|dc.description.abstract||This thesis is presented in two parts. In part one, the excess molar volumes and the excess
molar enthalpies have been determined for several binary systems at 298.15 K using an LKB
flow microcalorimeter and/or a 2277 Thermal Activity Monitor and an Anton Paar Digital
The excess molar volumes and excess molar enthalpies, V; and H; , have been determined
for systems involving an alkanol (I-propanol, 2-propanol) mixed with a hydrocarbon (1hexene,
I-heptene, l-octene, I-hexyne, I-heptyne, l-octyne). The results show trends
relating to the degree of unsaturation of the hydrocarbon to the position of the hydroxyl
group on the alkanol.
The excess molar volumes and excess molar enthalpies, V; and H; of di-n-butylamine +
diethyl ether or dipropyl ether or di-l-methylethyl ether or dibutyl ether or 1,1 dimethylethyl
methyl ether or 1,1 dimethylpropyl methyl ether or tetrahydrofuran or tetrahydropyran or 1,4
dioxane have been measured over the whole composition range at the temperature 298.15
K in order to investigate di-n-butylamine - ether interactions. The V; values for each of the
systems studied are negative with the exception of the mixtures of (di-n-butylamine + dibutyl
ether or tetrahydrofuran or tetrahydropyran or 1,4 dioxane. The H; results over the whole
mole fraction range are formed endothermically.
Measurements were also made on mixtures involving (a cycloalkane + a pseudocycloalkane).
The congruency theory was tested for the (cycloalkane + pseudo-cycloalkane)
mixture. The cycloalkane mixtures studied here did not satisfy the null test of the congruency
In the second part of this thesis the main aim of the investigation was to apply ambient
temperature hydrogen peroxide bleaching techniques to a novel non-woven fabric and to
optimize the treatment conditions for this technique.
Five cold-pad batch bleaching formulas were applied to the non-woven and the sample fabrics
were analyzed for the following properties
a) fluidity (measure of degree of degradation of the cotton fibre as a result of the bleaching
b) wettability (absorbency)
c) whiteness (using instrumental techniques)
d) inherent fibre surface properties (SEM)
A method was elucidated for the cold batch bleaching of the non-woven which produced a
fabric with minimum fibre damage, an acceptable degree of whiteness and excellent
absorbency properties. The treatment parameters of time (Xl), temperature(x2) and hydrogen
peroxide concentration (x3) for this method were optimised using a multiple regression
analysis for three variables and response surface plots.||en