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Investigation of feature extraction algorithms and techniques for hyperspectral images.

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Hyperspectral images (HSIs) are remote-sensed images that are characterized by very high spatial and spectral dimensions and nd applications, for example, in land cover classi cation, urban planning and management, security and food processing. Unlike conventional three bands RGB images, their high dimensional data space creates a challenge for traditional image processing techniques which are usually based on the assumption that there exists su cient training samples in order to increase the likelihood of high classi cation accuracy. However, the high cost and di culty of obtaining ground truth of hyperspectral data sets makes this assumption unrealistic and necessitates the introduction of alternative methods for their processing. Several techniques have been developed in the exploration of the rich spectral and spatial information in HSIs. Speci cally, feature extraction (FE) techniques are introduced in the processing of HSIs as a necessary step before classi cation. They are aimed at transforming the high dimensional data of the HSI into one of a lower dimension while retaining as much spatial and/or spectral information as possible. In this research, we develop semi-supervised FE techniques which combine features of supervised and unsupervised techniques into a single framework for the processing of HSIs. Firstly, we developed a feature extraction algorithm known as Semi-Supervised Linear Embedding (SSLE) for the extraction of features in HSI. The algorithm combines supervised Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and unsupervised Local Linear Embedding (LLE) to enhance class discrimination while also preserving the properties of classes of interest. The technique was developed based on the fact that LDA extracts features from HSIs by discriminating between classes of interest and it can only extract C 􀀀 1 features provided there are C classes in the image by extracting features that are equivalent to the number of classes in the HSI. Experiments show that the SSLE algorithm overcomes the limitation of LDA and extracts features that are equivalent to ii iii the number of classes in HSIs. Secondly, a graphical manifold dimension reduction (DR) algorithm known as Graph Clustered Discriminant Analysis (GCDA) is developed. The algorithm is developed to dynamically select labeled samples from the pool of available unlabeled samples in order to complement the few available label samples in HSIs. The selection is achieved by entwining K-means clustering with a semi-supervised manifold discriminant analysis. Using two HSI data sets, experimental results show that GCDA extracts features that are equivalent to the number of classes with high classi cation accuracy when compared with other state-of-the-art techniques. Furthermore, we develop a window-based partitioning approach to preserve the spatial properties of HSIs when their features are being extracted. In this approach, the HSI is partitioned along its spatial dimension into n windows and the covariance matrices of each window are computed. The covariance matrices of the windows are then merged into a single matrix through using the Kalman ltering approach so that the resulting covariance matrix may be used for dimension reduction. Experiments show that the windowing approach achieves high classi cation accuracy and preserves the spatial properties of HSIs. For the proposed feature extraction techniques, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Neural Networks (NN) classi cation techniques are employed and their performances are compared for these two classi ers. The performances of all proposed FE techniques have also been shown to outperform other state-of-the-art approaches.


Doctor of Philosophy (Computer Engineering). University of KwaZulu-Natal. Durban, 2017.