# Linear codes obtained from 2-modular representations of some finite simple groups.

2012

## Abstract

Let F be a finite field of q elements and G be a primitive group on a finite set . Then there is a G-action on , namely a map G 􀀀! , (g; !) 7! !g = g!; satisfying !gg0 = (gg0)! = g(g0!) for all g; g0 2 G and all ! 2 , and that !1 = 1! = ! for all ! 2 : Let F = ff j f : 􀀀! Fg, be the vector space over F with basis . Extending the G-action on linearly, F becomes an FG-module called an FG- permutation module. We are interested in finding all G-invariant FG-submodules, i.e., codes in F . The elements f 2 F are written in the form f = P !2 a! ! where ! is a characteristic function. The natural action of an element g 2 G is given by g 􀀀P !2 a! ! = P !2 a! g(!): This action of G preserves the natural bilinear form defined by * X a! !; X b! ! + = X a!b!: In this thesis a program is proposed on how to determine codes with given primitive permutation group. The approach is modular representation theoretic and based on a study of maximal submodules of permutation modules F defined by the action of a finite group G on G-sets = G=Gx. This approach provides the advantage of an explicit basis for the code. There appear slightly different concepts of (linear) codes in the literature. Following Knapp and Schmid [83] a code over some finite field F will be a triple (V; ; F), where V = F is a free FG-module of finite rank with basis and a submodule C. By convention we call C a code having ambient space V and ambient basis . F is the alphabet of the code C, the degree n of V its length, and C is an [n; k]-code if C is a free module of dimension k. In this thesis we have surveyed some known methods of constructing codes from primitive permutation representations of finite groups. Generally, our program is more inclusive than these methods as the codes obtained using our approach include the codes obtained using these other methods. The designs obtained by other authors (see for example [40]) are found using our method, and these are in general defined by the support of the codewords of given weight in the codes. Moreover, this method allows for a geometric interpretation of many classes of codewords, and helps establish links with other combinatorial structures, such as designs and graphs. To illustrate the program we determine all 2-modular codes that admit the two known non-isomorphic simple linear groups of order 20160, namely L3(4) and L4(2) = A8. In the process we enumerate and classify all codes preserved by such groups, and provide the lattice of submodules for the corresponding permutation modules. It turns out that there are no self-orthogonal or self-dual codes invariant under these groups, and also that the automorphism groups of their respective codes are in most cases not the prescribed groups. We make use of the Assmus Matson Theorem and the Mac Williams identities in the study of the dual codes. We observe that in all cases the sets of several classes of non-trivial codewords are stabilized by maximal subgroups of the automorphism groups of the codes. The study of the codes invariant under the simple linear group L4(2) leads as a by-product to a unique flag-transitive, point primitive symmetric 2-(64; 28; 12) design preserved by the affi ne group of type 26:S6(2). This has consequently prompted the study of binary codes from the row span of the adjacency matrices of a class of 46 non-isomorphic symmetric 2-(64; 28; 12) designs invariant under the Frobenius group of order 21. Codes obtained from the orbit matrices of these designs have also been studied. The thesis concludes with a discussion of codes that are left invariant by the simple symplectic group S6(2) in all its 2-modular primitive permutation representations.

## Description

Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville, 2012.

## Keywords

Finite simple groups., Linear algebraic groups., Permutation groups., Theses--Mathematics.