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Investigating technology integration in business education in Nigeria secondary schools: a critical analysis.

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Secondary education is a vital part of a virtuous circle of economic growth within the context of a globalised knowledge economy. In Nigeria, the education that is offered at this level has different philosophies or what is described as two purposes. The one purpose is to prepare pupils to exit school with the necessary skills that will prepare them to find employment, and the other is to prepare them to continue with academic careers in higher education (Moja, 2000; Ekpenyong, 1997). Business Education at this level represents a broad and diverse discipline that is included in all types of educational delivery systems. The teaching of Business Education entails teaching learners the essentials, rudiments, assumptions and methods of business. The objectives of teaching Business Education in secondary schools is that the learner may, after completing the junior or senior secondary school have an opportunity for a job in a business organisation or/an apprenticeship in industry (NERDC, 2011; Ministry of Education, 2004), and also to train business-oriented learners who can be self-reliant in the future (Alabi, 2014). Yet, numerous Business Education secondary school graduates are finding it difficult to cope with their job requirements as the world is changing as a result of technological and economic advances (Adamu, 2015). This is as a result of poor exposure or ill-equipped technological knowledge and skills during their school years (Akaeze, 2014). This creates peculiar problems and challenges for Nigerian Business Education learners as they see themselves not suitable for employment as they lack necessary technological skills to work in a modern-day industry. In addition, numerous challenges have been highlighted as affecting teaching and learning of Business Education in the Nigerian secondary schools (Akaeze, 2014; Ugwuogo, 2014 & Okoro, 2014). Studies have identified lack of teaching and learning equipment, such as computer accessories, internet facilities, and other technological resources as major problems that face Business Education in Nigerian secondary schools (Akpan, Umanah, Umoudo & Ukut, 2014; Gidado & Akaeze, 2014; Okoro, 2014). Business Education teachers in Nigeria should adopt interactive and participative teaching methodologies that are up to date and internationally competitive (Nawaz & Gomes, 2014). Hence, it was deemed necessary for the study to investigate technology integration in Business Education in Nigerian secondary schools. Drawing from the theoretical frameworks of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), and unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), the study observes teachers’ level of technology use in different levels of Business Education classrooms. Using a mixed-methods sequential explanatory design, probability and purposive sampling, Business Education teachers in secondary schools as the participants, were found not integrating technology in their teaching due to non-availability of technologies in the schools, not possessing technological knowledge (TK), technological content knowledge, (TCK), and technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK), according to the TPACK framework. An analysis of constructs from UTAUT, revealed that there is a lack of facilitating conditions to enable technology use in the teaching and learning of Business Education in secondary schools in Nigeria. The implication of the study findings is that poor investment in technology integration in secondary schools in Nigeria affects pedagogical implementations, and effective teaching and learning of Business Education subjects. The study concludes that if facilitating conditions are considered and made available, together with professional development to address the shortfalls in terms of TPACK, technology integration into the teaching and learning of Business Education will become a reality in secondary schools in Nigeria.


Doctoral Degree. University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.