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Illicit financial flows: the reason Africa is debtor to the rest of the world.

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Multinational companies engaging in commercial transactions or activities are responsible for 60% to 65% of illicit financial flows that leave Africa. Although on average Africa experienced a 5% annual economic growth for the last decade, the problem is, Africa experiences huge challenges to use domestic resources for investments. GFI estimated that trade mis-invoicing makes up the largest portion of illicit financial flows. The problem is that the global legal system aimed at tackling illicit financial flows is based on the idea that the issue should be addressed by the domestic courts. This idea is not practical since illicit financial flows consist of the acquisition and the cross-border transfer of funds. The objective of this study is to explore the magnitude and manner in which trade mis-invoicing contributes to illicit financial flows and provide a solution to such problem. The study objectives will be achieved by researching the most recent data from domestic and international sources. The findings of this study indicates that the Malabo Protocol, which is a regional instrument offers the most practical solution for the illicit financial flows from Africa.


Masters Degree. University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.