Repository logo

Creating learning spaces for the 21st century learning in rural secondary schools: a leadership perspective.

Thumbnail Image



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title



This study focuses on the practices of school leadership in two rural secondary schools as they create learning spaces that support the 21st century learning. The study adopted a qualitative multiple-sites case study design that was underpinned by interpretivist paradigm. Data was generated from 13 participants who were purposively selected, through the use of semi-structured interviews and documents reviews. Transformational Leadership Theory by Bass and Riggio and Instructional Leadership Model by Hallinger and Murphy were adopted as a theoretical framework for this study. The data that was generated through the two techniques (interviews and documents reviews) was analysed through the complementary use of content analysis and inductive analyses. The findings showed that school leadership embracing collaborative school climate that enabled the intrinsically motivated and technology savvy teachers to reconfigure the traditional classroom conceptualisation into learning spaces for the 21st century learning. Such teachers infused the technological theories in teaching and learning and adopted a learner-centric pedagogy that prioritises the 21st century skills. The study contributes in different ways, including the destabilisation of the notion that transformational leadership is only exercised by people in formal position of leadership. The power of bottom-up influence came to the fore in this thesis.