Breeding for disease resistance to the major foliar pathogens of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in South Africa.
Resistances to bean common mosaic virus, halo, common and Ascochyta blight, angular leaf spot, anthracnose and rust pathogens of beans in South Africa were combined by reverse dichotomous crossing. Full resistance to Uromyces appendiculatus from Carioca 80 was conditioned by a single dominant gene. Partially dominant resistance to Phaeoisariopsis griseola was conditioned by a single gene in Carioca 80 and two genes in PAl 127. Differences in aggressiveness of isolates of Phoma exigua var. exigua were found. Different levels of Ascochyta blight resistance were found in the glasshouse, but field testing showed little difference after flowering. Inoculations of differential cultivars indicated the presence of at least eight races of U. appendiculatus and the a-Brazil race of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum . Inoculations of the old set of halo blight differential cultivars identified races 1 and 2. Forty-five lines with partial resistance to rust were obtained by recurrent selection. Very highly significant differences were noted between ratings of percentage leaf area affected by rust and yield of 23 cultivars planted in field trials. Significant genotype x environment interaction was noted for rust ratings. Ratings at different dates within a trial were correlated with one another, showing few ratings are required per trial, and a correlation of -0.678 between yield and rust rating was found. Inheritance of partial resistance and improved yield of eight cultivars crossed in a full diallel was mostly due to additive effects but non-additive effects were also very highly significant. Reciprocal effects were not significant for yield and rust ratings. Genotype x environment interactions were significant for rust ratings and yield. High estimates of narrow-sense heritability for rust resistance were obtained. No relationship between resistance and time to flowering, pustule size, leaf hairs and stomata was found. Latent periods in unifoliate leaves did not correlate with resistance but a closer match was found in the fourth trifoliate leaves. Inoculations with three additional single-pustule isolates of the 23 parent cultivars indicated the cultivars had similar levels of resistance. Ring necrosis was found in nine cultivars or crosses with them. The ring reaction was conditioned by a single dominant gene and possibly by the epistatic interaction of two dominant genes in Carioca 80. Differences in symptom severity in plants derived from Epicure indicated the possibility of additional gene interaction.