Performance analysis of cooperative diversity in land mobile satellite systems.
Land Mobile Satellite Systems (LMSS) generally differ from other terrestrial wireless systems. The LMSS exhibit unique characteristics with regard to the physical layer, interference scenarios, channel impairements, propagation delay, link characteristics, service coverage, user and satellite mobility etc. Terrestrial wireless systems have employed the spatial diversity or MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) technique in addressing the problem of providing uninterrupted service delivery to all mobile users especially in places where non-Line-of-Sight (NLoS) condition is prevalent (e.g. urban and suburban environments). For the LMSS, cooperative diversity has been proposed as a valuable alternative to the spatial diversity technique since it does not require the deployment of additional antennas in order to mitigate the fading effects. The basis of cooperative diversity is to have a group of mobile terminals sharing their antennas in order to generate a “virtual” multiple antenna, thus obtaining the same effects as the conventional MIMO system. However, the available cooperative diversity schemes as employed are based on outdated channel quality information (CQI) which is impracticable for LMSS due to its peculiar characteristics and its particularly long propagation delay. The key objective of this work is therefore to develop a cooperative diversity technology model which is most appropriate for LMSS and also adequately mitigates the outdated CQI challenge. To achieve the objective, the feasibility of cooperative diversity for LMSS was first analyzed by employing an appropriate LMSS channel model. Then, a novel Predictive Relay Selection (PRS) cooperative diversity scheme for LMSS was developed which adequately captured the LMSS architecture. The PRS cooperative scheme developed employed prediction algorithms, namely linear prediction and pattern-matching prediction algorithms in determining the future CQI of the available relay terminals before choosing the most appropriate relay for cooperation. The performance of the PRS cooperative diversity scheme in terms of average output SNR, outage probability, average channel capacity and bit error probability were simulated, then numerically analyzed. The results of the PRS cooperative diversity model for LMSS developed not only showed the gains resulting from introducing cooperative techniques in satellite communications but also showed improvement over other cooperative techniques that based their relay selection cooperation on channels with outdated quality information (CQI). Finally, a comparison between the results obtained from the various predictive models considered was carried out and the best prediction model was recommended for the PRS cooperation.