Improvement of steady state and voltage stability of a strong network overlayed with higher voltage transmission lines using phase shifting transformers.
Molapo, Reentseng Majara.
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This research work deals with the application of the phase shifting transformer in improving the steady state performance and voltage stability of transmission network that has transmission lines at different voltage levels running in parallel to each other. Transmission power system networks are usually developed using lines built at a certain voltage level initially. As power demand requirements increase, building of the new lines at the same voltage level becomes necessary. However, lesser and lesser improvements in transfer capacity are realised when the additional lines are built. This prompts utilities to consider higher voltages for future lines as these have a higher transfer capacity. Utilities usually lay, i.e., they build in parallel, newer, higher voltage transmission lines along side the existing lower voltage ones. Power flow in power system is mainly influenced by impedances of equipment. If the combined impedance of the existing, lower voltage transmission system is relatively less than the impedance of the newer, higher voltage ones, power may primarily flow through it rather than via the newer, parallel higher voltage transmission network. This may lead to a serious underutilisation of the newer infrastructure with a higher transmission capacity. Transmission networks similar to the one described above are common throughout the world. This study was undertaken towards finding solutions to the problem of under utilisation of such transmission lines. The study was performed by first reviewing the literature on the use of phase shifting transformers to redirect power flow in transmission networks throughout the world. This was followed by analysis of the theory on how and what determines the power flow in power networks. Several simulations of varying the phase of the phase shifting transformer were performed on the Cape network, as a case study, to investigate the impact on the power flow distribution and voltage stability performance of the 765 kV and 400 kV transmission lines carrying power to the Western Cape. In this dissertation, it has been demonstrated that a phase shifting transformer can be used to alter the power flow patterns so that power flows are restructured or redistributed, such that power which originally flowed via the low impedance, lower voltage system is transferred to the parallel higher voltage transmission system of lines. It is shown that once the power flows are redistributed, steady state and voltage stability performance of the total system can be enhanced and an increase in its power transfer capacity can be realised.