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Assessing the extent of child trafficking and national reponse to Southern Gondar, Ethiopia.

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Human beings were bought and sold like materials for merchants as an exchange by warriors and kings in the early nineteenth century. Unfortunately, this horrible trade has continued in a more terrible manner called human trafficking or modern-day slavery. The issue of human trafficking is a huge concern for most nations. In Ethiopia, trafficking in person has been a common practice - affecting individuals and communities irrespective of age, gender and ethnicity. Child trafficking in Ethiopia is one of their main social problems. This research aims to explore the extent of child trafficking in Este Worda and Debre Tabor Worda, and to investigate the possible community associated factors which cause child trafficking. The national response to fight and control the problem in Ethiopia was also further investigated in this study. The General Strain Theory and Karl Marx Conflict Theory that had been chosen to further explain of the research questions and objectives. This study applies quantitative research method, descriptive and explorative designs is used to address the research questions and documentary data review reports from governmental and non-governmental experiences of strategies, policies and findings from existing documents. A total of 636 household participants were selected by systematic random sampling technique in order to fulfil the quantitative survey. Analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0 statistical software packages. The data was analysed by logistic regression, bivariate analysis of factors association, multivariate analysis and Cross tabulation of factors associated with child trafficking were thus investigated. The study interpreted the quantitative findings to provide a comprehensive understanding of the extent and prevalence, associated factors, and response to child trafficking in Ethiopia. ix According to the research result in the study area, 128 children had been trafficked in to different places. The extent of child trafficking is about (20 percent) in East Este Woreda in 2016. The result of this study is on based on bivariate and multivariate significant outcomes using SPSS to determine the four independent variables (socio-demographic factors, socio-economic factors, information and communication factors and socio-cultural factors) are possible community associated factors which contributed to child trafficking in the society. The Socio-demographic factors (education, age, marital status and geographical exposure) were found be the factors for a child to be trafficked. Socio-economic factors (poverty, parent disintegration, children expectation and parents’ expectation, luck of structured facilities, influence of returns, demand and hotel owners and broker’s effect) were found to be influential factors for child trafficking as well. There were socio- cultural factors (culture e.g. early marriage, parent poor child care skill, gender violence, domestic violence and seasonal factor) which influenced child trafficking in East Este and Debre Tabor Woreda. Information and communication factors (globalisation, factual awareness about trafficking, less awareness of child rights and access to communication) have been found the main contributed factors for trafficking from this research study. The research also shows that child labour issues are common in Ethiopia. The majority of Ethiopian children who participated in such activities, work as part of the livelihoods of their families. Regarding family duties and responsibility, children usually daughters are more responsible for supporting their parents, this result to scarify themselves by engaging in various social practices like servitude and other works in town and inspire in early marriage to endure the problem. Victim’s relatives, friends, associates and family play a significant role in internal child trafficking in Ethiopia. The response of Ethiopian government to child trafficking is positive but it is very limited and cannot combat the problem. However, Ethiopian government has developed and endorsed regulatory and legal frame works and put various measures in place to a fight, control, prevent and address the problem of child trafficking. Due to the condition, implementation problem, poor governance, no direct support for the victims, shortage of skilled police to examine child trafficking, official corruption, low prosecution of traffickers and limited child trafficking policies are those factors for un success out come and low progress to deal with the problem. Despite the legal provision which take the first line render proper justice on brokers and facilitators of child trafficking in Ethiopia, and the child trafficking policies and legislations have proved to be not strong enough to prevent and protect, obviously there is problem with implementation and direct assistance with victims.