Effects of plants-derived oleanolic acid in an in-vitro model hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress.
Dlamini, Immaculate Nonkululeko.
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a global threat in developing and developed countries, where diabetic patients are more prone to cardiovascular complications, a condition called diabetic cardiomyopathy. Studies have shown a direct link between hyperglycaemia and an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species in cardiac cells leading to diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study tests oleanolic acid, a bioactive compound from the plant Syzigium aromaticum as an antioxidant which could have a potential role in management of DM. Aims i) To extract Oleanolic acid (OA) from Syzigium aromaticim, ii) Investigate the antioxidant effects of plant derived OA in an in-vitro model of hyperglycaemia induced oxidative stress. Methods The flower buds of the Syzigium aromaticim [(Linnaeus) Merrill & Perry] (Myrtaceae) plant (commonly called cloves) were used to isolate OA. The ethyl acetate solubles from the cloves were subjected to chromatographic fractionation to yield OA powder. Spectroscopic analysis was done using 1D and 2D 1H and 13C NMR techniques for the identification of the structure of the compound. This compound was then used in vitro to test for its antioxidative properties. H9C2 cardiac myoblasts were employed which were treated with normoglycaemic (5.5 mM) and hyperglycaemic (33 mM) glucose conditions. The cells were then treated with oleanolic acid to test for its antioxidant properties. We looked at a dose-dependent (0, 20, 50 μM) and time-dependent effects of OA treatment (6 and 24 hrs) following 48 hours glucose exposure. ROS levels were measured using H2DCF-DA fluorescence staining using microscopy and flow cytometry techniques for analysis. xviii Results Recrystallisation of the powder with ethanol and inspection of the 1 and 2- dimensional 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra of the compound with comparison to literature data confirmed OA molecular structure and IUPAC numbering similar to that of literature characterized and confirmed the structure of oleanolic acid. In cell specific data high glucose treatments on H9C2 cells showed increased ROS production (22 ± 6 % and 20 ± 7 % n= 3 p< 0.01) for 6 and 24 hrs treatments, respectively, compared to their normoglycaemic control groups. The 6 h OA treated group showed a decrease in ROS production with 26.6 ± 17.4 % for the 20 μM while for 50 μM there was a 37.7 ± 14.3% decrease. A ROS reduction trend was observed in the normoglycaemic group, but this was significant at 24 hrs with 46.8 ± 45.3% and 57.3 ± 9 % for both 20 and 50 μM treatments, respectively. The 24 hrs OA treated group showed a dose-dependent decrease in ROS with 50 μM more pronounced (80.7% ± 4.5 %). The 20 μM OA treatments also showed a 15.7 ± 19 % decrease in ROS. Discussion In the present study, we have evaluated the antioxidant effects of OA in vitro following extraction of the compound from Syzigium aromaticim. The oxidative stress induced by hyperglycaemia was attenuated by oleanolic acid and this also translated into decreased ROS suggesting its use as an antioxidant in alleviating cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus.