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Improvements of local directional pattern for texture classification.

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The Local Directional Pattern (LDP) method has established its effectiveness and performance compared to the popular Local Binary Pattern (LBP) method in different applications. In this thesis, several extensions and modification of LDP are proposed with an objective to increase its robustness and discriminative power. Local Directional Pattern (LDP) is dependent on the empirical choice of three for the number of significant bits used to code the responses of the Kirsch Mask operation. In a first study, we applied LDP on informal settlements using various values for the number of significant bits k. It was observed that the change of the value of the number of significant bits led to a change in the performance, depending on the application. Local Directional Pattern (LDP) is based on the computation Kirsch Mask application response values in eight directions. But this method ignores the gray value of the center pixel, which may lead to loss of significant information. Centered Local Directional Pattern (CLDP) is introduced to solve this issue, using the value of the center pixel based on its relations with neighboring pixels. Local Directional Pattern (LDP) also generates a code based on the absolute value of the edge response value; however, the sign of the original value indicates two different trends (positive or negative) of the gradient. To capture the gradient trend, Signed Local Directional Pattern (SLDP) and Centered-SLDP (C-SLDP) are proposed, which compute the eight edge responses based on the two different directions (positive or negative) of the gradients.The Directional Local Binary pattern (DLBP) is introduced, which adopts directional information to represent texture images. This method is more stable than both LDP and LBP because it utilizes the center pixel as a threshold for the edge response of a pixel in eight directions, instead of employing the center pixel as the threshold for pixel intensity of the neighbors, as in the LBP method. Angled Local directional pattern (ALDP) is also presented, with an objective to resolve two problems in the LDP method. These are the value of the number of significant bits k, and to taking into account the center pixel value. It computes the angle values for the edge response of a pixel in eight directions for each angle (0◦,45◦,90◦,135◦). Each angle vector contains three values. The central value in each vector is chosen as a threshold for the other two neighboring pixels. Circular Local Directional Pattern (CILDP) isalso presented, with an objective of a better analysis, especially with textures with a different scale. The method is built around the circular shape to compute the directional edge vector using different radiuses. The performances of LDP, LBP, CLDP, SLDP, C-SLDP, DLBP, ALDP and CILDP are evaluated using five classifiers (K-nearest neighbour algorithm (k-NN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Perceptron, Naive-Bayes (NB), and Decision Tree (DT)) applied to two different texture datasets: Kylberg dataset and KTH-TIPS2-b dataset. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed methods outperform both LDP and LBP.


Doctoral Degree. University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.