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Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) provision in Nigerian technical colleges: exploring the relevance, effectiveness and efficiency (REE) of stakeholder partnerships using community-based participatory action research (CBPAR).

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This thesis explored Technical and Vocational Education and Training provision in Nigerian technical colleges with the specific focus on establishing the relevance, effectiveness and efficiency of stakeholder partnerships. It used Community-based participatory action research. The study was guided by three research questions in the preliminary, and two for the main study. These research questions are outlined as follows: Preliminary Study 1. What is the extent of TVET provision across the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria? 2. How does the TVET provision within these six geographical zones compare to the provision of general education schools? 3. What is the level of efficiency of a selected few TVET institutions across these geographical zones in Nigeria? Main Study 1. Are the selected TVET institutions surveyed in any form of partnership with any organisation? If so, what types of partnership are they involved in? 2. Using CBPAR, how do we strengthen and develop a new model of partnership for REE TVET provision in Nigerian technical colleges? In order to address these research questions, an explanatory sequential mixed method design involving a Community-based participatory action research was used. Data was collected for the preliminary study through desk review, document analysis and closed-ended questionnaires for the first, second and third research questions respectively. For the main study, data was generated through semi-structured questionnaires for research question one, whilst that of two was generated through pre- and post-intervention minutes of meetings, personal interviews and focus group discussions. Four frameworks were employed in the study. An analytical framework for evaluating TVET provision in terms of relevance, effectiveness, and efficiency was used to gauge the internal efficiency of selected technical colleges in research question three of the preliminary study. The Triple Helix (TH) and the Quadruple Helix Innovation Models (QHIM) were used to explore partnerships in the main study. The last framework – the Ecological System Theory (EST) – was used in understanding the development of a new relevant, effective and efficient (REE) partnership in TVET provision. The last theory, EST, was applied due to the limitations of the THM and the QHIM in describing the levels of interaction between different stakeholders in quality TVET provision. The EST however, allowed for the discovery of the different levels of interaction amongst stakeholders required to collaborate for REE TVET provision in Nigerian technical colleges. For research question one, the preliminary study results revealed 155 TCs across the six geopolitical zones. In addition, the provision was not evenly distributed because there is no technical college in Zamfara State in North-West. Research question two indicated a highly disproportionate ratio of TCs versus general education schools – ranging from 1: 138 to 1:70. For research question three the results showed that amongst the 22 technical colleges surveyed across the four geopolitical zones, only two colleges had their overall index of efficiency above 50%, with North-Central at 56% and South-West at 54%. Findings from the main study revealed, for research question one, that only 32% of TCs were involved in partnerships, that is, seven out of 22. However, it was significant to note that five out of the seven colleges were involved not only in one-to-one, but in multiple stakeholder partnerships. With regard to the prelude to research question two, using CBPAR, 26 factors were elicited to explain the low efficiency experienced by GTC-Port Harcourt. Thus, to strengthen and develop a new model of partnership for REE TVET provision in Nigerian technical colleges a new type of collaboration that portrays the characteristic features of the QHIM needed to be established – in other words, a new partnership arrangement that incorporates technical colleges, industry, government, and other stakeholders from civil society/NGOs, World Bank (IFC), community, Parents Teachers’ Associations (PTA), philanthropic individuals, and volunteers. Furthermore, the use of a social ecological lens on the new model of REE partnerships enabled the illumination of different interactions and impact levels among the various stakeholders. As opposed to other studies where government is the propelling force within the TVET system, this study shows that industry is key to the production of skilled graduates. The findings of this study have implications for policy, practice and research. Nigerian education policy acknowledges the need for the government to partner with other stakeholders in producing the skilled workforce needed in the country. However, findings in this study reveals a paradigm shift from government to the industry as the key stakeholder needed to produce a competent and skilled workforce needed for industrial development in Nigeria. Significantly, the implications of this study for practice is such that, having industry as the key stakeholder would boost the production of skilled graduates thereby reducing the skills mismatch that are the major cause of unemployment amongst secondary school leavers in Nigeria. It will also create room for gainful employment amongst the youths, thereby reducing the problem of unemployment. Industry provides inputs such as delivering workplace training to TVET trainers, contributing financially to national training funds, providing opportunities for teachers to regularly update themselves through workplace experiences, and contributing to development of the curriculum for economic relevance. The findings of this study also have implications for research, in that it has extended the debate on stakeholder partnerships in TVET provision through the application of the social ecological lens, which illuminates the different levels of interactions and impact amongst various stakeholders required for quality TVET provision.


Doctoral Degree. University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.