Antioxidants composition of moringa (moringa oleifera lam) in different plant organs.
Mohammed, Fatima Abdelkarim Abdelrahman.
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Moringa oleifera Lam. is a versatile plant with various benefits; different parts of the plant have different pharmacological activity such as flavonoid, alkaloids, phenol, and carotenoids. The aim of the seed study was to investigate phytochemicals composition change and their utilization during seed and seedling germination. Seeds were germinated using three different temperature regimes (30/20 °C, 25/15 °C and 20/10 °C). Spectrophotometric determination of proline and phenols was carried out, while sugars were analyzed using HPLC-RID. The data were collected and analyzed using statistical software GenStat 14.1. Results of seed showed significant differences on speed of seed germination at temperature of 30/20°C followed by 25/15°C and 20/10°C respectively. Seed carbohydrates composition changes were observed with germination hours sucrose concentrations peaked within 24h (16 mg/g DW) and the same sugar showed sharp decrease for 96h (6.4 mg/g DW). Glucose and fructose concentrations also increased for 96h (2-6 mg/g DW). Also temperature had significantly influenced the biosynthesis and accumulation of biochemical compounds in the seeds especially 30/20°C. Temperature 30/20°C, increased seed phenols and proline concentration. Phenols and proline started to accumulate at 72h, after seed germination presumed within 48h. Results of leaves showed that Temperature also had significant effect on phenols the proline concentration particularly, 35/18°C, followed by 30/15°C, 25/12°C. The antioxidant levels of post germination phase was investigated, the result showed significant differences in antioxidant concentrations and sugar distribution in various parts of Moringa seedling. The leaf was recorded the highest antioxidant concentration (1.7 mg g-1). Moringa leaf also recorded the highest total phenols. The highest sugar concentration was found in root (258.9 mg g-1), and stem (245.72mg g-1) followed by root and seed. The highest concentration of total crude protein (110.4mg g-1) and vitamin E (28.57 μg g-1) was found in seed. The carotenoids concentration was the highest in the root (29 mg g-1). The result also showed different nutrients at various concentrations on different parts of Moringa tree. High phosphorous accumulated in leaf and seed; Potassium accumulation was found in root, stem, and seed coat. It is concluded that temperature treatments of Moringa seed and leaves resulted in significant differences in the rate of germination and biochemical compounds. Furthermore, the present study showed that Temperature plays an important role in germination seed and development of M. oleifera and antioxidants, phenolic, proline and carbohydrates contents. Further research on the effect of temperature on germination of M. oleifera and biochemical compound is therefore recommended.