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Residue number system coded differential space-time-frequency coding.

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The rapidly growing need for fast and reliable transmission over a wireless channel motivates the development of communication systems that can support high data rates at low complexity. Achieving reliable communication over a wireless channel is a challenging task largely due to the possibility of multipaths which may lead to intersymbol interference (ISI). Diversity techniques such as time, frequency and space are commonly used to combat multipath fading. Classical diversity techniques use repetition codes such that the information is replicated and transmitted over several channels that are sufficiently spaced. In fading channels, the performance across some diversity branches may be excessively attenuated, making throughput unacceptably small. In principle, more powerful coding techniques can be used to maximize the diversity order. This leads to bandwidth expansion or increased transmission power to accommodate the redundant bits. Hence there is need for coding and modulation schemes that provide low error rate performance in a bandwidth efficient manner. If diversity schemes are combined, more independent dimensions become available for information transfer. The first part of the thesis addresses achieving temporal diversity through employing error correcting coding schemes combined with interleaving. Noncoherent differential modulation does not require explicit knowledge or estimate of the channel, instead the information is encoded in the transitions. This lends itself to the possibility of turbo-like serial concatenation of a standard outer channel encoder with an inner modulation code amenable to noncoherent detection through an interleaver. An iterative approach to joint decoding and demodulation can be realized by exchanging soft information between the decoder and the demodulator. This has been shown to be effective and hold hope for approaching capacity over fast fading channels. However most of these schemes employ low rate convolutional codes as their channel encoders. In this thesis we propose the use of redundant residue number system codes. It is shown that these codes can achieve comparable performance at minimal complexity and high data rates. The second part deals with the possibility of combining several diversity dimensions into a reliable bandwidth efficient communication scheme. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has been used to combat multipaths. Combining OFDM with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems to form MIMO-OFDM not only reduces the complexity by eliminating the need for equalization but also provides large channel capacity and a high diversity potential. Space-time coded OFDM was proposed and shown to be an effective transmission technique for MIMO systems. Spacefrequency coding and space-time-frequency coding were developed out of the need to exploit the frequency diversity due to multipaths. Most of the proposed schemes in the literature maximize frequency diversity predominantly from the frequency-selective nature of the fading channel. In this thesis we propose the use of residue number system as the frequency encoder. It is shown that the proposed space-time-frequency coding scheme can maximize the diversity gains over space, time and frequency domains. The gain of MIMO-OFDM comes at the expense of increased receiver complexity. Furthermore, most of the proposed space-time-frequency coding schemes assume frequency selective block fading channels which is not an ideal assumption for broadband wireless communications. Relatively high mobility in broadband wireless communications systems may result in high Doppler frequency, hence time-selective (rapid) fading. Rapidly changing channel characteristics impedes the channel estimation process and may result in incorrect estimates of the channel coefficients. The last part of the thesis deals with the performance of differential space-time-frequency coding in fast fading channels.


Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2007.


Wireless communication systems., Coding theory., Theses--Electronic engineering.