Analysis of the impact of a facts-based power flow controller on subsynchronous resonance.
Electric power utilities are faced with the challenge of meeting increasing demand for electric power whilst many factors prevent traditional remedies such as the expansion of transmission networks and the construction of new generating facilities. Due to issues of environment, health and rights-of-way, the construction of new generating plants and transmission lines were either excessively delayed or prevented in many parts of the world in past years. An alternative resides in loading the existing transmission network beyond its present operating region but below its thermal limit, which would ensure no degradation of the system. This alternative approach has been possible with the emergence of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) technology. The FACTS concept involves the incorporation of power-electronic controlled devices into AC power transmission systems in order to safely extend the power-transfer capability closer of these systems to their stability limits. One member of the family of FACTS series compensators is the Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC), and this thesis considers the use of the SSSC to carry out closed-loop control of AC power flow in a transmission system. Although the SSSC has the potential to enhance the operation of power systems, the introduction of such a device can cause adverse interactions with other power system equipment or existing network resonances. This thesis examines the interaction between high-level power flow controllers implemented around the SSSC and a particular form of system resonance, namely subsynchronous resonance (SSR) between a generator turbine shaft and the electrical transmission network. The thesis initially presents a review of the background theory on SSR and then presents a review of the theory and operation of two categories of SSSC, namely the reactance-controlled SSSC and the quadrature voltage-controlled SSSC. The two categories of SSSC are known to have different SSR characteristics, and hence this thesis considers the impact on the damping of subsynchronous torsional modes of additional controllers introduced around both categories of SSSC to implement AC power flow control. The thesis presents the development of the mathematical models of a representative study system, which is an adaptation of the IEEE First Benchmark system for the study of SSR to allow it to be used to analyse the effect of closed-loop power flow control on SSR stability. The mathematical models of the study system are benchmarked against proven and accepted dynamic models of the study system. The investigations begin by examining the effect of a reactance-controlled SSSC-based power flow controller on the damping of torsional modes with an initial approach to the design of the control gains of the power flow controller which had been proposed by others. The results show how the nature and extent of the effects on the damping of the electromechanical modes depend on both the mode in which the power flow controller is operated and its controller response times, even for the relatively-slow responding controllers that are obtained using the initial controller design approach. The thesis then examines the impact of a reactance-controlled SSSC-based power flow controller on the damping of torsional modes when an improved approach is used to design the gains of the power flow controller, an approach which allows much faster controller bandwidths to be realised (comparable to those considered by others). The results demonstrate that for both of the modes in which the power flow controller can be operated, there is a change in the nature and extent of the power flow controller’s impact on the damping of some the torsional modes when very fast controller response times are used. Finally, the thesis investigates the impact of a quadrature voltage-controlled SSSC-based power flow controller on the damping of torsional modes in order to compare the influence of the design of both Vsssc-controlled and Xsssc-controlled SSSC-based power flow controllers on torsional mode damping for different power flow controller response times. The results obtained indicate that a Vsssc-controlled SSSC-based power flow controller allows a larger range of SSR stable operating points as compared to a Xsssc-controlled SSSC-based power flow controller.