ngenhloso yokubuyekeza imibhalo yangaphambilini ngamaphimbo othisha ahlukaniswe: ngokomsebenzi, ngokomphakathi, nangokwamazwi abo qobo. Emizamweni yokuqonda amazwi okuyiwo alawula othisha, ucwaningo lusebenzise imodeli icurrere. Izigaba zemodeli icurrere zixoxiwe ziyamaniswa nezindikimba zohlelo lwemfundo nezigaba. Imiphumela enqala yocwaningo iveze ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi othisha balawulwa wumsebenzi wabo noma amazwi omphakathi uma befundisa ngokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu. Kuqinisekisiwe ukuthi othisha bazithola behlukana phakathi ngenxa yala mazwi anamandla amabili kuhlelo lwezemfundo. Imibhalo kanye nemiphumela yocwaningo iveza ukuthi izwi elingachemile liyadingeka ukuze kwehle le mpi ekhona phakathi kwalamazwi amabili. Lelo zwi elingachemile yizwi lomuntu ozohlanganisa izwi lakhe qobo eliyophuma kothisha abayohlanganisa amandla ezwi omsebenzi wabo kanye nezwi lomphakathi Lokhu kuyothuthukisa izwi elehlukile ukuze kufezeke izidingo zothisha. Ngakho-ke, imodeli yezwi lothisha yakhekile njengenjulalwazi engasetshenziswa ukwehluka kothisha kuhlelo lwemfundo. Isiphetho siveza ukuthi kuzobasiza othisha ukuthi kube nocwaningo oluqhubekayo kuzo zonke izifundo nakuwo wonke amazinga ezikole ukuthuthukisa imibhalo nokuvuselela unembeza ohlelweni lwemfundo. Othisha badinga ukuba nezwi labo qobo ukushayela uhlelo lwemfundo kunokuthi balawulwe amanye amazwi angadala umsindo ekufundiseni nakwezemfundo.

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Doctoral Degree. University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.

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